38 found
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  1.  11
    Cognitive Training Does Not Enhance General Cognition.Giovanni Sala & Fernand Gobet - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (1):9-20.
  2.  50
    Why Good Thoughts Block Better Ones: The Mechanism of the Pernicious Einstellung (Set) Effect.Merim Bilalic, Peter McLeod & Fernand Gobet - 2008 - Cognition 108 (3):652-661.
    The Einstellung effect occurs when the first idea that comes to mind, triggered by familiar features of a problem, prevents a better solution being found. It has been shown to affect both people facing novel problems and experts within their field of expertise. We show that it works by influencing mechanisms that determine what information is attended to. Having found one solution, expert chess players reported that they were looking for a better one. But their eye movements showed that they (...)
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  3. Expertise and Intuition: A Tale of Three Theories. [REVIEW]Fernand Gobet & Philippe Chassy - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (2):151-180.
    Several authors have hailed intuition as one of the defining features of expertise. In particular, while disagreeing on almost anything that touches on human cognition and artificial intelligence, Hubert Dreyfus and Herbert Simon agreed on this point. However, the highly influential theories of intuition they proposed differed in major ways, especially with respect to the role given to search and as to whether intuition is holistic or analytic. Both theories suffer from empirical weaknesses. In this paper, we show how, with (...)
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  4.  10
    Five Seconds or Sixty? Presentation Time in Expert Memory.Fernand Gobet & Herbert A. Simon - 2000 - Cognitive Science 24 (4):651-682.
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  5.  55
    Expert Memory: A Comparison of Four Theories.Fernand Gobet - 1998 - Cognition 66 (2):115-152.
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  6.  24
    Functional Cerebral Reorganization: A Signature of Expertise? Reexamining Guida, Gobet, Tardieu, and Nicolas' Two-Stage Framework.Alessandro Guida, Fernand Gobet & Serge Nicolas - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  7.  5
    Modeling the Developmental Patterning of Finiteness Marking in English, Dutch, German, and Spanish Using MOSAIC.Daniel Freudenthal, Julian M. Pine, Javier Aguado‐Orea & Fernand Gobet - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (2):311-341.
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  8.  13
    What's in a Name? The Multiple Meanings of “Chunk” and “Chunking”.Fernand Gobet, Martyn Lloyd-Kelly & Peter C. R. Lane - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  9.  39
    Concepts Without Intuition Lose the Game: Commentary on Montero and Evans (2011). [REVIEW]Fernand Gobet - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):237-250.
    In several papers, Hubert Dreyfus has used chess as a paradigmatic example of how experts act intuitively, rarely using deliberation when selecting actions, while individuals that are only competent rely on analytic and deliberative thought. By contrast, Montero and Evans (Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10:175–194, 2011 ) argue that intuitive aspects of chess are actually rational, in the sense that actions can be justified. In this paper, I show that both Dreyfus’s and Montero and Evans’s views are too extreme, (...)
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  10.  75
    Expert and “Novice” Problem Solving Strategies in Chess: Sixty Years of Citing de Groot (1946).Fernand Gobet, Peter McLeod & Merim Bilalić - 2008 - Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):395-408.
    In a famous study of expert problem solving, de Groot (1946/1978) examined how chess players found the best move. He reported that there was little difference in the way that the best players (Grand Masters) and very good players (Candidate Masters) searched the board. Although this result has been regularly cited in studies of expertise, it is frequently misquoted. It is often claimed that de Groot found no difference in the way that experts and novices investigate a problem. Comparison of (...)
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  11.  26
    Checkmate to Deliberate Practice: The Case of Magnus Carlsen.Fernand Gobet & Morgan H. Ereku - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  12.  64
    A Pattern-Recognition Theory of Search in Expert Problem Solving.Fernand Gobet - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):291 – 313.
    Understanding how look-ahead search and pattern recognition interact is one of the important research questions in the study of expert problem solving. This paper examines the implications of the template theory Gobet & Simon, 1996a , a recent theory of expert memory, on the theory of problem solving in chess. Templates are chunks Chase & Simon, 1973 that have evolved into more complex data structures and that possess slots allowing values to be encoded rapidly. Templates may facilitate search in three (...)
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  13.  29
    Specialization Effect and Its Influence on Memory and Problem Solving in Expert Chess Players.Merim Bilalić, Peter McLeod & Fernand Gobet - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (6):1117-1143.
