Results for 'Flávia Carvalho'

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  1. Naturalism: Contemporary Perspectives.Juliano Santos do Carmo, Flávia Carvalho, Clademir Araldi, Carlos Miraglia, Alberto Semeler, Adriano Naves de Brito, Sofia Stein, Marco Azevedo & Nythamar de Oliveira - 2013 - NEPFIL online | Dissertatio's Series of Philosophy.
    The basic assumption present in these articles is that naturalism is highly compatible with a wide range of relevant philosophical questions and that, regardless of the classical problems faced by the naturalist, the price paid in endorsing naturalism is lower than that paid by essentialist or supernaturalist theories. Yet, the reader will find a variety of approaches, from naturalism in Moral Philosophy and Epistemology to naturalism in the Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mind and of the Aesthetics.
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  2.  79
    Our Common Enemy: Combatting the World's Deadliest Viruses to Ensure Equity Health Care in Developing Nations.I. V. Carvalho - 2009 - Zygon 44 (1):51-63.
    In a previous issue of Zygon (Carvalho 2007), I explored the role of scientists—especially those engaging the science-religion dialogue—within the arena of global equity health, world poverty, and human rights. I contended that experimental biologists, who might have reduced agency because of their professional workload or lack of individual resources, can still unite into collective forces with other scientists as well as human rights organizations, medical doctors, and political and civic leaders to foster progressive change in our world. In (...)
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  3.  32
    Quando se adapta uma obra literária para crianças e jovens, que gênero textual é adaptado?Diógenes Buenos Aires de Carvalho - 2011 - Conjectura: Filosofia E Educação 16 (2):156-168.
    O presente trabalho busca responder à indagação constante no seu título, visto que pouco se sabe sobre a adaptação literária no tocante aos gêneros textuais literários que são objetos desse processo. Em vista disso, desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica (CARVALHO, 2006) que possibilitou a configuração da adaptação literária como um fenômeno editorial da literatura infantil brasileira. A partir dos dados coletados, foi possível identificar os gêneros textuais inseridos no universo da narrativa literária, mais adaptados a crianças e jovens no Brasil: (...)
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  4. A Ética da Crença: uma Defesa Moderada da Posição Indiciária.Eros Carvalho - 2018 - Sofia 7 (1):17-40.
    In this paper, I articulate and discuss Clifford's two main arguments in favor of the norm that it is illegitimate to believe based on insufficient evidence. The first argument appeals to the instrumental value of belief, and the second one appeals to our intrinsic interest in the truth. Both arguments bring to the fore the relevance of moral and social factors to determine norms for belief. I sustain that the first argument is insufficient to establish Clifford's norm in general. Beliefs (...)
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  5.  67
    Sintonizando com o mundo: uma abordagem ecológica das habilidades sensoriomotoras.Eros Carvalho - manuscript
    Neste capítulo, apresento e sustento uma articulação da noção de habilidade corporal ou sensoriomotora a partir da psicologia ecológica e mostro como ela é relevante para o debate entre Dreyfus e McDowell sobre a lida habilidosa e também para o debate sobre se saber-fazer se reduz ou não a conhecimento proposicional. A metáfora correta para compreender habilidades corporais não é a do computador, mas a do rádio. Essas habilidades resultam de um processo de sintonização do organismo com o seu ambiente.
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  6. O Humanismo Normativo de Fromm.Eurico Carvalho - 1987 - Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade Do Porto (Série de Filosofia) 4:117-141.
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  7.  51
    Olfactory Objects.Felipe Carvalho - 2014 - Disputatio 6 (38):45-66.
    The philosophy of perception has been mostly focused on vision, to the detriment of other modalities like audition or olfaction. In this paper I focus on olfaction and olfactory experience, and raise the following questions: is olfaction a perceptual-representational modality? If so, what does it represent? My goal in the paper is, firstly, to provide an affirmative answer to the first question, and secondly, to argue that olfaction represents odors in the form of olfactory objects, to which olfactory qualities are (...)
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  8. Socially Extending the Mind Through Social Affordances.Eros Moreira de Carvalho - 2019 - In Steven Gouveia & Manuel Curado (eds.), Automata's Inner Movie: Science and Philosophy of Mind. "Delaware, USA": Vernon Press. pp. 193-212.
