In this article the author holds that progress in philosophy is a vague concept. Its criteria are not universally acknowledged. All that is clear is that philosophy does not develop in a linear way. Philosophy is polydiscoursive. As for the past fifty years, the author believes three important things happened in philosophy. (1) It has been shown that consciousness exists not within one individual but spreads within a community of people; (2) philosophy has discovered autism, a result that helps us (...) to understand a human being as neither a biological nor a social individual but a third thing—a dreaming being who is not only asocial but also tongueless, where speech and consciousness are separated; and (3) contemporary philosophy has learned to distinguish between sign and symbol. And it has been realized that the human mind is neither an instinct nor a computer but an objectified suffering, a transformed emotion. (shrink)
This edition contains the correspondence between Paul Tillich and his friend Fedor Stepun, a sociologist and philosopher of religion. Tillich and Stepun had been colleagues at Technische Universität Dresden in the mid 1920s. The correspondence covers the period between 1934 and 1964. The early letters address the situation in Germany during the onset of National Socialism: the so-called Röhm-Putsch, the Kirchenkampf, the institutional changes in the university system and, later, the dismissal of Stepun as professor in Dresden in 1937. (...) After a hiatus of several years, the correspondence continues in 1946. The correspondence shows the search for a new positioning in the postwar years, from the perspective of the émigré Paul Tillich and Stepun, the expert on Russia, who from Munich observed the political developments of the Cold War with great concern. Stepun consistently proves an acute critic of the political theologian Paul Tillich. In particular, Tillich's Christology and his program of religious socialism met with his friend's fierce criticism. (shrink)
I interpret Dostoevskij’s religious concepts in terms of mythogenesis and mythopoesis. Dostoevskij’s religious concepts arose on the basis both of his personal emotional experience and of the discourse of popular Orthodoxy. They demonstrate the antinomial nature of Russian spirituality, and are typified by his conception of the family, which illustrates the communal basis of the individual personality. The antimomial idea of the family is most fully developed in Dostoevskij’s novel The Brothers Karamazov, in which the four models of fatherhood correspond (...) to Isaac the Syrian’s concepts of physical, spiritual, mental and divine fatherhood. (shrink)
In _Essentialität und Notwendigkeit: Avicenna und die Aristotelische Tradition_ stellt Fedor Benevich Avicennas Theorie der Essenz und der wissenschaftlichen Bestimmung essentieller und notwendiger Attribute in einem historischen Kontext der aristotelischen Tradition. In _Essentialität und Notwendigkeit: Avicenna und die Aristotelische Tradition_ Fedor Benevich presents Avicenna’s theory of essence and the scientific determination of essential and necessary attributes in its historical context of the Aristotelian tradition.
The aim of this paper is to explore the interaction between a tradition that belongs originally to the realm of orthodox contemplative monasticism (i.e., hesychasm) and nineteenth-and early twentieth-century Russian intellectuals. In the first part, this paper will explore how hesychasm gradually penetrated nineteenthcentury secular culture; a special focus will be on the hermitage of Optina Pustyn' and its renowned elders, as well as their appeal to members of the Optina-intelligentsia, especially Fëdor Dostoevskij. Then, attention will shift to the imjaslavie (...) controversy at the beginning of the twentieth century, which flared up initially as a dispute between Athonite monks and reached a sad culmination in 1912-1913 with a manu militari intervention by troops of the Russian Holy Synod. However, the debate was taken up by some prominent intellectuals of the Russian religious renaissance, such as Pavel Florenskij, Nikolaj Berdjaev, and Sergej Bulgakov, who explicitly sided with the imjaslavcy ("Glorifiers of the Name") and actively stepped into the debate. (shrink)
Anticipating Mikhail Bakhtin’s appreciation for the unfinalizability of Fedor Dostoevskij’s universe, prominent Protestant theologian Karl Barth celebrates the Russian novelist’s presentation of “the impenetrable ambiguity of human life” characteristic of both the ending of Dostoevsky’s novels and Paul’s Epistle to the Romans. Barth’s unique reading of The Brothers Karamazov not only demonstrates the barrenness of the “theocratic dream” but also complements Bakhtin’s discussion of polyphony with an explicitly theological dimension by focusing on the dialogue between Creator and the created. (...) Dostoevsky’s prophetic voice provides Barth with a poetic expression of the divine command that highlights the ethical dimension inherent in every theological choice. (shrink)
The concept of retroactive apparent occurrence, the main ingredient of Wheeler's delayed-choice thought experiments, is systematically incorporated into the quantum theory of measurement (in the framework of the recent review of Busch, Lahti, and Mittelstaedt). Besides, the (general) notion of individual-system measurement is introduced, and, due to it, premeasurement is defined by a truly minimal condition. Finally, retroactive apparent occurrence is made use of to derive apparent objectification in measurement. The derivation is discussed in the framework of the quantum mechanical (...) approach to the objectification problem. (shrink)
