This paper revisits a study by Machery et al., suggesting that, in experimental versions of Kripke’s fictional cases on the use of proper names, Westerners are more likely than East Asian participants to show intuitions compatible with Kripke’s causal-historical theory of reference. We conducted two experiments, recruting participants from Norway and Bangladesh, either in English or in the participants’ native languages, using modified cases and a new approach to data analysis. We replicated the results of Machery et al., but we (...) show that the residual finding—i.e., that participants who are not aligned with CH produce responses consistent with a definite descriptions theory of reference—does not hold. Most participants in our experiments, and nearly all those who do not provide CH answers, respond as predicted by a theory that accommodates speaker’s reference in reasoning about uses of proper names, not according to DD. We suggest that cross-cultural variation in this task is real. However, explanations of variation within or across cultures need not invoke competing theories of reference, and can be unified within a single, broadly Kripkean analysis that honors the basic distinction between semantic reference and speaker’s reference. (shrink)
SummaryThe aim of this study was to assess whether women’s empowerment ensures reduced intimate partner violence. The differential relationship between women’s empowerment and IPV among married women in Bangladesh was investigated using 2007 Demographic and Health Survey data. Logistic regression models were used to assess whether women’s empowerment had any influence on their likelihood of experiencing IPV while controlling for other covariates. The analyses revealed that older cohorts of women, who were more empowered, were more vulnerable to physical violence than (...) less-empowered, younger women. The likelihood of being affected by physical violence among less-empowered, childless women was greater than that of more-empowered women with only male children. Less-empowered, uneducated women were more likely to experience physical violence than more-empowered, primary-educated women. Less-empowered women who had been married for less than 5 years were more likely to suffer from physical violence than more-empowered women who had been married for more than 19 years. The likelihood of experiencing sexual violence was not found to have any significant association with women’s empowerment. The findings suggest that although women’s empowerment in Bangladesh is gradually improving, some sub-groups of empowered women are still susceptible to IPV. (shrink)
This paper looks at whether the tenets of Islam are consistent with the 'Ten Principles' of responsible business outlined in the UN Global Compact. The paper concludes that with the possible exception of Islam's focus on personal responsibility and the non-recognition of the corporation as a legal person, which could undermine the concept of corporate responsibility, there is no divergence between the tenets of the religion and the principles of the UN Global Compact. Indeed, Islam often goes (...) further and has the advantage of clearer codification of ethical standards as well as a set of explicit enforcement mechanisms. Focusing on this convergence of values could be useful in the development of a new understanding of CSR in a global context and help avert the threatened "clash of civilisations". (shrink)
This article reviews the new developments that have occurred in the past ten to fifteen years in the field of Islam and science: the emergence of a “new generation” of thinkers, Muslim scientists who accept modern science's fundamental methodology, theories, and results, and try to find ways to “harmonize” it with Islam; and the exponential increase in the popularity of the I‘jaz ‘Ilmiy “theory,” the “miraculous scientific content of the Qur'an” as well as the continuation of the traditionalist (...) school among a section of the Muslim intelligentsia. The author then focuses on the next phase of issues, that is the “challenges” that this “new generation” must address, including the integration of methodological naturalism and evolution in the Islamic worldview, and positions to adopt regarding divine action and miracles. The author also mentions “educational and social issues” where Islam and science interface, and concludes with “the way forward.”. (shrink)
