A large number of studies demonstrated that major depressive disorder is characterized by the alterations in brain functional connections which is also identifiable during the brain’s “resting-state.” But, in the present study, the approach of constructing functional connectivity is often biased by the choice of the threshold. Besides, more attention was paid to the number and length of links in brain networks, and the clustering partitioning of nodes was unclear. Therefore, minimum spanning tree analysis and the hierarchical clustering were first (...) used for the depression disease in this study. Resting-state electroencephalogram sources were assessed from 15 healthy and 23 major depressive subjects. Then the coherence, MST, and the hierarchical clustering were obtained. In the theta band, coherence analysis showed that the EEG coherence of the MDD patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy controls especially in the left temporal region. The MST results indicated the higher leaf fraction in the depressed group. Compared with the normal group, the major depressive patients lost clustering in frontal regions. Our findings suggested that there was a stronger brain interaction in the MDD group and a left-right functional imbalance in the frontal regions for MDD controls. (shrink)
With significant development of sensors and Internet of things, researchers nowadays can easily know what happens in physical space by acquiring time-varying values of various factors. Essentially, growing data category and size greatly contribute to solve problems happened in physical space. In this paper, we aim to solve a complex problem that affects both cities and villages, i.e., flood. To reduce impacts induced by floods, hydrological factors acquired from physical space and data-driven models in cyber space have been adopted to (...) accurately forecast floods. Considering the significance of modeling attention capability among hydrology factors, we believe extraction of discriminative hydrology factors not only reflect natural rules in physical space, but also optimally model iterations of factors to forecast run-off values in cyber space. Therefore, we propose a novel data-driven model named as STA-LSTM by integrating Long Short-Term Memory structure and spatiotemporal attention module, which is capable of forecasting floods for small- and medium-sized rivers. The proposed spatiotemporal attention module firstly explores spatial relationship between input hydrological factors from different locations and run-off outputs, which assigns time-varying weights to various factors. Afterwards, the proposed attention module allocates temporal-dependent weights to hidden output of each LSTM cell, which describes significance of state output for final forecasting results. Taking Lech and Changhua river basins as cases of physical space, several groups of comparative experiments show that STA-LSTM is capable to optimize complexity of mathematically modeling floods in cyber space. (shrink)
The rapid developments in sensor technology and mobile devices bring a flourish of social images, and large-scale social images have attracted increasing attention to researchers. Existing approaches generally rely on recognizing object instances individually with geo-tags, visual patterns, etc. However, the social image represents a web of interconnected relations; these relations between entities carry semantic meaning and help a viewer differentiate between instances of a substance. This article forms the perspective of the spatial relationship to exploring the joint learning of (...) social images. Precisely, the model consists of three parts: a module for deep semantic understanding of images based on residual network ; a deep semantic analysis module of text beyond traditional word bag methods; a joint reasoning module from which the text weights obtained using image features on self-attention and a novel tree-based clustering algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using Flickr30k and Microsoft COCO datasets. Meanwhile, our method considers spatial relations while matching. (shrink)
Tight sands have pore systems with complex structures and widely distributed pore sizes. We have studied the characteristics of these pore systems to better understand their important role in the accumulation and migration mechanisms of oil and gas reservoirs, which may enhance our ability to evaluate reservoir quality and predict reservoir production. To this end, we carried out thin-section analysis, scanning electron microscopy, pressure-controlled porosimetry, and rate-controlled porosimetry to describe the pore systems of a typical tight-sand reservoir in East Asia. (...) We improved a differential-distribution-based splicing method to reveal the full-scale pore systems using PCP and RCP. We found that the typical pore radius distribution in our target reservoir exhibits two peaks: at radius [Formula: see text] and at radius [Formula: see text]. Based on pore shapes and connections, intergranular pores are network structures and clay-host pores are tree-like structures. Intragranular pores, in contrast, can be different structures under different conditions. If wide throats are present, intragranular pores function as typical tree-like pores; if throats are narrow, they serve as the pore parts of a network-pore system. Network pores are the primary contributors to porosity and permeability, whereas tree-like pores mainly contribute to porosity. In some high-clay sands, however, the tree-like pores may also contribute to permeability. Based on their fractal characteristics, we divided the pore systems of tight sands into three types: a network-structure-controlled intergranular pore system, a tree-like-structure-controlled clay-host pore system, and a network-structure-controlled intergranular-intragranular pore system. (shrink)
