Results for 'Fabien Besnard'

239 found
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  1.  29
    Simultaneity in Minkowski Spacetime: From Uniqueness to Arbitrariness. [REVIEW]Fabien Besnard - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (9):1115-1134.
    Malament (Noûs 11:293–300, 1977) proved a certain uniqueness theorem about standard synchrony, also known as Poincaré-Einstein simultaneity, which has generated many commentaries over the years, some of them contradictory. We think that the situation called for some clarification. After reviewing and discussing some of the literature involved, we prove two results which, hopefully, will help clarifying this debate by filling the gap between the uniquess of Malament’s theorem, which allows the observer to use very few tools, and the complete arbitrariness (...)
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  2.  89
    Introduction to Structured Argumentation.Philippe Besnard, Alejandro Garcia, Anthony Hunter, Sanjay Modgil, Henry Prakken, Guillermo Simari & Francesca Toni - 2014 - Argument and Computation 5 (1):1-4.
    In abstract argumentation, each argument is regarded as atomic. There is no internal structure to an argument. Also, there is no specification of what is an argument or an attack. They are assumed to be given. This abstract perspective provides many advantages for studying the nature of argumentation, but it does not cover all our needs for understanding argumentation or for building tools for supporting or undertaking argumentation. If we want a more detailed formalization of arguments than is available with (...)
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  3.  17
    Constructing Argument Graphs with Deductive Arguments: A Tutorial.Philippe Besnard & Anthony Hunter - 2014 - Argument and Computation 5 (1):5-30.
  4.  39
    What’s Magic About Magic Numbers? Chunking and Data Compression in Short-Term Memory.Fabien Mathy & Jacob Feldman - 2012 - Cognition 122 (3):346-362.
  5.  88
    Brain Response to One's Own Name in Vegetative State, Minimally Conscious State, and Locked-in Syndrome.Fabien Perrin, Caroline Schnakers, Manuel Schabus, Christian Degueldre, Serge Goldman, Serge Brédart, Marie-Elisabeth E. Faymonville, Maurice Lamy, Gustave Moonen, André Luxen, Pierre Maquet & Steven Laureys - 2006 - Archives of Neurology 63 (4):562-569.
  6.  11
    Flaws in Current Human Training Protocols for Spontaneous Brain-Computer Interfaces: Lessons Learned From Instructional Design.Fabien Lotte, Florian Larrue & Christian Mühl - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  7. Abstract Logic of Oppositions.Fabien Schang - 2012 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 (4):415--438.
    A general theory of logical oppositions is proposed by abstracting these from the Aristotelian background of quantified sentences. Opposition is a relation that goes beyond incompatibility (not being true together), and a question-answer semantics is devised to investigate the features of oppositions and opposites within a functional calculus. Finally, several theoretical problems about its applicability are considered.
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  8. The True Nature of Anomie.Philippe Besnard - 1988 - Sociological Theory 6 (1):91-95.
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  9. An Arithmetization of Logical Oppositions.Fabien Schang - 2016 - In Jean-Yves Beziau & Gianfranco Basti (eds.), The Square of Opposition: A Cornerstone of Thought. Bâle, Suisse: pp. 215-237.
    An arithmetic theory of oppositions is devised by comparing expressions, Boolean bitstrings, and integers. This leads to a set of correspondences between three domains of investigation, namely: logic, geometry, and arithmetic. The structural properties of each area are investigated in turn, before justifying the procedure as a whole. Io finish, I show how this helps to improve the logical calculus of oppositions, through the consideration of corresponding operations between integers.
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  10.  42
    Fairness in Knowing: Science Communication and Epistemic Justice.Fabien Medvecky - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1393-1408.
    Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared, and who gets access to this knowledge. As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably. This (...)
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  11.  19
    Promoting the Use of Personally Relevant Stimuli for Investigating Patients with Disorders of Consciousness.Fabien Perrin, Maïté Castro, Barbara Tillmann & Jacques Luauté - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  12.  59
    Questions and Answers About Oppositions.Fabien Schang - 2011 - In Jean-Yves Beziau & Gillman Payette (eds.), The Square of Opposition: A General Framework for Cognition. Berne, Suisse: pp. 289-319.
