Megethology is the second-order theory of the part-whole relation developed by David Lewis, and it is obtained by combining plural quantification with classical extensional mereology. It can express some hypotheses about the size of the domain such as that there are inaccessibly many atoms. This will prove enough to get the orthodox set theory. Then, megethology is a possible foundation for mathematics. This paper is an introduction to megethology.
In this work, Professors Rosenfeld and Mancini have brought together an impressive group of authors to provide a comprehensive analysis on the greater demand for religions exemptions to government mandates. Traditional religious conscientious objection cases, such as refusal to salute the flag or to serve in the military during war, had a diffused effect throughout society. In sharp contrast, these authors argue that today's most notorious objections impinge on the rights of others, targeting practices like abortion, LGTBQ adoption, and (...) same-sex marriage. The dramatic expansion of conscientious objection claims have revolutionized the battle between religious traditionalists and secular civil libertarians, raising novel political, legal, constitutional and philosophical challenges. Highlighting the intersection between conscientious objections, religious liberty, and the equality of women and sexual minorities, this volume showcases this political debate and the principal jurisprudence from different parts of the world and emphasizes the little known international social movements that compete globally to alter the debate's terms. (shrink)
Psychopathy is a personality disorder frequently associated with immoral behaviors. Previous behavioral studies on the influence of psychopathy on moral decision have yielded contradictory results, possibly because they focused either on judgment (abstract evaluation) or on choice of hypothetical action, two processes that may rely on different mechanisms. In this study, we explored the influence of the level of psychopathic traits on judgment and choice of hypothetical action during moral dilemma evaluation. A population of 102 students completed a questionnaire with (...) ten moral dilemmas and nine non-moral dilemmas. The task included questions targeting both judgment (“Is it acceptable to … in order to …?”) and choice of hypothetical action (“Would you … in order to …?”). The level of psychopathic traits of each participant was evaluated with the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) scale. Logistic regression fitted with the generalized estimating equations method analyses were conducted using responses to the judgment and choice tasks as the dependent variables and psychopathy scores as predictor. Results show that a high level of psychopathic traits, and more specifically those related to affective deficit, predicted a greater proportion of utilitarian responses for the choice but not for the judgment question. There was no first-order interaction between the level of psychopathic traits and other potential predictors. The relation between a high level of psychopathic traits and increased utilitarianism in choice of action but not in moral judgment may explain the contradictory results of previous studies where these two processes were not contrasted. It also gives further support to the hypothesis that choice of action endorsement and abstract judgment during moral dilemma evaluation are partially distinct neural and psychological processes. We propose that this distinction should be better taken into account in the evaluation of psychopathic behaviors. (shrink)
Recent research shows that in reasoning tasks, subjects usually produce an initial intuitive answer, accompanied by a metacognitive experience, which has been called feeling of rightness. This paper is aimed at exploring the complimentary experience of feeling of error, that is, the spontaneous, subtle sensation of cognitive uneasiness arising from conflict detection during thinking. We investigate FOE in two studies with the “bat-and-ball” reasoning task, in its standard and isomorphic control versions. Study 1 is a generation study, in which participants (...) are asked to generate their own response. Study 2 is an evaluation study, in which participants are asked to choose between two conflicting answers. In each study, the FOE is measured by the FOE questionnaire. Results show that the FOE is significantly present in the standard B&B task when participants give a wrong answer, that our questionnaire can measure it, and furthermore, that it is diagnostic of genuine error. (shrink)
Some philosophers, like Mark Richard and Paul Boghossian, have argued against relativism that it cannot account for the possibility of faultless disagreement. However, I will contend that the objections they moved against relativism do not target its ability to account for the possibility of faultless disagreement per se. Ra- ther, they should be taken to challenge its capacity to account for another element of our folk conception of disagreement in certain areas of discourse—what Cris- pin Wright has dubbed parity. What (...) parity demands is to account for the possibil- ity of coherently appreciating, within a committed perspective, that our oppo- nent’s contrary judgement is somehow on a par with our own judgement. Under- stood in this way, Boghossian’s and Richard’s objections put indeed considerable pressure on relativism—or so I will argue. I will consider John MacFarlane’s at- tempt to resist their objections and I will show that, once their arguments are properly understood as targeting parity, the attempt is not successful. In the last section of the paper I will offer a diagnosis of what is at the heart of the relativist inability to account for parity—namely its assumption of a monistic conception of the normativity of truth. (shrink)
We shall draw an affirmative answer to the question posed in the title. The key point will be a quantum description of physical reality. Once fixed at ontic level two basic elements, namely the laws of physics and the matter, we argue that the underlying physical reality emerges from the interconnection between these two elements. We consider any physical process, including measurement, modeled by unitary evolution. In this context, we will deduce quantum random- ness as a consequence of inclusion of (...) the observer into the quantum system. The global picture of the universe is in a sense deterministic, but from our own local perspective (as part of the system) we perceive quantum mechanical randomness. Then, the notion of "information" turns out to be a derivative concept. (shrink)
We construct two recursive models of fragments of set theory. We also show that the fragments of Kripke-Platek set theory that prove -induction for -formulas have no recursive models but the standard model of the hereditarily finite sets.
