SummaryIntense, sustained nursing lengthens inter-birth intervals and is causally linked with low natural fertility. However, in traditional settings, the effects of such nursing on fertility are difficult to disentangle from those of nutrition. Results from an prospective, direct observational study of reproductive function in well-nourished Amele women who nurse intensively and persistently but who also have high fertility are here presented. Endocrine measures show that ovarian activity resumes by median 11·0 months postpartum. Median duration of postpartum amenorrhoea is 11·3 months, (...) time to next conception is 19·0 months, and the inter-birth interval is 28·0 months. Average life time fertility is 6·8. High fertility in Amele women is due both to refractoriness of reproductive function to suckling stimuli, and to maintenance of equivalent age-specific fertility rates across the reproductive life span. (shrink)
Eserlerin mukaddimeleri, müelliflerin konuya hâkimiyetini gösterdikleri ve adeta ilmî yeterliliklerini okuyucuya sundukları bölümler olmuştur. Bazı tefsir mukaddimelerinde de bunu görmek mümkündür. Kur’ân ilimleri ve tefsir metodolojisi hakkında önemli bilgiler veren ve çalışmamıza konu olan Tabersî, Âlûsî ve Sıddîk Hân da eserlerinin mukaddimelerinde Kur’ân ilimlerinin bir kısmınasathi yorumlar getirirken, bir kısmına ise teferruatlı bir şekilde yer vermektedirler. Örneğin Tabersî i’caz konusunu, Âlûsî i’câzla birlikte yedi harf meselesini detaylı bir şekilde ele alırken, Sıddîk Hân Kur’ân ilimleri konularına daha kısa bir şekilde değinmektedir. (...) Müfessirlerimiz mukaddimelerinde genel olarak metodoloji konusuna daha detaylı bir şekilde değinerek takip edecekleri yöntem hakkında bilgi vermektedirler. Tefsir metodolojisi konusunda benzer kaidelerlekonuyu ele alan müfessirlerimiz, bazen de kendilerine özgü yöntemlerikullandıkları müşahede edilmektedir. Bu bağlamda Tabersî Şîa mezhebinin görüşlerini önemsemekte, imamlardan nakledilen rivayetleri Peygamber’den nakledilen rivayetle eşit tutarak mezhebî taassupla konuya yaklaşmakta; Âlûsî tasavvuf ehli tarafından yapılan yorumları önemsemekle birlikte konuya temkinli yaklaşarak, yapılan batınî yorumun ayetin zahirine uygun olması gerektiğini söylemektedir. Diğer iki müfessirden daha fazla tefsir metodolojisine değinen Sıddîk Hân ise mezhep taassubundan uzak durulması gerektiğini söyleyerek birçok tefsir yöntemini eleştirmekte ve bu yaklaşımları tefsir olarak değerlendirmemektedir. Tefsir metodolojisinde naklin önemine değinen müfessirlerimizden Tabersî doğru bir tefsir için sahih naklin gerekli olduğuna, Sıddîk Hân ise tefsirin sadece sahih nakille bilineceğini söyleyerek, bunun dışındaki yorumları te’vil olarak değerlendirmekte böylece tefsir ve te’vil arasındaki farka değinmektedir. (shrink)
Quartz & Sejnowski (Q&S) disregard evidence that suggests that their view of dendrites is inadequate and they ignore recent results concerning the role of neurotrophic factors in synaptic remodelling. They misrepresent neuronal selectionism and thus erect a straw-man argument. Finally, the results discussed in section 4.2 require neuronal proliferation, but this does not occur during the period of neuronal development of relevance here. Footnotes1 Address correspondence to TE at [email protected]
Scholars have debated the meaning of the foreign-relations clauses in the U.S. Constitution. This essay attempts to outline the foreign-relations clauses that an ideal constitution should have. A liberal constitution must enable the government to implement a morally defensible foreign policy. The first priority is the defense of liberty. The constitution must allow the government to effectively defend persons, territory, and liberal institutions themselves. The liberal government should also contribute to the advancement of global freedom, subject to a number of (...) conditions, especially cost. The essay recommends improved methods to incorporate treaties and customary international law into the constitutional structure. Treaties should be approved by the whole legislature and should generally be self-executing. Customary law should be genuine, not fake, and consistent with liberal principles. Finally, based on economic theory and evidence, the essay recommends that liberal constitutions prohibit the government from erecting trade barriers. It concludes by tentatively proposing concrete constitutional language to implement these recommendations. (shrink)