Anticipating Mikhail Bakhtin's appreciation for the unfinalizability of Fedor Dostoevskij's universe, prominent Protestant theologian Karl Barth celebrates the Russian novelist's presentation of "the impenetrable ambiguity of human life" characteristic of both the ending of Dostoevsky's novels and Paul's Epistle to the Romans. Barth's unique reading of "The Brothers Karamazov" not only demonstrates the barrenness of the "theocratic dream" but also complements Bakhtin's discussion of polyphony with an explicitly theological dimension by focusing on the dialogue between Creator and the created. (...) Dostoevsky's prophetic voice provides Barth with a poetic expression of the divine command that highlights the ethical dimension inherent in every theological choice. (shrink)
In the article the trends of national industrial enterprises development are investigated. The problems of innovative development of domestic industry are identified based on state industrial development concept. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the management policy of industrial enterprises personnel quantity and quality dates. The processes of the personnel decreases invariably accompanied by a number of organizational and technical issues that will determine new requirements for the organization of internal management model of enterprise environment. Considered and analyzed (...) organizational and administrative activities of increasing professional and technical potential of personnel stuff. The paper proposes the ways to improve effectiveness of personnel stuff policy based on the current terms of international industrial market. The author refined the professional competences model structure of industrial enterprises staff. Consider the structure of complex events management personnel structure and the ways of their further development and implementation. (shrink)
The article attempts to explain the difficulty of systematization of philosophical categories. Philosophical categories are defined as common forms of cognitive and world view attitude of the man to the nature, society and his own existence. The article also analyses basic approaches to the process of creating the system of philosophical categories in the history of philosophical thought. The review of the major historical phases of philosophical interpretation of categories allows to state the existence of the problematic issue connected with (...) forming the system of categories. A lot of attempts have been undertaken on this subject. All of them were found controversial. It can be explained by the fact that all the attempts to systematize categories contradict the following principles - if categories are universal reflection forms of objective characteristics of existence, then their hierarchy must be the reflection of these characteristics’ hierarchy. But it is impossible to imagine that the "hierarchy" principle operates in the system of being, because the objective world is organized rather on the principle of "equality" than "subordination". The article addresses functional and developmental characteristics of philosophical categories. The article gives the author`s understanding of the concept of "philosophical categories". (shrink)
The degree-of-presence concept, accompanying that of the wavefunction-reality postulate, is introduced and studied in two ways. To begin with, an incomplete exposition of the present author's views is given. Subsequently, a short historical and philosophical review of answers to the question about the meaning of indeterminate individual-system probabilities is presented from the literature. It is done in the form of a carefully selected collage of quotations mostly with polemic comments by the present author and with further elaboration of his point (...) of view. The advocated notion of ‘degree of presence’ generalizes the intuitively most easily acceptable idea of ‘delocalization’ in wavelike behavior of a quantum system. (shrink)
The objective of this article is to present and analyze some theses advanced in "Lectures 3"1 by Paul Ricoeur. The book is devoted to the boundaries of philosophy, to non-philosophical sources of philosophy and finally to the other par excellence of philosophy - to religion. The book is composed of a series of essays divided thematically into three parts. The first part deals with Kant's and Hegel's philosophy of religion. Then in the course of the book the author gradually moves (...) away from the philosophical logos to arrive at a point where recourse to the exegesis of the Bible becomes for him indispensable. (shrink)
The five selections in this issue deal with some of the most important and widely known Russian religious thinkers of the nineteenth century. Although this is not pointed out in any of the selections, it is an interesting fact that some of these thinkers were personally acquainted and discussed their ideas with each other. In the last few years of his life Fedor Dostoevsky was friends with young Vladimir Solov'ev and they discussed not only their own ideas but also (...) those of Nikolai Fedorov. Although Fedorov had not published anything on his project of resurrection, both Solov'ev and Lev Tolstoy were well acquainted with his ideas through conversations with him at the Rumiantsev library, where Fedorov served as a librarian. They disagreed on basic issues and their discussions helped to define the differences between them. Some of the differences are mentioned in our selections. (shrink)
This book, focusing on the history of religious and political thinking in early modern Russia, demonstrates that Russia’s path toward enlightenment began long _before_ Peter the Great’s opening to the West. Examining a broad range of writings, G. M. Hamburg shows why Russia’s enlightenment constituted a precondition for the explosive emergence of nineteenth-century writers such as Fedor Dostoyevsky and Vladimir Soloviev.