In Spinoza, what I call the ‘Being Individual Multiple’ is the multitudo. Its form of life is Democracy, understood as the autonomous and conflictual organization of collective dynamics and not one form of government among others. Combining an original mode of argumentation with a critical discussion of opposing interpretations, I maintain that democracy is the translation into politics of the third and highest kind of knowledge in Spinoza, intuitive science. I argue moreover that the multitudo self-organized in a democracy has (...) the capacity to experiment and express a different rationality with respect to the singular individual. Wisdom and democracy thus converge to give life to something unknown and original in western political modernity. (shrink)
A study of the structural perfection of icosahedral quasicrystalline grains of various alloys and Al-Cu-Fe), grown by different slow solidification techniques was performed using high-resolution diffraction, including recording rocking curves combined with X-ray topography and phase contrast radiography, at a third-generation synchrotron radiation source . For Al-Pd-Mn, additional coherent diffraction and diffuse scattering measurements were also carried out. After evaluating the potentialities of the techniques used, in the light of the criteria defined for crystals, it is shown that the structural (...) perfection of icosahedral quasicrystals is quite comparable with that of metallic crystals but is considerably influenced by either uniform phason strains which can destroy the quasiperiodic long-range order, or by long-wavelength phason fluctuations leading to diffuse scattering. The structural perfection was also found to be extremely variable across the as-grown quasicrystalline grains and to be dependent on the presence and characteristics of inhomogeneities often included in the quasicrystalline matrix. Regarding the grains that we used, it has been impossible to distinguish a clear influence of either the type of alloy or the growth method. It has, however, been noticed that Al-Pd-Mn and Al-Cu-Fe grains appeared less defective than Zn-Mg-RE grains and that the microstructure of these latter grains looks like that of crystals grown by the same technique. Annealing and mechanical polishing effects have also been analysed in the case of Al-Pd-Mn grains. It appeared that annealing improves the quasicrystalline lattice perfection by lowering phason strains insofar as no precipitates are nucleated. Mechanical polishing can introduce defects, located at the external surfaces, having the shape of bands. (shrink)
The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents? normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664 Italian students (age range 15?21, M = 17.06, SD = 1.15) filled out a questionnaire to measure their perception of: (1) school moral atmosphere, (2) normative orientation and (3) frequency of aggressive (...) and transgressive behaviours at school. Normative orientation and school moral atmosphere were good predictors of both aggressive and transgressive behaviours. Normative orientation was proved as a direct explicative variable with transgressive behaviours as dependent variable, but an indirect variable with aggressive behaviours as dependent. In this case the relation was mediated by the school moral atmosphere, confirming previous results. Educational implications are discussed. (shrink)
The dynamical equations of quantum mechanics are rewritten in the form of dynamical equations for the measurable, positive marginal distribution of the shifted, rotated, and squeezed quadrature introduced in the so-called “symplectic tomography”. Then the possibility of a purely classical description of a quantum system as well as a reinterpretation of the quantum measurement theory is discussed and a comparison with the well-known quasi-probabilities approach is given. Furthermore, an analysis of the properties of this marginal distribution, which contains all the (...) quantum information, is performed in the framework of classical probability theory. Finally, examples of the harmonic oscillator's states dynamics are treated. (shrink)
To provide a qualitative analysis of abnormal temporal experiences of persons affected by feeding and eating disorders. This is a naturalistic explorative study on a group of 27 patients affected by FED interviewed over a two-year period in a clinical/psychotherapeutic setting. Clinical files were analysed by means of Consensual Qualitative Research. Twenty-one out of twenty-seven patients affected by FED reported at least one ATE. The main categories identified are 1) Irruption of disturbing bodily experiences ; 2) Anxiety for the passing (...) of time ; 3) Ritualization/Digitalization of time. ATE are a relevant feature of the life-world inhabited by people with FED and may represent an important link between abnormal bodily experiences and disorders of personal identity in these patients. The sample number is small but our preliminary findings justify testing a larger number of patients. (shrink)
The article show that the purpose of the final elaboration of Merleau-Ponty is thus to find a new idea of philosophy in which both Hegelian and Husserlian phenomenology can converge. But this tension in no way constitutes an element of rupture in the theoretical continuity of the Merleau-Pontian philosophy.