Kur’ân ve hadislerde geçen müteşâbih ifadelerin nasıl anlaşılacağına dair kelâm geleneğinde ciddi tartışmalar yaşanmış ve farklı ekollere mensup âlimler tarafından birçok eser yazılmıştır. Mâtürîdî bir âlim olan Nâsırüddîn es-Semerkandî de bu çalışmada tenkitli neşri sunulan Fethu’l-ğalak fi’t-tevhîd adlı eseri kaleme almıştır. Günümüze ulaşan Arapça elyazması Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi Fatih koleksiyonunda 3142 demirbaş numarasıyla bulunmaktadır. Bildiğimiz kadarıyla bu alanda müstakil olarak kaleme alınmış olup günümüze ulaşan tek Mâtürîdî eser olma özelliğine sahiptir. Akıl ve şeriatten hareketle yapılması gerektiğini savunduğu te’vîlin belirli ilkeler çerçevesinde (...) özellikle de luğavî anlamın dışına çıkmadan müteşâbih ifadelerin muhkemlere hamlederek yapılması gerektiğini belirtmektedir. Bu noktada çizdiği çerçevede olmayan ve uç noktalar olarak gördüğü Bâtinîlerin ve Hanbelîlerin te’vîl anlayışlarını da eleştirmektedir. Müteşâbih ifadeleri te'vîl etmeyi uygun gören Mâtürîdî-Hanefî geleneğin yaklaşımını ortaya koymasının yanında geç bir dönemde yazılan eser bu konuda ele alınan ifadelerin yorumuna dair zengin ve bilgilendirici bir içerik sunmakta ve müteşâbihlerin bütünsel anlaşılması yönünde imkân sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında müteşâbihe dair bir giriş, es-Semerkândî’nin hayatı ve eserin tenkitli neşri dikkatlere sunulacaktır. (shrink)
Why should sovereign states obey international law? What compels them to owe allegiance to a higher set of rules when each country is its own law of the land? What is the basis of their obligations to each other? Conventional wisdom suggests that countries are too different from one another culturally to follow laws out of mere loyalty to each other or a set of shared moral values. Surely, the prevailing view holds, countries act simply out of self-interest, and they (...) eventually consent to norms of international law to regulate matters of common interest.In this groundbreaking book, Fernando Tesón goes against this prevailing thought by arguing, in the Kantian tradition, that a shared respect for individual human rights underpins not just the obligation countries feel to follow international law but also international laws themselves and even the very legitimacy of nations in the eyes of the international community. Tesón, both a lawyer and a philosopher, proposes that an overlapping respect for human rights has created a moral common ground among the countries of the world; and moreover, that such an outlook is the only one that is rationally defensible. It is this common set of values rather than self-interest that ultimately provides legitimacy to international law. Using the tools of moral philosophy, Tesón analyzes the concepts of sovereignty, intervention, and national interest; the contributions of social contact theory, game theory, and feminist theory; and the puzzles of self-determination and group rights.More than simply outlining his theory, Tesón goes on to give detailed examples of international laws, international institutions, and their human rights foundations, putting his ideas to work and addressing legal reforms called for by the theory. He suggests that treaties, for example, should be considered binding if, and only if, the consent to the treaty was given by a genuinely representative government, one that acts out of interest for the human rights of its citizens. Although the theoretical achievement of this book is to challenge received wisdom on the foundation of international law, the practical ambition is a call to reform the international legal system for the post–Cold War era, to substitute for the old order one that gives primacy to human dignity and freedom over state power. (shrink)
