ABSTRACTEvaluative Conditioning is commonly defined as the change in liking of a stimulus due to its pairings with an affective unconditioned stimulus. In Experiment 1, we investigated effects of repeated stimulus pairings on affective responses, i.e. valence and arousal ratings, pupil size, and duration estimation. After repeatedly pairing the CSs with affective USs, a consistent pattern of affective responses emerged: The CSnegative was rated as being more negative and more arousing, resulted in larger pupils, and was temporally overestimated compared to (...) the CSneutral. In Experiment 2, the influence of a mere instruction about the contingency between a CS and US on affective responses was examined. After mere instruction about upcoming pairings between the CS and US, subjective ratings also changed, but there was neither evidence for differential pupillary responses nor for differential temporal processing. The results indicate that EC via pairings or instructions ca... (shrink)
Race is not a scientific category, but African Americans have increased prevalence and severity of heart failure. The African American Heart Failure trial showed the benefit of a combination of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine . Future research may unmask the reason for cardiovascular differences in therapy.
This essay reconstructs the main lines of Ferdinand Tönnies’ critical approach to the thought of Hobbes and Spinoza. Specifically it shows the role played by the two philosophers in developing the categories of community and society. From the stand point of political thought, the essay reveals how Tönnies’ on going interpretation of Hobbes focuses more and more on the constitutive moment of the modern form of State. In this area it draws on Spinoza’s reflections on democracy as an absolutum (...) omnino imperium. Tönnies is thus able to distinguish conceptually between the Hobbesian State, as a “society” that absorbs all natural law, and its natural law origin, where we find a “common” element that can never be entirely neutralized by the State. (shrink)
Among the founders of classical German sociology, Ferdinand Tonnies is still relatively neglected. Many reasons are given, but the most widespread and the most damning is that Tonnies is a pessimist who wished, in the face of modernity, to return to the supposed Golden Age of rural Germany, when the community, ruled by patriarchs, gathered on the land. This interpretation is fundamentally flawed: although Tonnies wanted to describe the rootless, ruthless, calculating individuals of modern society, he wished to recall (...) the past primarily in order to develop a blueprint for the future, in which the so-called feminine traits of conscience, empathy, and care would govern the community. Rather than yearning for the past, Tonnies was a utopian who had a vision of the future and tried to make it a reality. (shrink)
This article presents a decades-long conflict in the upper echelons of postwar French academic philosophy between the self-identifying “Cartesian” Ferdinand Alquié, professor at the Sorbonne, and the “Spinozist” Martial Gueroult of the Collège de France. Tracking the development of this rivalry serves to illuminate the historical drama that occurred in France as phenomenology was integrated into the Cartesian tradition and resisted by a commitment to rationalism grounded in a specifically French understanding of Spinozism. Over the course of Alquié and (...) Gueroult's polemic, however, we nevertheless witness a shared concern to preserve philosophy from the reductive tendencies of historicism and its possible assimilation to theology. What is more, the ultimate impasse of this conflict continues to inform the most innovative projects in French thought in the wake of structuralism and the “theological turn” of French phenomenology. (shrink)
The romantic influences behind Ferdinand Tönnies's work, Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft [Community and society] (1887), though significant, have been largely obscured due, on the one hand, to the disrepute into which iticism as a philosophical and political movement fell after 1945 and, on the other, to Tönnies's own ambivalence towards the movement and the period. Here we explore the impact of iticism on the revaluation of sentiment, critiques of rationalism in economics and law, the legitimacy of authority, conceptions of the (...) will, and on the organic interpretations of society, history, and language, particularly on the notions of Gemeinwesen (commonwealth) and Gemeinschaft (community). (shrink)
In 1946 Ferdinand Gonseth founded, together with Paul Bernays, Karl Dürr, and Sir Karl Popper, the International Society for Logic and Philosophy of Science. In the next year the first number of Dialectica, a philosophical review devoted mainly to epistemological subjects, was issued. Gonseth's bibliography presents more than 190 items — roughly 25 books, several prefaces, and, for the rest, papers published in numerous reviews. A good deal of his publications concern mathematics — he was appointed professor of mathematics (...) first in Berne and then in Zurich at the well‐known Swiss Federal Institute of Technology — but he has never completely separated his mathematical activities from his philosophical work. (shrink)