Over 700,000 copies of the original hardcover and paperback editions of this stunningly popular book have been sold. Karen Armstrong's superbly readable exploration of how the three dominant monotheistic religions of the world—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—have shaped and altered the conception of God is a tour de force. One of Britain's foremost commentators on religious affairs, Armstrong traces the history of how men and women have perceived and experienced God, from the time of Abraham to the present. From classical (...) philosophy and medieval mysticism to the Reformation, the Enlightenment, and the modern age of skepticism, Armstrong performs the near miracle of distilling the intellectual history of monotheism into one compelling volume. (shrink)
This article examines the integration of the Gulen Movement into the neoliberal economy. In spite of the Gulen Movement currently undergoes a severe persecution under President Erdogan and charged as FETO (FethullahTerrorist Organization), Gulen’s success story in the economy is of interest for any Islamic movements to emulate. In contrast to those belong to the revivalist Islam that rejects the neo-liberal economy, Gulen does accept the neoliberal economy. He integrates neoliberalism into Islam, and vice versa. Gulenacceptance of the (...) neo-liberal economy, in turn, encouraged his movement to adopt for further neoliberal principles such as human rights, multiculturalism, cosmopolitanism, etc. Since Gulen willingly immerses in the neo-liberalist system, he could be categorized into a progressive Islam. Nevertheless, Galen shows his critical attitude toward the capitalist economy despite his acceptance of the system. This article argues that Gulen’s adoption of the neo-liberal economy is a method of da’wah. This article calls it as ‘da’wah in the economic field’.As it is the case, Gulen’s adoption of neo-liberal economics does not appear simultaneously once, rather through gradual processes in which it goes through three stages of his da’wah: individual transformation, social transformation, and the state. (shrink)
Abstract When speaking about Islam and contemporary issues in science, Guessoum's Islam's Quantum Question shares many characterizations with Barbourian science and religion discourse. The focus is on theological responses to particular scientific theories. In this article I suggest an expansion of the discourse by looking at how science meets religion (as well as other local system of knowledge) in practice, in particular events such as natural disaster, when they are called upon as sources of meaning making. The encounter (...) takes place not only at the cognitive level, but may take the form of competition, collaboration, or negotiation over the authority to provide explanation. In practice the authority is supported not only by objective knowledge but involves many other factors, including politics. Thus, part of my proposal for expansion suggests the broadening of how we understand science and religion to include how assertions of authority are made in practice. (shrink)
In Saudi Arabia in 2000 the world's first human uterus transplant was attempted with some success. In 2011 the second successful human uterus transplant took place in Turkey. Doctors in the United Kingdom have recently announced that uterus transplants will be carried out in the UK if doctors can raise enough funds to complete their research. As scientists continue to make progress in this domain this is anticipated to be the next breakthrough in the arena of assisted reproductive technologies. The (...) procedure is designed to restore fertility in women unable to gestate due to an abnormal, damaged, or absent uterus. At present, the only other option for such women to achieve genetic motherhood is via surrogacy, which in Islam is widely regarded as haram or forbidden. This article examines the benefits of this technology so as to facilitate discourse between Islam and the West. It argues for Islamic scholars to consider these advances so as to ensure Muslims living as minorities in Western countries, such as the United Kingdom, are able to utilize such technology (if indeed regarded as permissible) should the government move to enact legislation to permit this procedure. (shrink)
