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  1.  47
    Payment for Research Participation: A Coercive Offer?A. Wertheimer & F. G. Miller - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):389-392.
    Payment for research participation has raised ethical concerns, especially with respect to its potential for coercion. We argue that characterising payment for research participation as coercive is misguided, because offers of benefit cannot constitute coercion. In this article we analyse the concept of coercion, refute mistaken conceptions of coercion and explain why the offer of payment for research participation is never coercive but in some cases may produce undue inducement.
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  2.  53
    The Dead Donor Rule: Can It Withstand Critical Scrutiny?F. G. Miller, R. D. Truog & D. W. Brock - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):299-312.
    Transplantation of vital organs has been premised ethically and legally on "the dead donor rule" (DDR)—the requirement that donors are determined to be dead before these organs are procured. Nevertheless, scholars have argued cogently that donors of vital organs, including those diagnosed as "brain dead" and those declared dead according to cardiopulmonary criteria, are not in fact dead at the time that vital organs are being procured. In this article, we challenge the normative rationale for the DDR by rejecting the (...)
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  3.  27
    Money, Coercion, and Undue Inducement: Attitudes About Payments to Research Participants.E. A. Largent, C. Grady, F. G. Miller & A. Wertheimer - 2012 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 34 (1):1-8.
    Using payment to recruit research subjects is a common practice, but it raises ethical concerns that coercion or undue inducement could potentially compromise participants’ informed consent. This is the first national study to explore the attitudes of IRB members and other human subjects protection professionals concerning whether payment of research participants constitutes coercion or undue influence, and if so, why. The majority of respondents expressed concern that payment of any amount might influence a participant’s decisions or behaviors regarding research participation. (...)
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  4.  35
    Death and Legal Fictions.S. K. Shah, R. D. Truog & F. G. Miller - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (12):719-722.
    Advances in life-saving technologies in the past few decades have challenged our traditional understandings of death. Traditionally, death was understood to occur when a person stops breathing, their heart stops beating and they are cold to the touch. Today, physicians determine death by relying on a diagnosis of ‘total brain failure’ or by waiting a short while after circulation stops. Evidence has emerged, however, that the conceptual bases for these approaches to determining death are fundamentally flawed and depart substantially from (...)
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  5.  42
    Assessing Research Risks Systematically: The Net Risks Test.D. Wendler & F. G. Miller - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (8):481-486.
    Dual-track assessment directs research ethics committees to assess the risks of research interventions based on the unclear distinction between therapeutic and non-therapeutic interventions. The net risks test, in contrast, relies on the clinically familiar method of assessing the risks and benefits of interventions in comparison to the available alternatives and also focuses attention of the RECs on the central challenge of protecting research participants.Research guidelines around the world recognise that clinical research is ethical only when the risks to participants are (...)
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  6.  51
    There Are (STILL) No Coercive Offers.A. Wertheimer & F. G. Miller - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (9):592-593.
    John McMillan's article raises numerous important points about the ethics of surgical castration of sex offenders.1 In this commentary, we focus solely on and argue against the claim that the offer of release from detention conditional upon surgical castration is a coercive offer that compromises the validity of the offender's consent. We take no view on the question as to whether castration for sex offenders is ethically permissible. But, we reject the claim that it is ethically permissible only if competing (...)
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  7.  23
    Limits to Research Risks.F. G. Miller & S. Joffe - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (7):445-449.
    Risk–benefit assessment is a routine requirement for research ethics committees that review and oversee biomedical research with human subjects. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how to weigh and balance risks to research participants against the social benefits that flow from generating biomedical knowledge. In this article, we address the question of whether there are any reasonable criteria for defining the limit of permissible risks to individuals who provide informed consent for research participation. We argue against any a priori limit to permissible (...)
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  8.  76
    Understanding and Harnessing Placebo Effects: Clearing Away the Underbrush.F. G. Miller & H. Brody - 2011 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (1):69-78.
    Despite strong growth in scientific investigation of the placebo effect, understanding of this phenomenon remains deeply confused. We investigate critically seven common conceptual distinctions that impede clear understanding of the placebo effect: (1) verum/placebo, (2) active/inactive, (3) signal/noise, (4) specific/nonspecific, (5) objective/subjective, (6) disease/illness, and (7) intervention/context. We argue that some of these should be eliminated entirely, whereas others must be used with caution to avoid bias. Clearing away the conceptual underbrush is needed to lay down a path to understanding (...)