Ferdinand T nnies' Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, a work of global import and condensate of the history of ideas, was much influenced by the philosopher Friedrich Paulsen. The study of their friendship shows how these intellectuals chose to adopt and adapt paradigms of the European legacy—rationalism and empiricism on the one hand, rationalism and romantic historicism on the other—in achieving creative idiosyncratic syntheses of idealistic monism. Beyond the shared scientific agenda of monism, they were convinced of the vocation of intellectuals (...) in social legislation, which Paulsen pursued through pedagogy, while T nnies became a social activist. Their interest in forms of socialism, romanticism and pessimism had varying consequences due to the differences in temperament between the political realist Paulsen, whose choices were more expedient for career advancement, and the political idealist T nnies. Their relationship is an instance of the specific rapport that T nnies characterises as intellectual friendship. (shrink)
RésuméL'auteur analyse la conception de la méthode dialectique chez Gaston Bachelard et Ferdinand Gonseth qui est à L'origine de la «philosophie ouverte». Lorsqu'il s'est agi de donner un nom à la revue qu'ils allaient fonder avec Paul Bernays, le choix s'est porté sur celui de Dialectica, en accord avec L'orientation qu'ils comptaient donner à leurs publications.SummaryThe author describes Gaston Bachelard's and Ferdinand Gonseth's dialectical method which is at the origin of their so‐called open philosophy. When faced with the (...) task of giving a name to a planned review, edited together with Paul Bernays, they settled their choice on Dialectica in order to announce the orientation of the future publications.ZusammenfassungEs werden Gaston Bachelards und Ferdinand Gonseths Auffassungen der dialektischen Methode dargelegt, die zur Entwicklung der «offenen Philosophie» geführt hat. Die Tatsache, dass sich die beiden Philosophen, die gemeinsam mit Paul Bernays Dialectica gegründet haben, über die Vorzüge dieser Methode einig waren, hat für die Wahl des Namens der Zeitschrift den Ausschlag gegeben. (shrink)
Le but de cet article est d'analyser l'influence de la réflexion épistémologique et philosophique de Ferdinand Gonseth dans la pensée de Gaston Bachelard à deux niveaux différents: d'une part, au niveau des citations directes des textes et des notions gonséthiennes par Bachelard et, d'autre part, au niveau de l'accord entre les deux pensées sur des thèses centrales—accord qui fait soupçonner une influence de Gonseth sur Bachelard ou une identité de leurs points de vues. On conclut en rappelant la notion (...) de «subjectivité quelconque» suggérée à Bachelard par l'idée gonséthienne de «logique comme physique de l'objet quelconque» et en cherchant à saisir les différences entre la notion bachelardienne de «sujet quelconque» et l'homo phenomenologicus de Gonseth. On peut définir les épistémologies de Bachelard et de Gonseth comme deux phénoménologies de l'homme de science: c'est la caractéristique fondamentale qui les unit. (shrink)
Résumé – Dans l'œuvre de Ferdinand Gonseth, on voit culminer le désir de rapprocher, dans leurs objectifs et dans leurs méthodes, le philosophe et le savant.Cette idée méme a guidé, compte tenu des exigences historiques, les développements qui précèdent.Après un parcours rapide, évoquant les vingt premières années de Dialectics, le rôle scientifique joué dans cet imposant répertoire par son fondateur, rôle fortement accru par ses livres, on trouvera done une enquête sur des thèmes favoris dont l'intérêt s'est confirmé, et (...) dont les objets ont une haute valeur, pour qui voudrait analyser les courants de pensée capables d'enrichir la philosophie scientifique et d'affecter utilement le proche avenir de Dialectica. (shrink)
O pensamento dialógico e relacional, que se desenvolveu nas primeiras décadas do século XX, representa, certamente, um dos mais fecundos itinerários reflexivos em condições de acolher e definir a estrutura do antropológico. Ferdinand Ebner é um dos principais expoentes, embora seu pensamento ainda não seja plenamente conhecido. O ensaio aprofunda a relação Eu-Tu e suas articulações que, sendo central na reflexão de Ebner, pode oferecer elementos úteis à estruturação de uma ontologia relacional em um contexto pósmetafísico. Palavras-chave: Ebner. Antropologia. (...) Pós-metafísica. Eu-Tu. (shrink)
Nobelprizewinner Ferdinand Braun worked as a teacher for three years (1874â1977) at the Leipzig Thomas School. In this time, essential for him, he developed his most important discovery: the effect of semiconductivity. Furthermore he demonstrated his pedagogical talent as a teacher and wrote an approval, popularized book for young people. The experiences of that time had a influence upon his future work.