    A general characterization of logical opposition is given in the present paper, where oppositions are defined by specific answers in an algebraic question-answer game. It is shown that opposition is essentially a semantic relation of truth values between syntactic opposites, before generalizing the theory of opposition from the initial Apuleian square to a variety of alter- native geometrical representations. In the light of this generalization, the famous problem of existential import is traced back to an ambiguous interpretation of assertoric sentences (...)
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  13.  78
    The Football of Logic.Fabien Schang - 2017 - Studia Humana 6 (1):50-60.
    An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the (...)
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  14. Relative Charity.Fabien Schang - 2009 - Revista Brasileira de Filosofia 233:159-172.
    Our aim is to propose a non-referential semantics for the principle of logical charity: neither logical universalism (one logic, one way of thinking), nor logical relativism (several logics, several ways of thinking) afford an adequate conceptual framework to interpret the meaning of any speech act. But neither of them is totally wrong, either. The point is to know to which extent each of these views is partly right, thus leading to a more consensual but paradoxical-sounding "relative principle of charity". After (...)
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  15.  74
    Oppositions and Opposites.Fabien Schang - 2012 - In J.-Y. Beziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Bâle, Suisse: Birkhäuser. pp. 147--173.
    A formal theory of oppositions and opposites is proposed on the basis of a non- Fregean semantics, where opposites are negation-forming operators that shed some new light on the connection between opposition and negation. The paper proceeds as follows. After recalling the historical background, oppositions and opposites are compared from a mathematical perspective: the first occurs as a relation, the second as a function. Then the main point of the paper appears with a calculus of oppositions, by means of a (...)
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  16.  50
    Logic in Opposition.Fabien Schang - 2013 - Studia Humana 2 (3):31-45.
    It is claimed hereby that, against a current view of logic as a theory of consequence, opposition is a basic logical concept that can be used to define consequence itself. This requires some substantial changes in the underlying framework, including: a non-Fregean semantics of questions and answers, instead of the usual truth-conditional semantics; an extension of opposition as a relation between any structured objects; a definition of oppositions in terms of basic negation. Objections to this claim will be reviewed.
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  17.  62
    Logical Limits of Abstract Argumentation Frameworks.Leila Amgoud & Philippe Besnard - 2013 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 23 (3):229 - 267.
    Dung?s (1995) argumentation framework takes as input two abstract entities: a set of arguments and a binary relation encoding attacks between these arguments. It returns acceptable sets of arguments, called extensions, w.r.t. a given semantics. While the abstract nature of this setting is seen as a great advantage, it induces a big gap with the application that it is used to. This raises some questions about the compatibility of the setting with a logical formalism (i.e., whether it is possible to (...)
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  18.  73
    Epistemic Pluralism.Fabien Schang - 2017 - Logique Et Analyse 239 (60):337-353.
    The present paper wants to promote epistemic pluralism as an alternative view of non-classical logics. For this purpose, a bilateralist logic of acceptance and rejection is developed in order to make an important di erence between several concepts of epistemology, including information and justi cation. Moreover, the notion of disagreement corresponds to a set of epistemic oppositions between agents. The result is a non-standard theory of opposition for many-valued logics, rendering total and partial disagreement in terms of epistemic negation and (...)
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  19. Believing the Self-Contradictory.Fabien Schang - 2011 - In Dariusz Lukasiewicz & Roger Pouivet (eds.), The Right to Believe: Perspectives in Religious Epistemology. pp. 127-140.
    An argument for the rationality of religious belief in the existence of God is defended. After reviewing three preconditions for rational belief, I show reasons to privilege the criterion of consistency. Taking the inconsistency of the religious belief in God and the belief in the scientific world picture as the impediment to a rational belief in God, I propose that we can overcome this objection by assuming, firstly, that God is a universal class. This allows us to put the problem (...)