    The extended mind thesis claims that at least some cognitive processes extend beyond the organism’s brain in that they are constituted by the organism’s actions on its surrounding environment. A more radical move would be to claim that social actions performed by the organism could at least constitute some of its mental processes. This can be called the socially extended mind thesis. Based on the notion of affordance as developed in the ecological psychology tradition, I defend the position that perception (...)
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  9.  33
    O marxismo crítico de Guy Debord: Uma revisitação Situacionista de Maio de 1968.Eurico Carvalho - 2018 - Aufklärung 5 (2):195-208.
    Neste ensaio, pretendemos evidenciar o marxismo crítico de Guy Debord a partir de uma revisitação de Maio de 1968. Cinquenta anos depois deste evento, com efeito, impõe‑se a pergunta: «Em que medida a definição situacionista da subjectividade anticapitalista ainda mantém a sua pertinência histórico‑crítica?» Não sendo simples, a resposta equivale, afinal, à avaliação do marxismo debordiano, tendo em vista discriminar, a seu respeito, o que está vivo e o que está morto.
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  10. From Disordered to Ordered Movement: Attractor Configuration and Development.Maria Isabel Pedrosa, Ana Ma Carvalho, Amelia Imperio-Hamburger, A. Fogel, M. Lyra & J. Valsiner - 1997 - In Alan Fogel, Maria C. D. P. Lyra & Jaan Valsiner (eds.), Dynamics and Indeterminism in Developmental and Social Processes. L. Erlbaum.
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  11.  19
    Affordances Sociais e a Tese da Mente Estendida.Eros Carvalho - 2018 - Proceedings of the Brazilian Research Group on Epistemology 2018: Social Epistemology.
    A tese da mente estendida alega que ao menos alguns processos cognitivos se estendem para além do cérebro do organismo no sentido de que eles são constituídos por ações realizadas por esse organismo no ambiente ao seu redor. Um movimento mais radical seria alegar que ações sociais realizadas pelo organismo poderiam pelo menos constituir alguns dos seus processos cognitivos. Isso pode ser chamando de tese da mente socialmente estendida. Baseando-me na noção de affordance tal como ela foi desenvolvida na tradição (...)
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  12.  10
    Making the Modern Criminal Law and the Paradox of Civil Order.Henrique Carvalho - 2019 - Jurisprudence 10 (1):103-109.
    Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2019, Page 103-109.
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  13. Teoria do Conhecimento e Educação no Pensamento de Jean-Jacques Rousseau.Manoel Carvalho - 2017 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal Do Ceará
    The initial problem which motivated the writing of this thesis arose from reading of Emile by Rousseau. In this work, it was possible to detect the influence of different theoretical approaches, such as rationalism and empiricism, inspiring the development of the educational plan designed by Rousseau for his imaginary student (Emile). The very core question of the present thesis regards to whether there was a theory of knowledge pertaining to Rousseau’s philosophical thinking and, if so, how it was related to (...)
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  14. Reading McDowell: On Mind and World.Eurico Carvalho - 2016 - Poliética. Revista de Ética E Filosofia Política 4 (1):61.88.
    In Mind and World, John McDowell intends to make the diagnosis of a fundamental philosophical anxiety, whose hard core, from his point of view, is deeply rooted in the relationship that usually occurs between mind and world, as the title suggests. Moreover, assuming entirely the clinical consequences of metaphor, McDowell’s main aim is to point towards a cure. This therapy, as we shall see, doesn’t have an effective Wittgensteinian direction, in contrast with McDowell’s assertions. On the other hand, I will (...)
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  15.  43
    Goodman e o projeto de uma definição construtiva de “indução válida”.Eros Moreira de Carvalho - 2018 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 22 (3):439-460.
    In Fact, Fiction and Forecast, Nelson Goodman claims that the problem of justifying induction is not something over and above the problem of describing valid induction. Such claim, besides suggesting his commitment to the collapse of the distinction between the context of description and the context of justification, seems to open the possibility that the new riddle of induction could be addressed empirically. Discoveries about psychological preferences for projecting certain classes of objects could function as a criterion for determining which (...)