Etika merupakan salah satu cabang kajian dari falsafah yang mengkaji secara mendalam tentang perilaku baik teori maupun praktek. Para failusuf muslim mengkaji tentang etika ini secara mendalam dengan tetap berpegang pada teks-teks al-Qur’an. Khazanah pengetahuan Islam klasik cukup banyak yang berbicara tentang etika di antaranya: Tafsir al-Qur’an, al-Hadis, Falsafah Islam, Tasawuf, Kalam. Etika sebagai sebuah kajian filosofis belum mendapat tempat yang memadai dalam falsafah Islam, karena wacana syari’ah masih mendominasi. Sebagai akibatnya, literatur tentang etika falsafah Islam (...) sangat minim. Pada saat ini, perkembangan pengetahuan dalam berbagai aspeknya, menuntut kesetaraan peran perempuan dengan laki-laki di berbagai bidang kehidupan. Dalam teori gender melihat telah terjadi ketidakadilan, yang menempatkan perempuan dan laki-laki sebagai korban dari sistem tersebut. Dalam pandangan falsafah Islam masalah kesetaraan dan ketidakadilan perlu dilacak pada kajian nilai-nilai etis, baik yang bersumber dari al-Qur’an maupun rasional, sehingga dapat diketahui konsep manusia yang utuh dan adil baik perempuan maupun laki-laki. (shrink)
This paper places “Islam and bioethics” within the framework of “religion and science” discourse. It thus may be seen as a complement to the paper by Henk ten Have () with which this thematic section in Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science opens, which places “Islam and bioethics” in the context of contemporary bioethics. It turns out that in Zygon there have been more submitted articles on Islam and bioethics than on any other Islam-related topic. This (...) may be a consequence of the global nature of the bioethical issues, driven by advancement in science and technology, which allows for conversation across cultural and religious boundaries even when the normative references and argumentative methods are tradition-specific. (shrink)
One of the most intuitive concepts of truth is the classical correspondence theory of truth. Aside from the theoretical cogency and plausibility, this truth theory has two fundamental problems. I shall explore both of these problems. This will not be to reveal the problematic nature of the classical correspondence theory of truth itself, but to demonstrate the implications it has on Islam. I shall establish that the problems of this truth theory contribute in the failure to determine the truth (...) of a particular notion of an Islamic God. Consequently this truth theory would prove inconsistent with a particular notion of God within the Islamic tradition. (shrink)
This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior (...) family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. (shrink)
Üç bölümden oluşan bu çalışmanın birinci bölümünde İslam dini ile Hint kıtası dinleri arasında Tanrı, evren, insan tasavvurları ve ölümsüzlük doktrinleri ekseninde genel bir karşılaştırma yapılacak, böylelikle tenâsüh ve âhiret inancının ait olduğu dinî gelenek içindeki yeri gösterilmeye çalışılacaktır. İkinci bölümde İslam düşünce tarihinde tenâsüh inancıyla ilişkilendirilen gruplar ve bunlara gösterilen tepkiler ortaya koyulacaktır. Üçüncü bölümde ise kadîm tenâsüh inancının günümüzdeki şekli olan reenkarnasyon düşüncesi ele alınacak; bu bağlamda ülkemizde çeşitli dernek ve vakıflar vasıtasıyla faaliyetlerini yürüten ruhçu akımların, reenkarnasyonun bilimsel (...) olarak kanıtlandığı, kötülük problemine çözüm getirdiği ve başta Kur’ân olmak üzere ilâhî dinlerin kutsal kitaplarının da bu inancı desteklediği gibi iddiaları değerlendirilecektir. Makalenin genel amacı ise din ve düşünce sistemlerinin ölümsüzlük doktrinlerini varlık anlayışları, dünya görüşleri ve bilgi nazariyeleriyle bütünleşik bir sistem dâhilinde ortaya koydukları, bu doğrultuda reenkarnasyon inancının da İslam dininin en temelde Tanrı, evren ve insan tasavvuruyla uyuşmadığını ortaya koymaktır. (shrink)
The paper intends to analyze the philosophic, imaginative, and theological aspects of Islam, which give grounds to the integration, acceptance, and enhancement of the transhuman, through the analysis of core concepts such as ‘humanity’ and ‘body’ in Islamic tradition. While transhumanism is considered mainly from a lay or super-diverse perspective, Imams, fuquha, Muslim scholars and simple believers—be they in Western or non-Western contexts—are evermore challenged to question the relationship between technological innovation effecting human nature, and Islamic tradition with its (...) specific cultural framework. Considering that body-matter is what expresses the identity and the ‘anthropopoiesis’ of the Muslim believer, the intent of the paper is to investigate how—and through which spiritual meanings—can Islamic theology integrate the liminal bodies of the transhuman into the limited, defined, and purified human traditional models of Islamic belief. (shrink)
This article explores the implications of the prevalence of suicide attacks or 'martyrdom operations' in contemporary Islam. Historical and legal precedents from Islam and Christianity are adduced for the analysis and placed within the context of radical Islam.