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  20.  45
    A One-Valued Logic for Non-One-Sidedness.Fabien Schang - 2013 - International Journal of Jaina Studies 9 (1):1-25.
    Does it make sense to employ modern logical tools for ancient philosophy? This well-known debate2 has been re-launched by the indologist Piotr Balcerowicz, questioning those who want to look at the Eastern school of Jainism with Western glasses. While plainly acknowledging the legitimacy of Balcerowicz's mistrust, the present paper wants to propose a formal reconstruction of one of the well-known parts of the Jaina philosophy, namely: the saptabhangi, i.e. the theory of sevenfold predication. Before arguing for this formalist approach to (...)
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  21. Two Indian Dialectical Logics: Saptabhangi and Catuskoti.Fabien Schang - 2010 - Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research 27 (1):45-75.
    A rational interpretation is proposed for two ancient Indian logics: the Jaina saptabhaṅgī, and the Mādhyamika catuṣkoṭi. It is argued that the irrationality currently imputed to these logics relies upon some philosophical preconceptions inherited from Aristotelian metaphysics. This misunderstanding can be corrected in two steps: by recalling their assumptions about truth; by reconstructing their ensuing theory of judgment within a common conceptual framework.
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  22.  71
    Une sémantique générale des croyances justifiées.Fabien Schang & Alexandre Costa Leite - 2016 - CLE-Prints 16 (3):1-24.
    Nous proposons une logique épistémique quadrivalente AR4.
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  23. Philosophie des modalités épistémiques (la logique assertorique revisitée).Fabien Schang - 2007 - Dissertation, Nancy Université
    The relevance of any logical analysis lies in its ability to solve paradoxes and trace conceptual troubles back; with this respect, the task of epistemic logic is to handle paradoxes in connection with the concept of knowledge. Epistemic logic is currently introduced as the logical analysis of crucial concepts within epistemology, namely: knowledge, belief, truth, and justification. An alternative approach will be advanced here in order to enlighten such a discourse, as centred upon the word assertion and displayed in terms (...)
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  24. Beyond the Fregean Myth: The Value of Logical Values.Fabien Schang - 2010 - In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Objects of Inquiry in Philosophy of Language and Linguistics. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag. pp. 245--260.
    One of the most prominent myths in analytic philosophy is the so- called “Fregean Axiom”, according to which the reference of a sentence is a truth value. In contrast to this referential semantics, a use-based formal semantics will be constructed in which the logical value of a sentence is not its putative referent but the information it conveys. Let us call by “Question Answer Semantics” (thereafter: QAS) the corresponding formal semantics: a non-Fregean many-valued logic, where the meaning of any sentence (...)
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  25.  5
    Developmental Abilities to Form Chunks in Immediate Memory and Its Non-Relationship to Span Development.Fabien Mathy, Michael Fartoukh, Nicolas Gauvrit & Alessandro Guida - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  26.  64
    Valuing Environmental Costs and Benefits in an Uncertain Future: Risk Aversion and Discounting.Fabien Medvecky - 2012 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 5 (1):1-1.
    A central point of debate over environmental policies concerns how future costs and benefits should be assessed. The most commonly used method for assessing the value of future costs and benefits is economic discounting. One often-cited justification for discounting is uncertainty. More specifically, it is risk aversion coupled with the expectation that future prospects are more risky. In this paper I argue that there are at least two reasons for disputing the use of risk aversion as a justification for discounting (...)
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  27.  26
    Beyond Cognition: Understanding Affective Impairments in Korsakoff Syndrome.Mélanie Brion, Fabien D’Hondt, Donald A. Davidoff & Pierre Maurage - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (4):376-384.
    As earlier research on Korsakoff syndrome, a frequent neurological complication of alcohol-dependence, mainly focused on cognition, affective impairments have been little investigated despite their crucial impact in AD. This article proposes new research avenues on this topic by combining two theoretical frameworks: dual-process models, positing that addictions are due to an imbalance between underactivated reflective system and overactivated affective-automatic one; continuity theory, postulating a gradual worsening of cognitive impairments from AD to KS. We suggest that this joint perspective may renew (...)