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  14.  8
    How Artificial Intelligence Can Help Us Understand Human Creativity.Fernand Gobet & Giovanni Sala - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  15.  10
    Modeling the Development of Children's Use of Optional Infinitives in Dutch and English Using MOSAIC.Daniel Freudenthal, Julian M. Pine & Fernand Gobet - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (2):277-310.
    In this study we use a computational model of language learning called model of syntax acquisition in children (MOSAIC) to investigate the extent to which the optional infinitive (OI) phenomenon in Dutch and English can be explained in terms of a resource-limited distributional analysis of Dutch and English child-directed speech. The results show that the same version of MOSAIC is able to simulate changes in the pattern of finiteness marking in 2 children learning Dutch and 2 children learning English as (...)
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  16.  31
    Do Young Children Have Adult-Like Syntactic Categories? Zipf’s Law and the Case of the Determiner.Julian M. Pine, Daniel Freudenthal, Grzegorz Krajewski & Fernand Gobet - 2013 - Cognition 127 (3):345-360.
  17.  18
    William R. Uttal: Mind and Brain: A Critical Appraisal of Cognitive Neuroscience: MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2011, Xxviii+497, $49.50, ISBN 978-0-262-01596-7. [REVIEW]Fernand Gobet - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (2):221-226.
    The relation between mind and brain is one of the big scientific questions that has attracted scientists’ attention for centuries but also eluded their understanding. In this book, William Uttal provides a critical review of cognitive neuroscience, focusing on a specific question: What do the brain-imaging techniques developed in the last two decades or so—mostly functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography —tell us about the brain-mind problem? His unambiguous and abrasive answer is: nothing.The book is organized in nine (...)
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  18.  31
    What is Counterintuitive? Religious Cognition and Natural Expectation.Yvan I. Russell & Fernand Gobet - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (4):715-749.
    What is ‘counterintuitive’? There is general agreement that it refers to a violation of previously held knowledge, but the precise definition seems to vary with every author and study. The aim of this paper is to deconstruct the notion of ‘counterintuitive’ and provide a more philosophically rigorous definition congruent with the history of psychology, recent experimental work in ‘minimally counterintuitive’ concepts, the science vs. religion debate, and the developmental and evolutionary background of human beings. We conclude that previous definitions of (...)
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  19.  7
    Simulating the Cross-Linguistic Pattern of Optional Infinitive Errors in Children’s Declaratives and Wh- Questions.Daniel Freudenthal, Julian M. Pine, Gary Jones & Fernand Gobet - 2015 - Cognition 143:61-76.
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  20.  8
    Becoming an Expert: Ontogeny of Expertise as an Example of Neural Reuse.Alessandro Guida, Guillermo Campitelli & Fernand Gobet - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
    In this commentary, we discuss an important pattern of results in the literature on the neural basis of expertise: decrease of cerebral activation at the beginning of acquisition of expertise and functional cerebral reorganization as a consequence of years of practice. We show how these two results can be integrated with the neural reuse framework.
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  21.  5
    Evolving Process-Based Models From Psychological Data Using Genetic Programming.Peter C. R. Lane, Peter D. Sozou, Mark Addison & Fernand Gobet - unknown
    The development of computational models to provide explanations of psychological data can be achieved using semi-automated search techniques, such as genetic programming. One challenge with these techniques is to control the type of model that is evolved to be cognitively plausible – a typical problem is that of “bloating”, where continued evolution generates models of increasing size without improving overall fitness. In this paper we describe a system for representing psychological data, a class of process-based models, and algorithms for evolving (...)
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  22.  9
    Computer Simulations of Developmental Change: The Contributions of Working Memory Capacity and Long-Term Knowledge.Gary Jones, Fernand Gobet & Julian M. Pine - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (7):1148-1176.
  23.  24
    They Do What They Are Told to Do: The Influence of Instruction on (Chess) Expert Perception—Commentary on Linhares and Brum (2007).Merim Bilalić & Fernand Gobet - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (5):743-747.
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  24.  18
    Chunks, Schemata, and Retrieval Structures: Past and Current Computational Models.Fernand Gobet, Peter C. R. Lane & Martyn Lloyd-Kelly - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  25.  40
    Automatic Generation of Cognitive Theories Using Genetic Programming.Enrique Frias-Martinez & Fernand Gobet - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (3):287-309.