Islam Nusantara is not a new religion, a rival of Islam, sect, or a usual mazhab, but actually is a character of thoughtful mazhab or manhaj Islam. Islam Nusantara is just an approach in practicing Islamic teachings, namely cultural approaches. This Islam has the most prominent character which is called as wasathiyah that is reflected in some attitude such as, inclusive, tolerant, friendly, respect other parties, friendly with diverse cultures and religions, tasamuh, tawazun, and i’tidal. (...)Islam Nusantara sees local cultures as “oxygen”; filters and then respect good culture and tradition so it can have a dialogue with the environment around it positively. This cultural approach has been successfully used by the Walisongo in preaching using tembang, Wayang Kulit, socializing key terms, and so on. In the faith, Islam Nusantara is manifested in some rituals, tahlilan, istighasah, haul akbar, and selametan. Furthermore, in fiqh it’s such as imsak, zakat, halal-bihalal, marriage registration, marriage book, and the reading of ta’liq talaq. Islam Nusantara successfully consolidate Islam with nationalism so both of them are harmonious, and bring the tradition together with modernization through slogan a l-muhafadzah ‘ala al-qadîm al-salih wa al-akhdz bi al-jadîdal-aslah [keep the old good tradition and take a new and better tradition]. (shrink)
Introduction -- Leibniz, historicism, and the plague of Islam -- Kant, Islam, and the preservation of boundaries -- Herder's Arab fantasies -- Keeping the Turks out of islam : Goethe's Ottoman plan -- Friedrich Schlegel and the emptying of Islam -- Hegel and the disappearance of Islam -- Marx the Moor -- Nietzsche's peace with Islam.
Bu çalışmada “tabiat” kavramının sözlük ve terim anlamı analiz edilmiş ve ona ilişkin bazı Meşşâî İslam filozoflarının görüşlerine yer verilmiştir. “Tabiat” sözcüğünü karşılamak üzere Türkçede kullanılan “tabiat” ve “doğa” sözcükleri arasında bir karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. “Tabiat”ın Meşşâî İslam filozofları tarafından isim olarak kullanıldığı varlık alanı hakkında bilgi verilmiş ve İbn Sina ile İbn Rüşd arasında cereyan eden tabiatın ispatının gerekip gerekmeyeceği tartışmasına değinilmiştir. Cisimlerde görülen hareket ve sükunun kaynağı olması bakımından “tabiat”ın nelere delalet ettiği hususunda İbn Sina’nın görüşleri Aristo ile mukayeseli (...) olarak sunulmuştur. Daha sonra bir terim olarak “tabiat”ın filozoflar tarafından yapılan tanımı ortaya konulmuştur. İslam felsefesinde önemli bir yere sahip olan “tabiat” kavramına Meşşâî İslam filozoflarının yükledikleri anlam ve onu kullanma biçimleri, Aristo’dan farklıdır. Özellikle her türlü oluş ve hareketin kaynağını açıklamak amacıyla kullandıkları “tabiat” kavramı etimolojik açıdan tüm nedenleri Allah’a ulaştırmaya imkan sağlamaktadır. Ayrıca kavramın, “tabiat – tabiat ötesi” ayrımına dayanak teşkil ettiği de bilinmektedir. Makalenin amacı, “tabiat” kavramının günümüzde yeni teorilerle ilişkili olarak kullanılma imkanlarını belirginleştirmektir. (shrink)
İslam’da Ahlak ve Ahlak Ekolleri adlı bu eser önsöz ve iki bölümden müteşekkildir. Yazar bu eserinde insanın temel niteliği olarak ele aldığı ahlakın İslam dinindeki yeri ve önemini, süreç içerisinde oluşan ekolleri, bireysel ve toplumsal açıdan konumunu ve değerini ortaya koymaya çalışmaktadır. Hassaten İslam düşünce tarihindeki sufilerin ahlak görüşleri iktibas edilerek hazırlanan bu eser, bu alanda çalışmalar yapacak kimseler için ele aldığı konular açısından okunmaya değer bir yapıt olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır.
In this article, we discuss the current trend of authoritarianism in the Islamic world, especially as embodied in the institution of taqlid, whereby a lay person blindly follows a religious scholar. We will compare this to the mystical tradition of Ibn 'Arabî as well as the early esoteric Shî'ite tradition, where a much more "rebellious" type of Islam was offered and provided purviews of pluralism and universalism that challenge authoritarian closures of interpretation in relationship with God. By way of (...) further comparison, we will also attend to the writings of some liberal and pluralistic thinkers in the Muslim world. (shrink)
This book is concerned with the rationality and plausibility of the Muslim faith and the Quran, and in particular how they can be interogated and understood through western analytical philosophy. It is also explores how Islam can successfully engage with the challenges posed by secular thinking. The Quran and the Secular Mind will be of interest to students and scholars of Islamic philosophy, philosophy of religion, Middle East studies, and political Islam.