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  16.  15
    Time-Perception Network and Default Mode Network Are Associated with Temporal Prediction in a Periodic Motion Task.Fabiana M. Carvalho, Khallil T. Chaim, Tiago A. Sanchez & Draulio B. de Araujo - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  17. Qualia Qua Qualitons: Mental Qualities as Abstract Particulars.Hilan Bensusan & Eros Moreira De Carvalho - 2011 - Acta Analytica 26 (2):155-163.
    In this paper we advocate the thesis that qualia are tropes (or qualitons), and not (universal) properties. The main advantage of the thesis is that we can accept both the Wittgensteinian and Sellarsian assault on the given and the claim that only subjective and private states can do justice to the qualitative character of experience. We hint that if we take qualia to be tropes, we dissolve the problem of inverted qualia. We develop an account of sensory concept acquisition that (...)
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  18.  8
    The Effect of Emotional Distraction on Hyper-Binding in Young and Older Adults.Sara N. Gallant, Monique Carvalho, Jasneet Hansi & Lixia Yang - forthcoming - Cognition and Emotion:1-9.
    ABSTRACTOur cognitive system implicitly binds relevant stimulus features into a coherent episodic event. According to past research, relative to young adults, older adults are more likely to hyper-...
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  19.  76
    On the Nature of Hinge Commitments.Eros Carvalho - 2019 - Sképsis 10 (19):55-66.
    This is a critical commentary on Pritchard's book Epistemic Angst. In Section 2, I present the closure-based radical skeptical paradox. Then in Section 3, I sketch Pritchard’s undercutting response to this paradox. Finally, in Section 4, I put forward two concerns about Pritchard’s response and I also propose a reading of hinge commitments, the ability reading, that might put some pressure on Pritchard’s own reading of these commitments.
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  20. O argumento da ilusão/alucinação e o disjuntivismo: Ayer versus Austin.Eros Moreira de Carvalho - 2015 - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 12:85-106.
    The argument from illusion/hallucination have been proposed many times as supporting the strong conclusion that we are always perceiving directly sense-data. In Sense & Sensibilia, Austin argues that this argument is based on a “mass of seductive (mainly verbal) fallacies”. In this paper, I argue that Austin's argumentative moves to deconstruct the argument from illusion is better understood if they are seen as due to his implicit commitment to some disjunctivist conception of perception. His considerations should be taken as a (...)
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  21. Stroud, Austin, and Radical Skepticism.Eros Moreira de Carvalho & Flavio Williges - 2016 - Sképsis 14:57-75.
    Is ruling out the possibility that one is dreaming a requirement for a knowledge claim? In “Philosophical Scepticism and Everyday Life” (1984), Barry Stroud defends that it is. In “Others Minds” (1970), John Austin says it is not. In his defense, Stroud appeals to a conception of objectivity deeply rooted in us and with which our concept of knowledge is intertwined. Austin appeals to a detailed account of our scientific and everyday practices of knowledge attribution. Stroud responds that what Austin (...)
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  22. Overcoming Intellectualism About Knowledge and Understanding: A Unified Approach.Eros Carvalho - 2018 - Logos and Episteme 9 (1):7-26.
    In this paper I defend a unified approach to knowledge and understanding. Both are achievements due to cognitive abilities or skills. The difference between them is a difference of aspects. Knowledge emphasizes the successful aspect of an achievement and the exclusion of epistemic luck, whereas understanding emphasizes the agent's contribution in bringing about an achievement through the exercise of one's cognitive skills. Knowledge and understanding cannot be separated. I argue against the claim that understanding is distinct from knowledge because the (...)
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  23.  94
    Ethical Decision Making in Intensive Care Units: A Burnout Risk Factor? Results From a Multicentre Study Conducted with Physicians and Nurses.C. Teixeira, O. Ribeiro, A. M. Fonseca & A. S. Carvalho - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (2):97-103.
    Background Ethical decision making in intensive care is a demanding task. The need to proceed to ethical decision is considered to be a stress factor that may lead to burnout. The aim of this study is to explore the ethical problems that may increase burnout levels among physicians and nurses working in Portuguese intensive care units . A quantitative, multicentre, correlational study was conducted among 300 professionals.Results The most crucial ethical decisions made by professionals working in ICU were related to (...)
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  24.  31
    Finding Treasures: Is the Community of Philosophical Inquiry a Methodology?Walter Omar Kohan & Magda Costa Carvalho - 2019 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 38 (3):275-289.
