_ Source: _Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 60 - 79 Studies from the West have reported a positive relationship between religion and mental health, and yet research on the relationship between religiosity and well-being among Chinese is rare. The present study investigated this relationship in a representative sample of Chinese college students. From a total sample of 11139 college students in 16 universities nationwide, 1418 students with self-reported religious beliefs were selected. We assessed religiosity, subjective well-being, psychological distress, and meaning (...) in life. In addition, qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 psychologically distressed and 10 non-distressed religious students. Results indicated that religiosity was associated with higher life satisfaction, a relationship partially mediated by meaning in life. Unexpectedly, religiosity was also associated with higher depressive and anxiety symptoms. Qualitative interviews revealed that distressed religious believers suffered from greater mental distress before becoming involved in religion, compared to non-distressed religious students. (shrink)
Memristive system with infinitely many equilibrium points has attracted much attention for the generation of extreme multistability, whose initial-dependent dynamics can be interpreted in a reduced-order model through incremental integral transformation of state variables. But, the memristive system with any extra nonlinear terms besides the memristor ones cannot be handled directly using this method. In addition, the transformed state variables could be divergent due to the asymmetry of the original system. To solve these problems, a hybrid state variable incremental integral (...) method is proposed in this paper. With this method, the extreme multistability in a four-dimensional memristive jerk system with cubic nonlinearity is successfully reconstituted in a three-dimensional model and the divergent state variables are eliminated through ingenious linear state variable mapping. Thus, mechanism analysis and physical control of the special extreme multistability can readily be performed. A hardware circuit is finally designed and fabricated, and the theoretical and numerical results are verified by the experimental measurements. It is demonstrated that this HSVII method is effective for the analysis of multistable system with high-order nonlinearities. (shrink)
Di 1 juan. San song tang zi xu -- di 2-3 juan. Zhongguo zhe xue shi -- di 4-5 juan. Zhen yuan liu shu -- di 6 juan. Zhongguo zhe xue jian shi [translation of Short history of Chinese philosophy] -- di 7-9 juan. Zhongguo zhe xue shi xin bian -- di 10 juan. Zhe xue lun wen ji.
The existence of the Dao 道(the Way), according to the Yizhuan 易传 (the Commentary), is something intangible. The connotation of the Dao is the law of change caused by the interaction between yin and yang. The main functions of the Dao are "to change" and "to generate". The intangible refers to the law of change caused by the interaction between yin and yang, and the law is expressed by the divinatory symbolic system (卦爻符号, the trigrams or hexagrams). It (...) is through the unique permutation of yin and yang lines of a trigram or hexagram that the law of change is explained as a universal model uniting celestial, terrestrial and human laws. The symbolic system is used to express the universal nature of continual generation of life. (shrink)
It is largely acknowledged that natural languages emerge not just from human brains but also from rich communities of interacting human brains (Senghas, ). Yet the precise role of such communities and such interaction in the emergence of core properties of language has largely gone uninvestigated in naturally emerging systems, leaving the few existing computational investigations of this issue at an artificial setting. Here, we take a step toward investigating the precise role of community structure in the emergence of linguistic (...) conventions with both naturalistic empirical data and computational modeling. We first show conventionalization of lexicons in two different classes of naturally emerging signed systems: (a) protolinguistic “homesigns” invented by linguistically isolated Deaf individuals, and (b) a natural sign language emerging in a recently formed rich Deaf community. We find that the latter conventionalized faster than the former. Second, we model conventionalization as a population of interacting individuals who adjust their probability of sign use in response to other individuals' actual sign use, following an independently motivated model of language learning (Yang, , ). Simulations suggest that a richer social network, like that of natural (signed) languages, conventionalizes faster than a sparser social network, like that of homesign systems. We discuss our behavioral and computational results in light of other work on language emergence, and other work of behavior on complex networks. (shrink)
No one denies the importance of applying knowledge to actions. But claiming identity (unity) of knowledge and action is quite another thing. There seem to be two problems with the claim: (1) the identity claim implies that the sole cause for one to fail to act on what one judges to be right is ignorance, but it is obviously false that the sole cause of failure in moral actions is ignorance. (2) The identity statement implies non-separation of knowledge and action. (...) But knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. However, the identity of knowledge and action is what a famous Ming Confucian scholar, W ang Yang-ming, proposed and the concept became the central doctrine of his teaching. Though there are several major interpretations of Wang’s doctrine in contemporary literature, it is not clear to me how they deal with the above mentioned difficulties. In this article, I will discuss these interpretations of the doctrine and propose a new interpretation. My purpose is to give an interpretation of Wang’s doctrine that has the capacity of dealing with these challenges to the doctrine and also captures the essence of his teaching. (shrink)
Related Works: Part II: C. T. Chong, Yue Yang. $\Sigma_2$ Induction and Infinite Injury Priority Argument, Part II: Tame $\Sigma_2$ Coding and the Jump Operator. Ann. Pure Appl. Logic, vol. 87, no. 2, 103--116. Mathematical Reviews : MR1490049 Part III: C. T. Chong, Lei Qian, Theodore A. Slaman, Yue Yang. $\Sigma_2$ Induction and Infinite Injury Priority Argument, Part III: Prompt Sets, Minimal Paries and Shoenfield's Conjecture. Mathematical Reviews : MR1818378.