Summary Ferdinand von Mueller (1825?96), the German-born Government Botanist of Victoria from 1853 until his death, and concurrently Director of the Melbourne Botanic Garden from 1857 until 1873, was a prolific systematic botanist, but also heavily involved in public educational activities. He conceived of the Garden as an educative place of recreation, but ultimately lost control over it. His loss did not stop his popular writing and lecturing, especially in areas related to the application of botany in horticulture, agriculture, (...) and forestry. The structure of his introductory school text?very different from the intensely logical grammar-like botany texts of the period?owed much to his political masters, but it is characterized by careful attention to language and locality. Mueller's work represents a consistent and pervasive example of attention to the ?public understanding of science? that resonates with the concerns of early twenty-first-century funders of scientific research. (shrink)
Ferdinand Tönnies, the founder of sociology, has been characterised as contributing to the ?destruction of reason,? although he viewed himself as a champion of Enlightenment with a social vocation. Here, we shall consider Tönnies?s discussion of the epistemological bases of what he called ?rationalism?: his theory of the state, based on the rationalism of Hobbes, and of society, based on the philosophers of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith and Hume; his implicit development of rationalist ethics and the positions he took (...) on Spinoza and Kant; and the relationship between his philosophy of history and that of his philosophical forebear, Adam Ferguson, who wrote in the age of bourgeois emancipation that marked the high Enlightenment. We shall conclude with reflections on the grounds on which Tönnies has been read as an opponent to rationalism and even as a foe of Enlightenment. (shrink)
Modern sociology emerged in part out of the milieu of ‘state socialists’ in imperial Germany. An exploration of the milieu and its discourses provides insights as to the sense of the founding work of German sociology, Ferdinand Tönnies’ Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, the political context in which historicist economics were transformed into sociology, explicit and implicit influences behind sociology in the writings of von Stein, Rodbertus, Wagner and Schmoller, the response of the ‘socialists of the lectern’ to Tönnies’ sociology, and (...) differing responses to the debate between the historicist human sciences and rational theory. (shrink)
Como Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, Werner Sombart, Georg Simmel y Vilfredo Pareto et al., Ferdinand Tönnies (1855-1936) perteneció a una generación de académicos que llegaron a ser los padres fundadores de la sociología moderna. Tönnies usó el contractualismo de Hobbes para concebir una concepción prop..
I offer a discussion of the criminological sociology of Ferdinand Tönnies (1855-1936). While Tönnies is generally well known for his theory of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, his elaborate contributions to the sociological study of crime have been almost entirely neglected in the history of sociology. Situated within Tönnies’ general theoretical perspective, I present the central themes of Tönnies’ study of crime and discuss its conceptual and methodological characteristics as a distinct approach in criminological sociology. I additionally center on the importance (...) of Tönnies’ criminological work for the reception and status of his sociological theory. I argue that the neglect of Tönnies’ crime studies has led to overlooking Tönnies’ aspiration to integrate sociological theory and empirical inquiry, which has contributed to misconstrue his unique conception of social order. (shrink)
SummaryThis article sheds light on intellectual politics under Nazism by looking at a crucial shift in the field of Hobbes studies that was marked in a congress celebrating the three hundred and fiftieth anniversary of Thomas Hobbes's birth, organised in Kiel, 1938. Before the congress, the decisive voice in Hobbes studies had for almost fifty years been that of Kiel University professor Ferdinand Tönnies. Tönnies was purged from the university upon the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 and died (...) three years later. At the opening of the Hobbes congress in Kiel, its convener, Cay von Brockdorff, declared that the phase of Hobbes studies shaped by Tönnies was ending and that a new phase, represented by Paul Ritterbusch and Carl Schmitt, had emerged. Against the background of a long tradition of Hobbes studies in Kiel, this article summarises Tönnies's contribution to Hobbes studies; analyses organisation and proceeedings of the congress, paying special attention to politico-theoretical disagreements between Ritterbusch and Schmitt and to von Brockdorff's exploitation of their rivalry; and contextualises Schmitt's interpretation of Hobbes published in the aftermath of the congress. (shrink)
Cet exposé comporte deux parties: la première rappelle comment Ferdinand Gonseth comprenait ce terme de Référentiel qu'il avait auparavant introduit. La deuxième s'efforcera de préciser quelque peu cette notion par une interprétation topologico‐dynamique.