    Cognitive neuroscience is the branch of neuroscience that studies the neural mechanisms underpinning cognition and develops theories explaining them. Within cognitive neuroscience, computational neuroscience focuses on modeling behavior, using theories expressed as computer programs. Up to now, computational theories have been formulated by neuroscientists. In this paper, we present a new approach to theory development in neuroscience: the automatic generation and testing of cognitive theories using genetic programming (GP). Our approach evolves from experimental data cognitive theories that explain “the mental (...)
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  26. Mechanisms in Human Learning.Fernand Gobet, Peter C. R. Lane, Steve Croker, Peter C.-H. Cheng, Gary Jones, Iain Oliver & Julian M. Pine - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (6):236-243.
    Pioneering work in the 1940s and 1950s suggested that the concept of chunking might be important in many processes of perception, learning and cognition in humans and animals. We summarize here the major sources of evidence for chunking mechanisms, and consider how such mechanisms have been implemented in computational models of the learning process. We distinguish two forms of chunking: the first deliberate, under strategic control, and goal-oriented; the second automatic, continuous, and linked to perceptual processes. Recent work with discrimination-network (...)
     
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  27.  20
    What Forms the Chunks in a Subject's Performance? Lessons From the CHREST Computational Model of Learning.Peter C. R. Lane, Fernand Gobet & Peter C.-H. Cheng - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):128-129.
    Computational models of learning provide an alternative technique for identifying the number and type of chunks used by a subject in a specific task. Results from applying CHREST to chess expertise support the theoretical framework of Cowan and a limit in visual short-term memory capacity of 3–4 looms. An application to learning from diagrams illustrates different identifiable forms of chunk.
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  28.  21
    Expertise Effects in Memory Recall: Comment on Vicente and Wang.Herbert A. Simon & Fernand Gobet - 2000 - Psychological Review 107 (3):593-600.
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  29. Scientific Discovery in the Social Sciences.Mark Addis, Fernand Gobet & Peter Sozou (eds.) - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
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  30.  11
    Risk Taking in Adversarial Situations: Civilization Differences in Chess Experts.Philippe Chassy & Fernand Gobet - 2015 - Cognition 141:36-40.
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  31.  7
    Allen Newell's Program of Research: The Video‐Game Test.Fernand Gobet - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):522-532.
    Newell argued that progress in psychology was slow because research focused on experiments trying to answer binary questions, such as serial versus parallel processing. In addition, not enough attention was paid to the strategies used by participants, and there was a lack of theories implemented as computer models offering sufficient precision for being tested rigorously. He proposed a three-headed research program: to develop computational models able to carry out the task they aimed to explain; to study one complex task in (...)
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  32.  14
    Season of Birth and Chess Expertise.Fernand Gobet & Philippe Chassy - 2008 - Journal of Biosocial Science 40 (2):313-316.
  33.  16
    Three Views on Expertise: Philosophical Implications for Rationality, Knowledge, Intuition and Education.Fernand Gobet - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 51 (3):605-619.
  34. Developing Reproducible and Comprehensible Computational Models.Peter C. R. Lane & Fernand Gobet - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence 144 (1-2):251-263.
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  35. Simple Environments Fail as Illustrations of Intelligence: A Review of R. Pfeifer and C. Scheier, Understanding Intelligence☆☆MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999. 700 Pages. Price US$ 63.00 (Cloth). ISBN 0-262-16181-8. [REVIEW]Peter C. R. Lane & Fernand Gobet - 2001 - Artificial Intelligence 127 (2):261-267.
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  36.  15
    The CHREST Model of Active Perception and its Role in Problem Solving.Peter C. R. Lane, Peter C.-H. Cheng & Fernand Gobet - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):892-893.
    We discuss the relation of the Theory of Event Coding (TEC) to a computational model of expert perception, CHREST, based on the chunking theory. TEC's status as a verbal theory leaves several questions unanswerable, such as the precise nature of internal representations used, or the degree of learning required to obtain a particular level of competence: CHREST may help answer such questions.
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  37. Introduction: Scientific Discovery in the Social Sciences.Peter Sozou, Peter Lane, Mark Addis & Fernand Gobet - 2019 - In Mark Addis, Fernand Gobet & Peter Sozou (eds.), Scientific Discovery in the Social Sciences. Springer Verlag.
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  38. Semi-Automatic Generation of Cognitive Science Theories.Peter Sozou, Peter Lane, Fernand Gobet & Mark Addis - 2019 - In Mark Addis, Fernand Gobet & Peter Sozou (eds.), Scientific Discovery in the Social Sciences. Springer Verlag.
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