Spade 1988 sugges t s tha t t he r e are ac tua l l y two theo r i e s t o address t h i s ques t i o n t o , an ear l y one and a l a t e r one . 2 Most o f the presen t pape r i s a deve l o pmen t o f t h i s i dea . I sugges t (...) tha t ear l y work by Sherwood and o the r s was a s tudy o f quan t i f i e r s : the i r semant i c s and t he e f f e c t s o f con t e x t on i n f e r e n ce s t ha t can be made f r om quan t i f i e d te rms . La te r , i n the hands o f Bur l e y and o the r s , i t changed i n t o a s tudy o f someth i n g e l se , a s tudy o f what I ca l l g loba l quan t i f i c a t i o n a l e f f e c t . In sec t i o n 1 , I exp l a i n what these two op t i o n s are. (shrink)
Analysis of all the Legal and Moral Issues Surrounding Humanitarian Intervention · The deaths of innocent persons & the Doctrine of Double Effect Governmental legitimacy: The Doctrine of Effective Political Control · UN Charter & evaluation of the Nicaragua ruling · The Morality of not intervening · US-led invasion of Iraq · Humanitarian intervention authorized by the UN Security Council: Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, Rwanda, and Bosnia among highlightsNATO's intervention in Kosovo · The Nicaragua Decision · The precedents of Panama, Liberia (...) & Sierra Leone Features · New framework based on the doctrine of double effect · Basic principles of international ethics · Outline of the moral argument for humanitarian intervention · Explores the morality and legality of military action to end tyranny or anarchy · Arguments in a much more detailed and complete fashion than in previous editions · In-depth examination of philosophy of international law · The relationship between custom & moral theory · New discussion of the question of right authority · Full analysis of recent interventions in Kosovo and Iraq Passionate, lucid, and controversial, this new edition of Tesón's classic book addresses a broad interdisciplinary audience of international lawyers, philosophers, and political scientists. In this new edition the author responds to critics while updating the discussion in the light of the momentous events that took place at the beginning of the new millenium. (shrink)
E n e s t e e n s a y o a r g u me n t o q u e l ametafilosofía de los pragmatistas es lacontribución más importante de estosf i l ós of os a l a hi s t or i a de l a f i l os of í ay es t ambi én l o que l os di st i ngue deot ros f i l ósof os. Los f i (...) l ósof os cl ási cosamericanos y losfilósofos pragmatistas hispanos, Ortegay Gasset y Risieri Frondizi, propusieronque l a f i l osof í a debe de part i r desdel a experi enci a, es deci r, un punt o departida práctico. Despues de explicar quésignifica sostener que la experiencia es elpunto de partida, examino las razonesque tienen estos filósofos para sostenerque la experiencia es el punto de partidaapropiado si se quiere que la filosofía seaempírica y relevante. In this paper the metaphilosophy of pragmatists is the most important contribution of these philosophers to the history of philosophyand is also what distinguishes them fromother philosophers. The classic Americanphilosophers and the Hispanic philosophers, Ortega yGasset and Risieri Frondizi, proposed thatphilosophy must start from experience.After explaining what it means to takeexperience as the starting point, I examinethe reasons that pragmatists philosophershave for holding the view that experienceshould be the starting point if philosophyis to be empirical and relevant. (shrink)
President George W. Bush surprised many observers in his second inaugural address when he promised to oppose tyranny and oppression, and this in a world not always willing or ready to join in that fight. Humanitarian intervention is again on the forefront of world politics.