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  9.  19
    A Public Health Perspective on Research Ethics.D. R. Buchanan & F. G. Miller - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (12):729-733.
    Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient-participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the person, public health is (...)
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  10.  37
    Decapitation and the Definition of Death.F. G. Miller & R. D. Truog - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (10):632-634.
    Although established in the law and current practice, the determination of death according to neurological criteria continues to be controversial. Some scholars have advocated return to the traditional circulatory and respiratory criteria for determining death because individuals diagnosed as ‘brain dead’ display an extensive range of integrated biological functioning with the aid of mechanical ventilation. Others have attempted to refute this stance by appealing to the analogy between decapitation and brain death. Since a decapitated animal is obviously dead, and ‘brain (...)
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  11.  17
    The Search for Clarity in Communicating Research Results to Study Participants.D. I. Shalowitz & F. G. Miller - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9):e17-e17.
    Current guidelines on investigators' responsibilities to communicate research results to study participants may differ on whether investigators should proactively re-contact participants, the type of results to be offered, the need for clinical relevance before disclosure, and the stage of research at which results should be offered. Lack of consistency on these issues, however, does not undermine investigators' obligation to offer to disclose research results: an obligation rooted firmly in the principle of respect for research participants.
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  12.  12
    Is It Ethical to Keep Interim Findings of Randomised Controlled Trials Confidential?F. G. Miller & D. Wendler - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):198-201.
    Data monitoring committees often are employed to review interim findings of randomised controlled trials. Interim findings are kept confidential until the data monitoring committee finds that they provide sufficiently compelling evidence regarding efficacy, typically because they have crossed the pre-defined statistical boundaries, or they raise serious concerns about safety. While this practice is vital to maintaining the scientific integrity of controlled trials and thereby ensuring their social value, it has been criticised as unethical. Commentators argue that withholding interim findings from (...)
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  13.  17
    Acupuncture Trials and Informed Consent.F. G. Miller & T. J. Kaptchuk - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (1):43-44.
    Participants are often not informed by investigators who conduct randomised, placebo-controlled acupuncture trials that they may receive a sham acupuncture intervention. Instead, they are told that one or more forms of acupuncture are being compared in the study. This deceptive disclosure practice lacks a compelling methodological rationale and violates the ethical requirement to obtain informed consent. Participants in placebo-controlled acupuncture trials should be provided an accurate disclosure regarding the use of sham acupuncture, consistent with the practice of placebo-controlled drug trials.
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  14.  16
    Misunderstanding, Period.H. Brody, D. Buchanan & F. G. Miller - 2011 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 33 (5):6.
    A letter to the editor from Howard Brody, David Buchanan, and Franklin G. Miller in response to the recent article by Erik Malmqvist Understanding Exploitation," March-April 2011).
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  15. Clinical Equipoise and the Therapeutic Misconception-Miller and Brody Reply.F. G. Miller & H. Brody - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (5):7-7.
     
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  16. Ethics: Death and Organ Donation: Back to the Future.F. G. Miller - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (10):616-620.
    The practice of transplantation of vital organs from “brain-dead” donors is in a state of theoretical disarray. Although the law and prevailing medical ethics treat patients diagnosed as having irreversible total brain failure as dead, scholars have increasingly challenged the established rationale for regarding these patients as dead. To understand the ethical situation that we now face, it is helpful to revisit the writings of the philosopher Hans Jonas, who forcefully challenged the emerging effort to redefine death in the late (...)
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  17.  2
    Ethics is Everybody's Concern.F. G. Miller - 1990 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 1 (4):326.
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  18.  2
    Euthanasia: Still Open for Debate.F. G. Miller - 1992 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (3):247.
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  19.  9
    Importance of Understanding Suffering for Clinical Ethics.F. G. Miller - 1990 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 2 (4):290-291.
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  20. Protecting Human Subjects in Brain Research: A Pragmatic Perspective.F. G. Miller, J. J. Fins & J. Illes - forthcoming - Neuroethics. Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice and Policy.
     
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  21.  7
    The State of Research Ethics: A Tribute to John C. Fletcher.F. G. Miller & J. D. Moreno - 2005 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 16 (4):355.
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