Data envelopment analysis has proven to be a powerful technique for assessing the relative performance of a set of homogeneous decision-making units. A critical feature of conventional DEA approaches is that only one or several sets of optimal virtual weights are used to aggregate the ratio performance efficiencies, and thus, the efficiency scores might be too extreme or even unrealistic. Alternatively, this paper aims at developing a new performance dominance probability approach and applying it to analyze the banking operations in (...) China. Towards that purpose, we first propose an extended eco-inefficiency model based on the DEA methodology to address banking activities and their possible relative performances. Since the eco-inefficiency will be obtained using a set of optimal weights, we further build a performance dominance structure by considering all sets of feasible weights from a data-driven perspective. Then, we develop two pairwise eco-inefficiency dominance concepts and propose the inefficiency dominance probability model. Finally, we illustrate the eco-inefficiency dominance probability approach with 32 Chinese listed banks from 2014 to 2018 to demonstrate the usefulness and efficacy of the proposed method. (shrink)
A pathogenic connection between autoreactive T cells, fungal infection, and carcinogenesis has been demonstrated in studies of human autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy as well as in a mouse model in which kinase-dead Ikkα knock-in mice develop impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cell–mediated autoimmunity, chronic fungal infection, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which recapitulates APECED. IκB kinase α is one subunit of the IKK complex required for NF-κB activation. IKK/NF-κB is essential for central tolerance establishment by regulating the development of medullary thymic (...) epithelial cells that facilitate the deletion of autoreactive T cells in the thymus. In this review, we extensively discuss the pathogenic roles of inborn errors in the IKK/NF-κB loci in the phenotypically related diseases APECED, immune deficiency syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency; differentiate how IKK/NF-κB components, through mTEC, T cells/leukocytes, or epithelial cells, contribute to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer; and highlight the medical significance of IKK/NF-κB in these diseases. IKK/NF-κB regulates the expression of many genes that encode proteins involved in many crucial biological functions, such as immunity, tissue homeostasis, and fungal/bacterial/viral infections. Also, IKKα plays anti-tumor activities in many organs independently of NF-κB pathways. Thus, an inborn error in one of these gene loci can cause severe human diseases through these complicated mechanisms. (shrink)
Soft-sensor technology plays a vital role in tracking and monitoring the key production indicators of the grinding and classifying process. Least squares support vector machine, as a soft-sensor model with strong generalization ability, can be used to predict key production indicators in complex grinding processes. The traditional crossvalidation method cannot obtain the ideal structure parameters of LSSVM. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of LSSVM, a golden sine Harris Hawk optimization algorithm was proposed to optimize the structure parameters of (...) LSSVM models with linear kernel, sigmoid kernel, polynomial kernel, and radial basis kernel, and the influences of GSHHO algorithm on the prediction accuracy under these LSSVM models were studied. In order to deal with the problem that the prediction accuracy of the model decreases due to changes of industrial status, this paper adopts moving window strategy to adaptively revise the LSSVM, which greatly improves the prediction accuracy of the LSSVM. The prediction accuracy of the regularized extreme learning machine with MW strategy is higher than that of MW-LSSVM at some moments. Based on the training errors of LSSVM and RELM within the window, this paper proposes an adaptive hybrid soft-sensing model that switches between LSSVM and RELM. Compared with the previous MW-LSSVM, MW-neural network trained with extended Kalman filter, and MW-RELM, the prediction accuracy of the hybrid model is further improved. Simulation results show that the proposed hybrid adaptive soft-sensor model has good generalization ability and prediction accuracy. (shrink)
Di 1 juan. San song tang zi xu -- di 2-3 juan. Zhongguo zhe xue shi -- di 4-5 juan. Zhen yuan liu shu -- di 6 juan. Zhongguo zhe xue jian shi [translation of Short history of Chinese philosophy] -- di 7-9 juan. Zhongguo zhe xue shi xin bian -- di 10 juan. Zhe xue lun wen ji.