Abstract The article addresses three aspects of the humanitarian intervention doctrine. It argues, first, that the value of sovereignty rests on the justified social processes of the target state ? the horizontal contract. Foreign interventions, even when otherwise justified, must respect the horizontal contract. In contrast, morally objectionable social processes (such as the subjection of women) are not protected by sovereignty (intervention, of course, may be banned for other reasons). In addition, tyrants have no moral protection against interventions directed at (...) them. Second, the article addresses the internal legitimacy of humanitarian intervention. It concludes that the liberal state may only use voluntary soldiers (either the voluntary army or mercenaries) to conduct humanitarian intervention. Conscription for that purpose is not permissible. The article shows that the long-standing criticism of mercenaries stems from a romantic prejudice and is thus unfair. Third, the article makes a distinction between intention (the determination to perform an action) and motive (a further goal that the agent seeks with that action) and shows that only intention is relevant for humanitarian intervention. A justified humanitarian intervention requires the intention to liberate the victims, but not necessarily a good further motive. It shows how mainstream doctrine has impermissibly confused the two concepts. (shrink)
In public political deliberation, people will err and lie in accordance with definite patterns. Such discourse failure results from behavior that is both instrumentally and epistemically rational. The deliberative practices of a liberal democracy cannot be improved so as to overcome the tendency for rational citizens to believe and say things at odds with reliable propositions of social science. The theory has several corollaries. One is that much contemporary political philosophy can be seen as an unsuccessful attempt to vindicate, on (...) symbolic and moral grounds, the forms that discourse failure take on in public political deliberation. Another is that deliberative practices cannot be rescued even on non-epistemic grounds, such as social peace, impartiality, participation, and equality. To alleviate discourse failure, this book proposes to reduce the scope of majoritarian politics and enlarge markets. (shrink)
With vast erudition, especially in German and French scholarship of the last century, Cassirer applies his theory of symbolic forms to problems of methodology in "culture-philosophy," including the interpretation of "things" versus "expression," the difference between "nature-concepts" and "culture-concepts," and the various meanings of "form" and "causality." Concluding with a chapter on the "Tragedy of Culture," he maintains that the dialectical tension between completed form and free expression can never be overcome, but that culture's vitality rests in the continual coping (...) with that tension.--R. C. N. (shrink)
A history of scepticism in religion as it has developed since the sixteenth century, treating specifically the anticlerical scepticism of Voltaire and the Philosophes, the background for this in the earlier celebrations of the advance of science and knowledge of non-European cultures, and the historicism and scientific relativism of the nineteenth century. The discussion is brought up to the present with the thesis that contemporary intellectuals are just as sceptical as their predecessors, but lack their positive faith in science and (...) progress. Unfortunately, Baumer neglects the story of religion's attempt to counter scepticism; his restrictive concept of religion also leads to a neglect of the "religious" character of scepticism.--R. C. N. (shrink)
Brilliantly elaborating and defending his doctrine of "neoclassical metaphysics," for which reality is a process containing necessary, unchanging features as well as contingent particulars whose advent involves novelty, Hartshorne has contributed a work of permanent value to philosophical theology. The book contains a long defense of Anselm's ontological argument, interpreted in neoclassical terms. Hartshorne deals with some twenty standard objections, and argues that Anselm's proof is not that God must have the predicate "existence," but rather that perfection cannot be contingent. (...) The conclusion is that perfection is necessary, for otherwise it is meaningless. The other chapters are largely drawn from previously published papers, and lack unity, though they cast additional light on neoclassical metaphysics.--R. C. N. (shrink)
Economists generally agree that free trade leads to economic growth. This proposition is supported both by theoretical models and empirical data. Further, while the empirical evidence is more limited on this question, the general consensus among economists holds that trade restrictions are likely to hurt the poor. Even if the latter consensus turns out to be wrong, if free trade leads to superior growth, governments would have more resources to redistribute to the poor. It is surprising then that philosophers and (...) human rights scholars do not advocate liberalizing trade as a way to improve the welfare of the poor as a class. While many scholars in these fields are silent with respect to the effect of free trade on the poor, some actually argue that liberalized trade is harmful for the poor, contrary to the claims of economists. In this article, we argue that any serious scholar concerned with the plight of the poor needs to address the theory and evidence regarding the effects of trade liberalization on economic growth, suggesting that the standard policy prescriptions of the philosophers and human rights scholars are, at best, of second order concern and, at worst, likely to be counterproductive in terms of improving the welfare of the poor. (shrink)
It is unfortunate in this time when so little Scotus is available in English that Wolter uses the dear space of this volume to produce material available elsewhere: his own translation of "Man's Natural Knowledge of God", and McKeon's translation of "Concerning Human Knowledge". He also includes a long section from the Oxford Commentary on the existence of God, much of which is paralleled in De Primo Principio, available in English. But the selection Wolter does make, including material on metaphysics, (...) the unicity of God, and the soul, is well balanced and makes an excellent introduction to Scotus' thought. The fine, imaginative translation faces the Latin text. It is to be hoped that this useful volume will stimulate interest in translating Balic's critical edition, now in the making.--R. C. N. (shrink)
From sermons and polemical treatises, Newlin traces the intellectual climate that engendered the Great Awakening of the 1740's and the subsequent drawing of theological lines. Philosophical writings of Samuel Johnson, in the liberal line, and of Jonathan Edwards, in the Orthodox Calvinist line, are adroitly compared, the bulk of the treatment going to Edwards. Of special interest is the influence of Peter Ramus on the Puritan intellectual community. --R. C. N.