    In the world of Philosophy for Children, the word “method” is found frequently in its literature and in its practitioner’s handbooks. This paper focuses on the idea of community of philosophical inquiry as P4C’s methodological framework for educational purposes, and evaluates that framework and those purposes in light of the question, what does it mean to bring children and philosophy together, and what methodological framework, if any, is appropriate to that project? Our broader aim is to highlight a problem with (...)
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  25.  10
    Towards a New Classification of Stable Phase Schizophrenia Into Major and Simple Neuro-Cognitive Psychosis: Results of Unsupervised Machine Learning Analysis.Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F. Carvalho, Michel Geffard & Michael Maes - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (4):879-891.
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  26.  9
    Does Work-Family Conflict Mediate the Associations of Job Characteristics With Employees’ Mental Health Among Men and Women?Vânia S. Carvalho, Maria J. Chambel, Mariana Neto & Silvia Lopes - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  27.  14
    Lowered Quality of Life in Mood Disorders is Associated with Increased Neuro-Oxidative Stress and Basal Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Use of Anticonvulsant Mood Stabilizers.Caroline Sampaio Nunes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Juliana Brum Moraes, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, George Anderson, Luiz Gustavo Piccoli de Melo, Stoyanov Drozdstoj, Estefania Moreira, André F. Carvalho & Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (4):869-878.
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  28. Overview of the Structure of a Scientific Worldview.John J. Carvalho - 2006 - Zygon 41 (1):113-124.
  29.  10
    Assembling Upstream Engagement: The Case of the Portuguese Deliberative Forum on Nanotechnologies.António Carvalho & João Arriscado Nunes - 2018 - NanoEthics 12 (2):99-113.
    This article analyzes a deliberative forum on nanotechnologies, organized in Portugal within the scope of the research project DEEPEN—Deepening Ethical Engagement and Participation in Emerging Nanotechnologies. This event included scientists, science communicators and members of the “lay public”, and resulted in a position document which summarizes collective aspirations and concerns related to nano. Drawing upon our previous experience with focus groups on nanotechnologies—characterized by methodological innovations that aimed at suspending epistemological inequalities between participants—this paper delves into the performativity of the (...)
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  30.  8
    Effects of Interleaved and Blocked Study on Delayed Test of Category Learning Generalization.Paulo F. Carvalho & Robert L. Goldstone - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  31.  53
    Technology, Methodology and Intervention: Performing Nanoethics in Portugal. [REVIEW]António Carvalho & João Arriscado Nunes - 2013 - NanoEthics 7 (2):149-160.
    During the last few decades we have witnessed a proliferation of exercises dealing with the public participation of citizens in various different dimensions of their societies, including issues of science and technology. On the one hand, these mechanisms provide more robust forms of public engagement with matters that were traditionally dealt with by experts; on the other hand, they raise concerns relating to their design, efficiency or potential for the empowerment of citizens. As part of the EC-funded project DEEPEN (Deepening (...)
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  32.  81
    A Epistemologia da Perceção (Verbete).Eros Carvalho - manuscript
    Tomamos como certo que os nossos sentidos nos colocam em contato com o ambiente ao nosso redor. Enquanto caminhamos em uma rua, vemos obstáculos que temos de contornar ou remover. Mesmo de costas, podemos ouvir a bicicleta que se aproxima e dar passagem. Em suma, por meio de experiências perceptivas (visuais, auditivas, olfativas etc.), ficamos conscientes de objetos ou eventos que estejam ocorrendo ao nosso redor. Além disso, com base no que percebemos, podemos formar e manter crenças acerca do ambiente (...)
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  33.  11
    It Does Belong Together: Cross-Modal Correspondences Influence Cross-Modal Integration During Perceptual Learning.Lionel Brunel, Paulo F. Carvalho & Robert L. Goldstone - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  34.  17
    Suggested Visual Hallucinations in and Out of Hypnosis.Giuliana Mazzoni, Elisabetta Rotriquenz, Claudia Carvalho, Manila Vannucci, Kathrine Roberts & Irving Kirsch - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):494-499.
    We administered suggestions to see a gray-scale pattern as colored and a colored pattern in shades of gray to 30 high suggestible and eight low suggestible students. The suggestions were administered twice, once following the induction of hypnosis and once without an induction. Besides rating the degree of color they saw in the stimuli differently, participants also rated their states of consciousness as normal, relaxed, hypnotized, or deeply hypnotized. Reports of being hypnotized were limited to highly suggestible participants and only (...)