Feng Youlan , auteur d’une célèbre Histoire de la philosophie chinoise , a voulu refonder le néoconfucianisme de Zhu Xi en l’accordant à la philosophie analytique. Son Traité de l’Homme est une phénoménologie de la conscience individuelle, décrite dans chacune des quatre étapes de son ascension vers la sainteté : la conscience naturelle, forme originelle de l’être-au-monde, immédiatement présent au réel sans conscience de soi ; la conscience intéressée, qui se distancie du réel par un calcul de conduite en (...) vue d’un bonheur égoïste ; la conscience morale, naissant d’une prise de conscience de soi comme être-avec-autrui, qui cultive l’altruisme ; la conscience cosmique, celle du Saint qui a compris les raisons de toute chose et communie à la Voie du Ciel . L’un des penseurs chinois les plus subtils du siècle dernier, Feng Youlan a été décrédibilisé par sa tonitruante conversion au maoïsme en 1949.Feng Youlan is the author of a famous History of Chinese Philosophy translated by Derk Bodde in 1937 and 1953 . He attempted to breathe new life into the Neo-Confucianism of Zhu Xi by bringing it into harmony with analytic philosophy. His Essay on Man is a phenomenology of individual consciousness as it rises to saintliness through four stages : natural consciousness, the primary form of existence in which the mind is immediately aware of the objective world, but without self-consciousness ; selfish consciousness, rising above the objective world by calculation, following the quest of self-happiness ; moral consciousness, born from the consciousness of oneself as a social being and developing altruism ; cosmic consciousness, reaching saintliness through the understanding of the truth of everything and uniting oneself with the Way of Heaven . Feng Youlan was one of the most outstanding Chinese philosophers of the last century who, however, lost credibility after his well-publicized conversion to Maoism in 1949. (shrink)
Jian Zhou,* Weiqiang Ju,* Xiaopeng Yuan, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dongping Wang, Xiaoshun HeOrgan Transplant Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work: Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma is a serious, rare complication induced by methylprednisolone pulse therapy for acute rejection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 58-year-old woman who experienced acute rejection at 30 months after OLT, only one case in which HNKHC resulted in MP (...) pulse therapy for acute rejection in all 913 recipients in our center. The general morbidity of HNKHC was 1.09‰ in this study. HNKHC is characterized by rapid onset, rapid progression, and a lack of specific clinical manifestations. High-dose MP management was a clear risk factor. The principle of treatment included rapid rehydration, low-dose insulin infusion, and correcting disorders of electrolytes and acidosis. In conclusion, clinicians considering MP pulse therapy after OLT should be alert to the occurrence of HNKHC. Keywords: liver transplantation, complications, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma, methylprednisolone pulse therapy, principle of treatment. (shrink)
The formation of the discourse of Neo-Confucianism 1 in the Song period was a result of the interactions between many social and cultural trends. In the development of the Neo-Confucian discourse, the Cheng brothers (Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi) played key roles with their charismatic thoughts and impelling personalities, while Zhu Xi pushed Neo-Confucian thought and discourse to a pinnacle with his broad knowledge and precise reasoning. In the warm discussions and debates between different schools and thoughts, the Neo-Confucian discourse (...) proceeded towards completion and perfection, and evolved as contemporary topics and thinking modes changed. The essay argues that “ ding xing 定性 (stilling the nature)” was an important Neo-Confucian topic during the Song period. The doctrine of “stilling the nature” involves much central Neo-Confucian discourse such as the definition of xing 性 (human nature), the interior and exterior aspects of human nature, nature and qing 情 (feelings, sentiments), nature and xin 心 (mind, heart), nature and ren 仁 (benevolence, humanity, humaneness) and yi 义 (righteousness), nature and shi 事 (affair) or wu 物 (thing, object), the practice of preservation and cultivation, etc. Therefore, an examination of the formation, development and evolution of Neo-Confucianism is of great importance to the study of its early history. (shrink)