In far and away the best critical review of analysis to date, Blanshard examines in great detail both positivism and linguistic analysis, giving an historical treatment where possible. Logical atomism, the twists and turns of the verifiability criterion of meaning, and the analytic theory of a priori knowledge are subjected to patient and exhausting criticism and found wanting in nearly every particular. He finds all the distinctive views of linguistic analysis to be in the wrong. The discussion of "clear thinkers" (...) is best, that of Wittgenstein less good. Finally, Blanshard gives the recurrent themes of universals and necessity a positive treatment, elaborating and defending the position of The Nature of Thought against recent criticisms.--R. C. N. (shrink)
The history of philosophy has been unkind to philosophers who lived after Ockham and before Descartes, and Randall's great work here does much to make amends. With rare scholarship, he traces the outworking of the Medieval themes of neo-Platonism, Aristotelianism, and Ockhamite nominalism through the later Scholastics and early Italian Renaissance thinkers to their issue in the fathers of modern science. Then he traces the assimilation of those themes into the 17th century systems which posed the problems still in the (...) center today. His discussion of the following periods takes into account ethics and psychology as well as the relation between reason and science which dominated his earlier discussion; Randall is at his best in his comparative development of themes rather than in simple exposition of those modern thinkers who have received more detailed and careful treatment in extensive commentaries.--R. C. N. (shrink)
A readable and popular history of the Middle Ages from a Protestant perspective, approached primarily through studies of key personal figures. Although the history is detailed, the philosophical comments are not subtle; e.g., that Anselm's ontological argument "is obviously defective, for a definition of terms need not be a statement of fact".--R. C. N.
A memorial collection of essays with a bibliography of Pratt's works, a biography by the editor, and some personal notes by W. E. Hocking. Of special interest are Myers' paper on the self and introspection, Kaufmann's provocative, if heated, criticism of theologians for defending their traditions, and R. W. Sellars' commentary on the history of American Realism.--R. C. N.
Harris traces Gentile's philosophy of "actual idealism" from its roots in Kant, Fichte, Hegel, and the Italian idealist Bertrando Spaventa to its outworking in Italian fascism. Gentile's theory of the individual and the state is presented by an extensive analysis of his educational theory and his attempts to implement it in fascist Italy. Gentile's thought is weighed, as it deserves to be, for its philosophic merit. An extensive bibliography is included. This is a fine study of Gentile's thought, carefully and (...) sympathetically presented and judiciously criticized.--R. C. N. (shrink)
A biography made up chiefly of excerpts from correspondence of Paul E. More, literary critic, editor of The Nation and teacher of classical and early Christian philosophy at Princeton. The central theme is More's religious development from Calvinism through humanism to a final great sympathy with Anglicanism.--R. C. N.
An exposition and defense of the sociology of knowledge, i.e., "the ideational factors compelling men to act." Horowitz holds that the sociology of knowledge has now shed its metaphysical inheritance and assumed the status of a science.--R. C. N.
Heidegger's book is both Kant's good fortune and ours; as a philosopher, Heidegger's treatment is guided by the thesis that ontology is founded on transcendental philosophy, and that it is prior to metaphysica specialis, i.e., cosmology, psychology, and theology. As a scholar, Heidegger finely dissects the Transcendental Analytic, arguing that man's finitude consists in the required cooperation of sensibility and understanding, both of which stem, as Kant intimated, from imagination; and time is of the essence of imagination. Heidegger's vigorous defense (...) of the Schematism is a superb example of imaginative philosophy and careful scholarship well blended. The translator lacks confidence in the English language, and often uses English merely as a clue to Heidegger's German. --R. C. N. (shrink)
It is usually believed that the spiritual and physical aspects of existence are tightly integrated in Judaism, but Adler claims that they are as widely separated as they are in Greek thought. Employing this dichotomy, Adler attempts to show how Judaism enables us to be spiritually creative in a physical world governed by law. His discussion is intelligent and acute, sustained by a religious reformer's zeal.--R. C. N.