In the light of current events, particularly the ‘post September 11th’ debates with much focus on aspects of the ‘clash of civilisation’ thesis, the issue of Islamic identity is a crucial one. Whilst Friedrich Nietzsche was addressing an audience of a different culture and age, his own originality, creativity, psychological, philological and historical insights allows for a fresh and enlightening understanding of Islam within the context of our modern era. In this book, Roy Jackson sets out to determine: Why (...) did Nietzsche feel inclined to be so generous towards the Islamic tradition yet so critical of Western Christianity? How important was religion for Nietzsche’s views on such matters as moral and political philosophy and how does this help us to understand the Islamic response to modernity? How does Nietzsche’s distinctive outlook and methodology help us to understand such key Islamic paradigms as the Qur’an, the Prophet, and the ‘Rightly-Guided’ Caliphs? Nietzsche and Islam provides an original and fresh insight into Nietzsche’s views on religion and shows that his philosophy can make an important contribution to what is considered to be Islam’s key paradigms. As such it will be of interest to a diverse readership and will provide useful material for researchers when thinking about religion, Islam and the future. (shrink)
The early Muslim society took much of the scientific treasures from other civilizations, especially from ancient Greek. One of the scientific traditions taken from Greek is Hellenism. Using a historical approach, this article tries to assess the contiguity of Islam with the Hellenism. There are three points will be discussed: When has Islam met to the Hellenism in the first time? What are the factors that support the scientific contact between both of the civilizations? To what extent Hellenism (...) influenced the development of the scientific tradition in the early Muslim community? Our study shows that the Muslims have known the Hellenistic tradition since the 7th century in the Umayyad era, not the 8 century as some scholars claim. Second, there are three factors underlying early Muslim studied Hellenism Support from Qur’anic teachings, The need to argue with both of other Muslim groups and Non-Muslims community, The need of the Caliphs to legitimize their power. Third, when Muslims have known the Hellenism, they did not only adopt the Hellenism ideas, but also provide reviews, critical notes, and further more developed its own scientific tradition combined with the qur’anic teachings. (shrink)
One of the basic issues of modern times is how to construct a nonviolent and peaceful society and achieve the goal of a one-world community that lives in peace and harmony. Islam and Mahatma Gandhi’s approaches, in this regard, are remarkable. Both share same aims about common ethical concepts such as nonviolent, compassion for all creation, freedom,justice, patience and tolerance. There are remarkable similarities between the ideas of Gandhi and teachings of Islam, particularly in the concepts of peace (...) and nonviolence are concerned. This article, thus, mentions about the concepts of peace and nonviolence (ahimsa) as propounded by them. It handles attributes of ahimsa and satyagraha such as “loving sinners and even your enemy”, “having no intention to harm others”, “rest on God”, “consistency of word and action”, which are held forth by Gandhi. Furthermore, this article deals with similarities of Gandhi’s teachings with “ehsan” (benevolence), “tavakol (trust in God), “al-niyyat” (intent) and “an-nasrha”(sincerity) in Islamic thought. (shrink)
İslam’ın toplum hayatındaki tezahürlerinin mahiyet ve işlevi hakkındaki tartışmalar neredeyse Hz. Peygamber’in vefatından hemen sonraya kadar uzanır. Kelamın ehl-i hadisi eleştirisinde, Müslüman filozofların kelamcıları eleştirisinde, Gazzâlî’nin (ö. 1111) filozofları eleştirisinde daima İslam’ın “nasıl” anlaşılması gerektiği sorusunu görmek mümkündür. Gazzâlî ve İbn Rüşd (ö. 1198) gibi birbirine muhalif olan iki âlimin dahi kendi dönemlerindeki fukahayı eleştirmede müttefik olmasında yine İslam’ın “nasıl” anlaşılması gerektiği ve toplum hayatında “nasıl” uygulanacağı sorusu görülebilir. Son yüz yıllık dönemde ise bu tartışmalar ve uğraşların zirve yaptığını söyleyebiliriz. (...) Müslümanlar olarak küçük bir köye dönüşen dünyaya kayıtsız kalamayız, kendimizi merkeze aldığımız bir dünya tasavvur edemeyiz. Sosyolojimizin, psikolojimizin, siyaset, ekonomi, eğitim ve kültürümüzün diğer milletler ve din mensupları ile etkileşim halinde olduğu gerçeğini yok sayamayız. Durum böyle olunca maalesef Müslüman ülkelerin birçok alanda yaşamış olduğu sorunlar her geçen gün yüzümüze vurulmaktadır. Konuya vakıa tespiti yaparak başladığımız takdirde incelemesini yapacağımız İslam Işığında Müslümanlığımızla Yüzleşme eserinin önemi daha belirgin olacaktır. (shrink)