King Ferdinand VII of Spain was often compared to the Ottoman sultan. It was a rhetorical operation that continued a tradition in Western Christendom by which Christian rulers were compared to oriental despots not because they were considered to be equal to them, but to show how far astray from the ideal of good government they were. This article examines the multiple dimensions of this comparison. To what extent was it a reaffirmation of the construction of the Turk as (...) a radical other? Or were there new essential elements, and therefore the metaphor of the Turk can also be interpreted within a new universalistic discourse that opposed tyrants to oppressed peoples across cultural and religious barriers? Our examination leads to a reflection on the transnational character of the discursive frameworks in which the metaphor of the Turk was built and rebuilt, on its circulation and limits, and on its specific uses. (shrink)
The Duchess of Malfi, a tragedy written by John Webster, makes frequent reference to contemporary Jacobean concerns about health and disease for dramatic effect. Most notably Webster chooses to highlight lycanthropy through the evolution of the condition in the character of Duke Ferdinand. This paper examines Webster's knowledge of contemporary medical, religious and political texts and explores the reflection of both a natural humoral understanding of lycanthropy as a disease, and the concurrent importance of supernatural concerns prevalent at the (...) time. Although Webster's choice to associate Duke Ferdinand with lycanthropy primarily serves a dramatic purpose, it is proposed that fictional works such as The Duchess of Malfi can be considered as important sources for the history of medicine since authors often reflect the contemporary understanding of health and disease from the world around them. (shrink)
Ferdinand Porsche is one of the most important European automotive pioneers. Everybody knows his famous cars like Austro Daimler ADR, Mercedes SSK, Steyr Austria, Auto Union-racing car type C or the world famous Beetle. He didn't start his career with petrol-cars. When he began working for the Royal Austrian Coach Factory Jakob Lohner & Co in 1900, he built electric and hybrid drive-cars. The Lohner-Porsche-cars had two engines in the front wheels. The electric motors were powered by batteries or (...) dynamos. After Porsche's leaving Lohner for Austro Daimler, he produced hybrid-trucks during World War I. In the World War II, he built hybrid-tanks. (shrink)
Ferdinand Gonseth n'a cessé d'approfondir sa conception de la fonction épistémologique dévolue à l'analogie dans le cadre de sa doctrine de l'"idonéisme". Cette recherche passa toujours par une appropriation critique de la phénoménologie. L'auteur examine ici comment s'établit, dès 1936, un principe d'analogicité entre des plans d'abstraction et d'approfondissement phénoménotechnique qui s'éloignent de plus en plus de l'expérience perceptive ordinaire. La concordance est alors assurée par la notion de "schéma", qu'il reprend au "phénoménologiste" Kaufmann, mais à laquelle il confère (...) d'autres propriétés (notamment une structure de groupe). Gonseth introduit, par la suite, les notions d'"horizon de subjectivité" et d'"horizon d'objectivité", ce qui, tout en se démarquant des analyses d'Edmund Husserl, prolonge l'appropriation du vocabulaire phénoménologique. Dans un dernier temps, il adopta la notion de "référentiel", élaborée en rupture avec la philosophie du sujet, mais qui demeure encore attachée à des structures phénoménologiques. Son projet épistémologique encourage ainsi la pratique d'une "phénoménologie ouverte". (shrink)
Si Ferdinand Gonseth doit sa réputation internationale aux innombrables articles et conférences qu'il a consacrés à la défense et à l'illustration de sa philosophie ouverte, on peut dire sans doute que son influence prépondérante en Suisse a été celle qu'il a exercée sur l'enseignement des mathématiques. Par la publication de quelques manuels d'abord, notamment le remarquable Leitfaden der Planimetrie et son adaptation française Eléments de géométrie , mais plus encore par les cours qu'il professait à l'E. P. F. de (...) Zurich sur l'axiomatique de la géométrie et qui ont été pour des générations de maîtres de remarquables introductions à la philosophie des sciences. (shrink)