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  28.  30
    Electrocorticographic Representations of Segmental Features in Continuous Speech.Fabien Lotte, Jonathan S. Brumberg, Peter Brunner, Aysegul Gunduz, Anthony L. Ritaccio, Cuntai Guan & Gerwin Schalk - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  29.  31
    Examining the Role of Carbon Capture and Storage Through an Ethical Lens.Fabien Medvecky, Justine Lacey & Peta Ashworth - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):1-18.
    The risk posed by anthropogenic climate change is generally accepted, and the challenge we face to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a tolerable limit cannot be underestimated. Reducing GHG emissions can be achieved either by producing less GHG to begin with or by emitting less GHG into the atmosphere. One carbon mitigation technology with large potential for capturing carbon dioxide at the point source of emissions is carbon capture and storage (CCS). However, the merits of CCS have been questioned, (...)
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  30. The Cube, the Square and the Problem of Existential Import.Saloua Chatti & Fabien Schang - 2013 - History and Philosophy of Logic 34 (2):101-132.
    We re-examine the problem of existential import by using classical predicate logic. Our problem is: How to distribute the existential import among the quantified propositions in order for all the relations of the logical square to be valid? After defining existential import and scrutinizing the available solutions, we distinguish between three possible cases: explicit import, implicit non-import, explicit negative import and formalize the propositions accordingly. Then, we examine the 16 combinations between the 8 propositions having the first two kinds of (...)
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  31. Towards a Universal Neurobiological Architecture for Learning to Read.Marcin Szwed, Fabien Vinckier, Laurent Cohen, Stanislas Dehaene & Ram Frost - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):308.
    Letter-position tolerance varies across languages. This observation suggests that the neural code for letter strings may also be subtly different. Although language-specific models remain useful, we should endeavor to develop a universal model of reading acquisition which incorporates crucial neurobiological constraints. Such a model, through a progressive internalization of phonological and lexical regularities, could perhaps converge onto the language-specific properties outlined by Frost.
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  32. The Logical Burdens of Proof. Assertion and Hypothesis.Daniele Chiffi & Fabien Schang - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (4):1-22.
    The paper proposes two logical analyses of (the norms of) justification. In a first, realist-minded case, truth is logically independent from justification and leads to a pragmatic logic LP including two epistemic and pragmatic operators, namely, assertion and hypothesis. In a second, antirealist-minded case, truth is not logically independent from justification and results in two logical systems of information and justification: AR4 and AR4¢, respectively, provided with a question-answer semantics. The latter proposes many more epistemic agents, each corresponding to a (...)
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  33. Généalogie d'un néokantisme fran‡ais: à propos d'Emile Boutroux: à propos d'Emile Boutroux.Fabien Capeilleres - 1998 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3:405-446.
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  34.  26
    A Plea for Epistemic Truth: Jaina Logic From a Many-Valued Perspective.Fabien Schang - 2009 - In A. Schuman (ed.), Logic in Religious Discourse. Ontos Verlag. pp. 54--83.
    We present the Jaina theory of sevenfold predication as a 7-valued logic, in which every logical value consists in a 3-tuple of opinions. A question-answer semantics is used in order to give an intuitive characterization of these logical values in terms of opinion polls. Two different interpretations are plausible for the latest sort of opinion, depending upon whether "non-assertability" refers to incompleteness or inconsistency. It is shown hat the incomplete version of JL_{G} is equivalent to Kleene's logic K3, whereas the (...)
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  35.  25
    Self-Consciousness in Non-Communicative Patients.Steven Laureys, Fabien Perrin & Serge Brédart - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (3):722-741.
    The clinical and para-clinical examination of residual self-consciousness in non-communicative severely brain damaged patients remains exceptionally challenging. Passive presentation of the patient’s own name and own face are known to be effective attention-grabbing stimuli when clinically assessing consciousness at the patient’s bedside. Event-related potential and functional neuroimaging studies using such self-referential stimuli are currently being used to disentangle the cognitive hierarchy of self-processing. We here review neuropsychological, neuropathological, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies using the own name and own face paradigm obtained (...)