This paper is a philosophical study about conflicts resolution and Islam Nusantara among multicultural societies. This article discusses the relationships between individuals who produce social conflicts of ethnic and religious nuance. Referring to the theory of multiculturalism from Bhikhu Parekh, literature study method, phenomenology of religious life method, and critical reflection method, it is concluded that the social conflicts emerged from an individual behavior that interprets moral and cultural in different view; and happened in countries that provide political uniformity. (...) These social conflicts should be cultivated by an individual through cultural dialogues and the actions of intercultural dialogue and social recognition. The dialogue is expected to rediscover harmony in social life. (shrink)
The history of sciences in Moslim countries is contemplated. The reasons of initial flourishing and subsequent decline of Moslim science are discussed. It is conjectured that one of them may consist in the lack of analogue of protestant revolution the Moslim World.
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements (...) in Sunni Islam in particular. These include preservation of lineage, exclusion of third parties in reproduction, upholding the rights of the child, and protection from the negative effects of surrogacy arrangements. The rationales for banning surrogacy are subsequently refuted utilizing Islamic law “Sharia”, bioethics, and medical evidence. The paper also presents reasons for why surrogacy is not only consistent with Sunni Islamic teachings, but is also both ethically justified and medically necessary. Lastly, Islamic scholars are urged to take into account the arguments presented in this paper and reconsider their rulings on the permissibility of surrogacy. (shrink)
The first part of this article is a short introduction into Sufism, seen as a unique mode of expressing the internal, mystical dimension of Islam. In this section, the history, doctrine and ritual practice of the main dervish communities have been considered. In the second part, predominantly based on the author's preliminary field study of the extant dervish communities in Bosnia-Herzegovina, more attention has been dedicated to the revival of Islamic mysticism in a contemporary context. In terms of sociology (...) of religion, the revitalization of Sufism in Bosnia-Herzegovina could be understood within the broader framework of the revival of classical religiosity in the Balkans. After World War Two, the activities of the dervish orders in Bosnia were prohibited, mainly due to the modernist Islamic community supported by the ruling structures. This, of course, should be taken into consideration when discussing the issue of Islamic orthodoxy versus mysticism. A complete renewal of Sufism has taken place in the 1990s, after the dissolution of Yugoslavia and completion of the war. Therefore, one is dealing here with the renewal of classical religiosity, because Sufism had been developed within Orthodox Islam in Bosnia since the Ottoman period. (shrink)
The present paper addresses the mutual relationship between society and law in shaping women’s law in Islam from the perspective of the sociology of law. It analyzes the role of pre-Islamic social, political, and economic structures in the Arabian Peninsula in modeling women’s law and highlights some customary laws which were rejected or revived and integrated in Islamic jurisprudence. In this regard, the paper reviews issues such as polygyny, rights to inheritance, marriage, the process of testimony and acceptable forms (...) of evidence in legal matters, diyya, the exclusion of women from the judiciary and the system of issuing fatwa, natural right of guardianship of underage children after divorce, and regulations related to the veil. Finally, referring to the manner of the Prophet of Islam, the paper suggests that ʿurf can be considered as a source of Islamic legislation alongside other commonly known sources of fiqh. (shrink)
Dialogue with three major Muslim authors shows that Islam can take a positive stance toward human rights while also presenting differing interpretations of the meaning and scope of rights. Because of their subordination of norms reached through reason to those drawn from faith, as well as negative experiences of the impact of Western colonization of parts of the Muslim world, Abul A‘la Maududi and Sayyid Qutb place significant restrictions on rights of conscience. 'Abdolkarim Soroush's positive support for the role (...) of reason in Islamic faith and his less-negative assessment of the West lead him to more vigorous support for the human rights agenda. This study raises the question of whether the humility needed in comparative ethics and the respect for others at the root of human rights are necessarily linked. (shrink)
En esta ponencia se exponen los diversos caminos de acceso a la Verdad que históricamente se han dado en el Islam: la tradición, la razón y el corazón. Estos dos últimos dan fugar a la filosofía y a fa mís tica. A la vez que se señalan algunas coincidencias entre ellas, también se ponen de relieve las divergencias que las separan.