Blanshard analyzes and criticizes contemporary ethical theories including those of Moore and Ross, Perry, Dewey, the emotivists, and recent linguistic philosophers. Goodness can be understood only against the background of human life, and has the dual character of satisfaction and fulfillment. There are many kinds of intrinsic goods, but Reason threads its way throughout, arbitrating claims upon our attention and seeking out the type of life which is most satisfying and fulfilling. Written in Blanshard's distinctively urbane style, this book balances (...) synoptic vision with systematic analysis.--R. C. N. (shrink)
A fine collection of forty four essays and reviews, manifesting Cohen's thorough-going scholarship and vigorous approach to three areas: the philosophy of ethics and law, the social and legal status of the American Indian, and the philosophy of American Democracy. Cohen possessed the rare combination of abstract philosophical acumen and the ability to put his thought into practice. The major theme of the collection is at once an attack on "transcendental nonsense" and a defense of "the functional approach." A bibliography (...) of Cohen's work is included.--R. C. N. (shrink)
The first book offers an interesting discussion of types of rhythmic patterns in real time and the relation of these to theatrical drama. The second book is a text on the timing of three play forms, drama, comedy, and tragedy, based on the theory expounded earlier. Though traditional problems concerning time are glossed over, the discussions contain many worthwhile insights.--R. C. N.
An impressive display of various modes and levels of argumentation, defending the view that the hypotheses in the Parmenides form an integrated set of indirect proofs that show the necessary presupposition of a doctrine of forms and the inevitable failure of understanding to articulate such a doctrine. To support his interpretation, Brumbaugh appeals to the historical context of the Academy, the aesthetic form of the Parmenides, and the relation of this dialogue to the rest of Plato's thought. Brumbaugh offers his (...) own critical edition and translation of the dialogue. A volume of noteworthy scholarship, offering an incentive for creative thought.--R. C. N. (shrink)
An acute and well written defense of the thesis that most traditional and contemporary metaphysics errs in trying to rank categories in an order of being. An excellent discussion of the categoreal schemes of Spinoza and Hegel is included. Myers displays dialectical skill in his argument and is alert to enduring and timely issues of metaphysics.--R. C. N.
When can a group legitimately form its own state? Under international law, some groups can but others cannot. But the standard is unclear, and traditional legal analysis has failed to elucidate it. In The Theory of Self-Determination, leading scholars chart new territory in our theoretical conception of self-determination. Drawing from diverse scholarship in international law, philosophy, and political science, they attempt to move beyond the prevailing nationalist conceptions of group definition. At issue are such universal questions as: when does a (...) group qualify as a 'people'? Does history matter? Or is it a question of ethnic status? Are these matters properly solved by popular vote? Anchored in modern analytical political philosophy but with implications for a wide range of scholarship, this volume will prove essential for scholars and practitioners of international law, global justice, and international relations. (shrink)
In a boldfaced reversal of current British trends, Findlay argues cogently that ethics cannot be sharply distinguished from meta-ethics. Reviving Brentano's theory of intentionality, and elaborating a doctrine of belief and action that acknowledges much debt to Peirce, he attempts to show how valuation is implicit in personal thinking and action and yet strives for an ideal of impersonality. Findlay claims most of reasoning, including evaluation, proceeds by analogical extension of key concepts. The search for the ideal is traced through (...) values of welfare, justice, and duty. Most interesting is Findlay's development of Peirce's doctrine of synechism. The book closes with a discussion of God as the teleological ideal, and includes an appendix on "The Structure of the Kingdom of Ends."--R. C. N. (shrink)
A treatment of the historical and theological background of the Lutheran tradition from its beginning to the present day, presented in a fine combination of scholarship and popular style. Roughly a third of the book treats of Luther, the issues he faced and the development of the tradition in Europe; the second third is devoted to the Lutheran movement in America; and the last part deals with the present state of the Lutheran churches. The topics chosen and the techniques used (...) strike a fine balance.--R. C. N. (shrink)
This is a translation by Annette Churton of Immanuel Kant über Pädagogik, edited by Friedrich Rink in 1803 and appearing in volume 10 of Hartenstein's first edition of Kant's works. With anecdotes and illustrations, and plenty of advice, Kant deals with largely practical problems of the aims and methods of education. He strongly asserts the basic connection between character and training. The translation is smooth and reads easily, although sometimes the theoretical implications of Kant's technical terms do not come through.--R. (...) C. N. (shrink)