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  36.  8
    La Philosophie Naturelle de Christiaan Huygens.Fabien Chareix - 2006 - Vrin.
    Entre les premiers développements de la mécanique galiléenne et la publication des Principia de Newton, s’est jouée une transformation radicale de la philosophie naturelle des modernes. Mathématiques, sciences de la nature et techniques de précision ont façonné d’une part une nouvelle manière, active et opératoire, d’interroger la nature, et d’autre part une image du monde fondée sur l’idée d’une rationalité intégrale des phénomènes.Interlocuteur infatigable de Mersenne, Galilée, Descartes, Leibniz ou Newton, Christiaan Huygens a assuré un lien nécessaire pour son époque (...)
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  37.  34
    Philosophy as Science: “Function” and “Energy” in Cassirer's “Complex System” of Symbolic Forms.Fabien Capeilleres - 2007 - Review of Metaphysics 61 (2):317-377.
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  38.  41
    Cerebral Processing in the Minimally Conscious State.Steven Laureys, Fabien Perrin & Marie-Elisabeth E. Faymonville - 2004 - Neurology 63 (5):916-918.
  39. Anomie and Fatalism in Durkheim's Theory of Regulation.Philippe Besnard - 1993 - In Stephen P. Turner (ed.), Emile Durkheim: Sociologist and Moralist. Routledge. pp. 169--90.
     
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  40. A Logic-Based Theory of Deductive Arguments☆☆This is an Extended Version of a Paper Entitled “Towards a Logic-Based Theory of Argumentation” Published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI'2000), Austin, TX, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2000. [REVIEW]Philippe Besnard & Anthony Hunter - 2001 - Artificial Intelligence 128 (1-2):203-235.
  41. Encoding Deductive Argumentation in Quantified Boolean Formulae.Philippe Besnard, Anthony Hunter & Stefan Woltran - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence 173 (15):1406-1423.
  42.  13
    Foreword.Philippe Besnard & Andreas Herzig - 2005 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 15 (1):8-8.
  43. Le Mystère du Nom,.A.-M. Besnard & Bernard Renaud - 1962
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  44.  9
    Logical Theories and Abstract Argumentation: A Survey of Existing Works.Philippe Besnard, Claudette Cayrol & Marie-Christine Lagasquie-Schiex - 2020 - Argument and Computation 11 (1-2):41-102.
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  45.  63
    Optimality Theory as a Family of Cumulative Logics.Ph Besnard, G. Fanselow & T. Schaub - 2003 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (2):153-182.
    We investigate two formalizations of Optimality Theory, a successful paradigm in linguistics.We first give an order-theoretic counterpart for the data and processinvolved in candidate evaluation.Basically, we represent each constraint as a function that assigns every candidate a degree of violation.As for the second formalization, we define (after Samek-Lodovici and Prince) constraints as operations that select the best candidates out of a set of candidates.We prove that these two formalizations are equivalent (accordingly, there is no loss of generality with using violation (...)
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  46.  2
    Relative Inconsistency Measures.Philippe Besnard & John Grant - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence 280:103231.
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  47.  36
    Systèmes d'Inférence Non Monotone.Philippe Besnard - 1995 - Theoria 10 (2):37-47.
  48. The Importance of Open and Recursive Circumscription.Philippe Besnard, Yves Moinard & Robert E. Mercer - 1989 - Artificial Intelligence 39 (2):251-262.
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  49. The Preferential-Models Approach to Non-Monotonic Logics.Philippe Besnard & Pierre Siegel - 1988 - In Philippe Smets (ed.), Non-Standard Logics for Automated Reasoning. Academic Press. pp. 137--161.
     
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  50. Philippe BESNARD, "An Introduction to Default Logic". [REVIEW]Paul Gochet - 1990 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 44 (1):145.
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