This paper seeks to reflect, from a political philosophy point of view, about the integration possibilities of religion in public sphere –specifically Islam– in plural and democratic societies. In this article, we will confront ideas of Occidental thinkers –such as Rawls, Habermas and Taylor– with Muslim scholars such as Sachedima and An-Na’im.
The human quest for the meaning of life is an unending one marked by undulating landscapes. In order to confront the flux of experience generated by this quest for meaning, the human embraces science, morality, politics and religion. Religion is said to provide the basis for transcendental values which give humans succour after the physical and material struggles have ended. At the same time, religion also uses the observable social world as the starting point for the embrace of transcendental values. (...) In this essay, an attempt is made to examine the interconnectedness of modernity, Islam and an African culture. The essay is basically an exercise in analysis whereby the readers are made to draw some compelling inferences. Keywords : Modernity, Islam, African culture, Values, Human happiness. (shrink)
El análisis del islam en Sudán muestra la gran variedad de aproximaciones al objeto de estudio, la diversidad de sus lecturas y el reiterado recurso a los principios religiosos para justificar o legitimar las cuestiones políticas y de Estado. El islam sudanés, en sus diferentes manifestaciones, ha traspasado las fronteras nacionales y ha contribuido al islam africano, árabe y mundial. Eso desde el siglo XIX cuando surgió un primer proto-estado islámico de la mano de esa figura mesiánica (...) que fue Muhammad Ahmad Ibn Abdallah, el Mahdi, hasta el pensador y hombre de Estado Hasan al-Turabi en pleno siglo XX. Analizaremos tres dimensiones: el islam reformista de Mahmud Muhammad Taha, el islamismo sudanés conducido por al-Turabi y el papel del sufismo en la religiosidad popular y en la política sudanesa, y su reciente confrontación con las tendencias salafíes activas en el país en lo que parece ser una nueva lucha por el espacio socioreligioso del siglo XXI. (shrink)
Shifts to structurally new political formations or at times even governmental changes usually engender new representations of the past. This process generally involves the creation of official national histories or revisions to the existing narratives. These histories are ultimately tied to collective memory engineering and identity building to legitimize the new political formations and to ensure loyalty to them. Public education mostly provides a vital channel for the dissemination and the validation of the collective memory sanctioned by the ruling elite. (...) The rise of the Turkish Republic as a nation-state and the national historiography and educational system it established during the 1930s exemplify one of such cases. The consensus opinion in current scholarship argues that the early official historiography virtually circumvented the Ottoman and Islamic eras by curbing or even repealing their role by favoring strong accent on a remote pre-Islamic Turkish past. Although this view is warranted with regard to the state’s primary ideological emphasis on Turkishness, this approach at the same time misses the intricate subtleties involved in the official national narrative and potentially indicates a total exclusion or denunciation of these subjects. This article aims to assess the new national historical narrative reproduced in the new history textbooks in a more nuanced way with an exclusive concentration on the ideology, religion and history education triangulum. It aspires to unveil what it articulated about the supposedly avoided topic of the Islamic past and especially focus on the officially endorsed view of Islam as a religion. (shrink)