Ferdinand Christian Baur, one of the great innovators in the study of the New Testament, argued that each of its books reflects the interests and tendencies of its author in a particular religio-historical milieu. A critique of the writings must precede any judgments about the historical validity of individual stories about Jesus in the Gospels. Thus Baur could move beyond the impasse created by Strauss's Life of Jesus. Baur demonstrated that the Gospel of John is not a historical document (...) comparable to the Synoptic Gospels and cannot be used to reconstruct the teaching of Jesus, and that the Synoptic Gospels must be read critically and selectively. He applied the same principles to the Epistles, arguing that only four are genuinely Pauline.Baur's Lectures on New Testament Theology, delivered in Tübingen during the 1850s, summarize thirty years of his research. The lectures begin with an Introduction on the concept, history, and organization of New Testament theology. Part One is devoted to the teaching of Jesus, which Baur finds most reliably in Matthew. Part Two contains the teaching of the Apostles in three chronological periods. The first period presents the theological frameworks of the Apostle Paul and the Book of Revelation; the second period, the frameworks of Hebrews, the Deutero-Pauline Epistles, James and Peter, the Synoptic Gospels and Acts; and the third period, those of the Pastoral Epistles and the Gospel of John. (shrink)
The archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden, is a remarkable repository that contains reports and dossiers of the Nobel Prize nominations of senior and junior physicians from around the world. Although this archive has begun to be used more by scholars, it has been insufficiently examined by historians of surgery. No other German surgeon was nominated as often as Ferdinand Sauerbruch for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in the first half of (...) the 20th century. This contribution reconstructs why and by whom Sauerbruch was nominated, and discusses the Nobel committee evaluations of his work. Political factors did not play an obvious role in the Nobel committee discussions, in spite of the fact that Adolf Hitler in 1937 had prohibited all German citizens to accept the Nobel Prize. The main reasons why Sauerbruch ultimately was not considered prize-worthy were that Sauerbruch’s achievements were marked by scientific priority disputes, and that his work was not seen as original enough. (shrink)
L'oeuvre mature de Hans Urs von Balthasar renvoie de manière insistante à la métaphysique de Ferdinand Ulrich comme arrière-plan philosophique de la théologie développée par le penseur suisse. L'interprétation que donne F. Ulrich, en particulier dans son chef d'oeuvre Homo Abyssus, de l'ontologie thomiste, est originale par le fait qu'elle conçoit l'être comme don et obéissance. Balthasar n'a pas manqué de relever que ce thomisme de l'amour évite le risque de sombrer dans une ontologie négative, dans laquelle la désappropriation (...) de soi abîmerait l'être dans la différence: la kénose de l'être n'est compréhensible qu'à partir de la positivité de l'être. (shrink)
Stawarska considers the ambiguities surrounding the antagonism between the phenomenological and the structuralist traditions by pointing out that the supposed foundation of structuralism, the Course in General Linguistics, was ghostwritten posthumously by two editors who projected a dogmatic doctrine onto Saussure’s lectures, while the authentic materials related to Saussure’s linguistics are teeming with phenomenological references. She then narrows the focus to Merleau-Ponty’s engagement with Saussure’s linguistics and argues that it offers an unusual, if not an uncanny, reading of the Course, (...) in that it identifies a phenomenological dimension within the text, against the grain of the dominant structuralist claim. This phenomenological dimension is corroborated by the authentic sources of Saussure’s linguistics, even though the latter were beyond the philosopher’s own power to know. Merleau-Ponty’s unorthodox reading of the Course as being broadly compatible with the tradition of Husserlian phenomenology has been dismissed as an error and a contresens , but Stawarska proposes that such deviant appropriations of foundational texts are the ones to cherish the most, since they effectively dismantle the received dogmas and official doctrines stuffing the cabinets of canonical philosophy. She argues specifically that Merleau-Ponty’s contested distinction between “a synchronic linguistics of speech ” and “a diachronic linguistics of language ” , which gives primacy to la parole over la langue, and raises the possibility of a systematic study of la parole, contains a more faithful response to Saussure’s own project than the received structuralist view that la langue alone constitutes the proper object of linguistic study. (shrink)