The author starts by noting a discourse that is widespread but more or less diffuse in the media and certain contemporary political and intellectual quarters, and which has to do with ‘the permanence of the religious’: according to an idea now current, the religious might be resistant to the process of secularization of civil society, because of its psychological and existential implications, or if seen as a universal, irreducible component of human culture. The author analyses the different aspects of this (...) discourse, puts them into perspective in order to draw out their intellectual and political elements and attempts to reconstruct their historical and cultural origins and show how the refusal to historicize ‘religion’ is expressed today through various types of scientific argument coming out of the human and social sciences (arguments which appeal, for example, to the Latin concept of ‘civilization’, or the Germanic one of ( ‘Kultur’ ). (shrink)
En revendiquant le rôle méthodologique fondateur de la philosophie, dans ce célèbre Discours de 1894, très cité dans le cadre du « Débat sur l'historicisme », Windelband procède à une remise en perspective des théories de la connaissance en place à son époque. En polémiquant tout à la fois avec les philosophies positivistes et avec Dilthey, en critiquant notamment l'opposition établie par celui-ci entre Sciences de l'Esprit et Sciences de la Nature, Windelband défend ici l'idée que les sciences contemporaines demandent (...) à être différenciées non pas sur la base de leur objet spécifique (l'esprit ou la nature), mais de leur méthode d'approche des objets, méthode qui varie selon qu'elle soit généralisante (ou nomothétique) ou singularisante (ou idiographique). In his famous Address of 1894 — often cited within the contextual framework of the so-called « Debate on historicism » —, Windelband asserts the methodological and founding role of philosophy. He sets about putting into perspective the theories of knowledge that were current at the time. In arguing with both the positivistic philosophies and Dilthey, notably in criticizing the opposition brought about by the latter between « Sciences of the Mind » and « Sciences of Nature », Windelband champions here the idea that contemporary sciences have to be differentiated not on the basis of their specific object (mind, or nature), but on the basis of their method of approach of these objects — a method that varies, depending on whether it is totalizing (or nomothetic) or singularizing (or ideographic). (shrink)
After reading Barbara William’s picture book Albert’s Impossible Toothache, Jana Mohr Lone’s fourth grade students at Whittier Elementary School in Seattle discussed the relationship between telling a lie, telling the truth, and making a mistake, and how we know that we are talking about the same thing when we talk with someone. The discussion led to an exploration of why the things children say are often less likely to be believed than what adults say. This section contains six fourth grade (...) students’ responses to the question: “Are children more or less trustworthy than adults?” These answers, the question they are responding to, and the book which inspired the discussion, all offer possibilities for further discussion. (shrink)
By using a tomographic approach to quantum states, we rise the problem of nonlocality within a single particle (single degree of freedom). We propose a possible way to look for such e®ects on a qubit. Although a conclusive answer is far from being reached, we provide some re°ections on the foundational ground.
The paper describes a highly specific Italian action research experience, connected with the trade unions, going through different phases from the 1970s to the present day. The journey is not only a journey through time but also through different approaches. It ranges from the initial experience focusing on health and safety problems at the workplace involving the workers as co-designers of new working environments to today’s search conference experience. For each phase there is a full description and comment on the (...) methods utilised by the research group. The main methodological shift described in the paper is the one from discussion groups, based on Bion’s thinking, to the search conferences, based on Emery’s line of thinking. Both are oriented to the subjectivity of the people involved, although in the discussion group experience the research groups considered the subjectivity of the people involved as the subject of the observation. The researchers’ aim of was to acquire a reliable knowledge of what was at stake and to pass it on to the union that organised the research in order to promote actions. Hence, the action-research circuit is based upon different actors and the process is integrated only from the point of view of the union. In the search conference experience the researchers are involved in a co-design process and so the action-research circuit is really integrated from the researchers’ perspective; there are, of course, multiple perspectives in this case and this opens up epistemological problems that are not discussed in the paper. (shrink)