At several times, the Koran mentions the death that affects all men. Perhaps that was the reason why the question of suicide and of voluntary death arose very soon in the Islamic world. From the century IX, this problem became object of consideration, caused by the impact of the Ancient Philosophy: it seems that Socrates' figure exercised a certain influence through the versions of his death, accepted voluntarily, which arrived to the Islamic world. Socrates' death favoured the reflection among many (...) Muslim thinkers. KEY WORDS – Islam. Socrates. Voluntary death. Suicide. (shrink)
Common experiences of mothering offer profound critiques of maternal ethical norms found in both Christianity and Islam. The familiar responsibilities of caring for children, assumed by the majority of Christian and Muslim women, provide the basis for reassessing sacrificial and selfless love, protesting unjust religious and political systems, and dismantling romanticized notions of childcare. As a distinctive category of women's experience, motherhood may offer valuable perspectives necessary for remedying injustices that afflict mothers and children in particular, as well as (...) for developing cross-cultural understandings of justice in general. (shrink)
The well-known perception of war-hungry Muslims who had the Qur’an on the one hand and sword on the other offering a choice of either accepting Islam or losing one’s head has easily been created in the literature by the Orientalist scholars. Today the stress on the Jihad controversy by mass media in Europe and America is important and needs to be corrected. That jihad has usually been translated by the Western media as “holy war” is a greatly misunderstood principle (...) in Islam. There is no term in Arabic which means, “holy war”. War is not “holy” in Islam. I would like to divide this study into two parts: In the first part, the issue of conquest and its religious, ideological and theoretical references will be dealt with in reference to basic Islamic sources and the previous Islamic state’s practices. In particular, what are the limits of warfare and the position of civilians in the wars and wartimes according to the Islamic law will be looked for. In the second part, as a typical Islamic state, to what extend Ottoman conquests in the Balkans followed and practiced the legal way that opened up by Islamic law will be analyzed according to the available chronicles. (shrink)
İnsanların günlük hayatlarında en çok kullandıkları muamelelerden biri olan alış veriş, toplumların örflerine göre çeşitlilik göstermiştir. Bu sebeple klasik füru fıkıh eserlerinde akitlerin çok bilinenlerine yer verilmiş, diğerleri için de genel şartları sağlaması kaydıyla caiz olabileceği kanaatine varılmıştır. Bununla beraber mezheplerin nasları anlama yöntemleri ve örfi uygulamaları değerlendirme biçimleri, akitlerin sıhhatini değerlendirmelerinde de ektili olmuştur. Mahiyeti itibariyle değişik formları bulunmasıyla birlikte kısaca, ürünün peyderpey alınıp ücretin ürünün tüketilmesinden sonra ödenmesinin taahhüt edilmesi şeklinde tarif edilen isticrâr akdi, İslam hukuk ekolleri tarafından (...) tartışılmıştır. Bu tartışmalar genellikle akdin sıhhat ve kuruluş unsurlarını taşıyıp taşımaması etrafında gerçekleşirken Hanefi fukahası, isticrâr yoluyla yapılan alışveriş işlemlerinin insanlar tarafından sıkça yapıldığını göz önünde bulundurarak bu akdin istihsan yoluyla caiz görülmesi gerektiği kanaatine varmışlardır. Diğer mezheplerde de bu akde benzer gerekçelerle olumlu yaklaşımların bulunduğunu görmekteyiz. Bu çalışmamızda günümüz kırsal kesimde uygulanan ve özellikle finans dünyasında uygulanmaya başlanan ve aynı isimle literatüre girer isticrâr akdini, mezheplerin görüşleri bağlamında değerlendirmeye çalışacağız. (shrink)
Keywords Islam - Comparative religion - Culture - Fundamentalism R. MICHAEL FEENER, ed., Islam in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives. Oxford, UK: ABC-CLIO, 2004, 387pp., ISBN: 978-1576075166, hb.