Important objections are raised by Steven Burik in his comment on Rui Zhu's response to Rorty and MacIntyre. We will try to address them without proceeding in an eristic, point-by-point manner. In general, it seems that at least some of Burik's objections are based on his misreading of Zhu's response. Burik is not to blame, however. Zhu's response was short and many of the points made there were not sufficiently explained or developed. By way of his generous commentary Burik has (...) provided us a much needed opportunity to offer some remedies.A key distinction in Zhu's response was its reference to comparative philosophy as a form of intercultural studies and as philosophy. The former compares philosophies and the... (shrink)
Despite the fact that Chan, especially koan Chan is highly unconventional and perplexing, there are still some principles with which to interpret and appreciate the practice. Each of the five houses or lineages of Chan has its idiosyncratic hermeneutic rules. The Linji House has Linji si liao jian, si bin zhu and si zhao yong among others while the Yunmen House follows Yumen san ju as one of its house rules. Moreover, there is a general inner logic that seems to (...) apply to understanding Chan encounters across lineages. The opportune moment (Chan Ji) of responding swiftly and skillfully and yet always grounding oneself in the openness and flow of the mind highlights the inner logic of the cognition and behavior of Chan Buddhists. This paper attempts to read koans from The Blue Cliff Record in the light of Chan Buddhist hermeneutics. Some aspects and patterns of Chan encounters may appear as rituals that serve either as a provisional means for common people or as an embodiment of enlightened behaviors. Routinized ritualization of Chan life, however, runs counter to the fundamental spirit of freedom and spontaneity of Chan way of life. Much can and needs to be elucidated about the mystified koan Chan experience before we finally resort to the transpersonal experience of noble silence. (shrink)
In a speech at a meeting of cadres in Xinjiang in the latter part of April , Comrade Wang Feng spoke, among other subjects, about the all-around implementation of the Party's policies on religion.
Feng Youlan emphasizes the concept of “creativity” in his article “Explanation of Mencius’ Chapter on Strong, Moving Vital Force”, in particular highlighting the problem whether the “ strong, moving vital force” is “innate” or “acquired”. Cheng Hao and Zhu Xi believed the “ strong, moving vital force” was endowed by Heaven, so was therefore innate; “nourishment” cleared fog and allowed one to “recover one’s original nature”. Mencius’ theory on “the good of human nature” is illustrated in the concept of (...) integrated “original endowment”. So Cheng Hao and Zhu Xi’s theory of “recovering the original nature” proposed that the “ strong, moving vital force” was innate, which is in complete agreement with Mencius and of which there is ample evidence in Mencius. However, “nature” is “created by the accumulation of righteousness”. Namely, it is the completion and presentation of the process of creation and transformation of human beings. Only when we consider both Cheng Hao and Zhu Xi’s theory and Feng Youlan’s theory can we fully understand Mencius’ theory of “the nourishment of the strong, moving vital force”, which is of great theoretical and academic value in accurately understanding Mencius and the Confucian theory of mind-nature. (shrink)
Zhu Xi was familiar with Buddhism in youth. After devoting himself to Confucianism at age 30, he became critical of Buddhism. The author shows that Zhu Xi made two basic criticisms of Chinese Buddhism: He criticized, first, that many of the Chinese Buddhist sutras were forged texts, not based on Sanskrit originals, and that the basic Chinese Buddhist concepts were incoherent. However, Zhu Xi hadn’t fully mastered Buddhist history or thought.