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  35.  31
    The Critical Marxism of Guy Debord: May '68 Revisited from a Situationist Perspective.Eurico Carvalho - 2018 - Aufklärung 5 (2):195-208.
    Revisiting May 1968, this paper highlights the critical nature of Guy Debord's Marxism. Fifty years after the French events, the question then arises: “To what extent does the Situationist definition of anticapitalist subjectivity still preserve its historical-critical relevance?” The answer is not simple. After all, it amounts to the evaluation of the critical Marxism of Debord, in order to distinguish, in its regard, what is living and what is dead.
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  36.  42
    Burnout in Palliative Care: A Systematic Review.Sandra Martins Pereira, António M. Fonseca & Ana Sofia Carvalho - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (3):317-326.
    Burnout is a phenomenon characterized by fatigue and frustration, usually related to work stress and dedication to a cause, a way of life that does not match the person’s expectations. Although it seems to be associated with risk factors stemming from a professional environment, this problem may affect any person. Palliative care is provided in a challenging environment, where professionals often have to make demanding ethical decisions and deal with death and dying. This article reports on the findings of a (...)
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  37.  5
    Age-Diversity Practices and Retirement Preferences Among Older Workers: A Moderated Mediation Model of Work Engagement and Work Ability.Inês C. Sousa, Sara Ramos & Helena Carvalho - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  38.  20
    Scientific Integrity in Brazil.Liliane Lins & Fernando Martins Carvalho - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (3):283-287.
    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific (...)
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  39. O tema da ética de estado nas Aves de Aristófanes.Tiago Nascimento Carvalho - 2014 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 12:19-24.
    Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Este artigo verifica a possibilidade de compreender a Ética de Estado como uma das propostas de leitura da célebre comédia de Aristófanes As Aves . Para tal é fundamental que seja demonstrado no que se chamaria mito da cidade ideal, uma alegoria literária desta cidade ideal e os fundamentos (...)
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  40.  22
    Philosophy of Technology.Andrew Feenberg & Jairo Dias Carvalho - 2015 - Revista de Filosofia Aurora 27 (40):411.
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  41.  37
    On Debord's Square of Modernity.Eurico Carvalho - 2017 - Aufklärung 4 (2):121-139.
    In this paper, I will focus on the nature of the modernity from the perspective of a «logical» square. On the basis of its vectorial orientation, I will show the value of Guy Debord’s work, according to which, undeniably, there is a need to articulate two core issues of our time: «How does a multitude turn into a class?» (Benjamin’s question) and «How does the individual become a subject?» (Althusser’s question). It is precisely the nexus between these questions that allows (...)
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  42.  18
    Count on Dopamine: Influences of COMT Polymorphisms on Numerical Cognition.Annelise Júlio-Costa, Andressa M. Antunes, Júlia B. Lopes-Silva, Bárbara C. Moreira, Gabrielle S. Vianna, Guilherme Wood, Maria R. S. Carvalho & Vitor G. Haase - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  43.  35
    Sosa on Animal Knowledge and Emotions.Eros Moreira De Carvalho & Flavio Williges - 2015 - Analytica (Rio) 19 (1):145-160.
    Our goal in this paper is to discuss the notion of animal knowledge in Judgment and Agency. Our approach has two stages. First, we offer a positive contribution, attempting to show that there is room for the introduction of emotions into an animal knowledge approach and into Sosa’s theory of competence. If we follow Sosa and conceive knowledge as a kind of action or successful performance, then emotions can contribute functionally for enhancing performance and are essential for the sharing of (...)
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  44.  46
    A Biologist's Perspective on the Future of the Science-Religion Dialogue in the Twenty-First Century.I. V. Carvalho - 2008 - Zygon 43 (1):217-226.
  45.  36
    Ethical Issues in Designing Interventions for Behavioural Change.Gyunchan Thomas Jun, Neil Sinclair & Fernando Carvalho - 2018 - Proceedings of Design Research Society 2018, Volume 1.
  46.  43
    Ortega Y Gasset, a Vida Como Realidade Metafísica.José Mauricio de Carvalho - 2015 - Trans/Form/Ação 38 (1):167-186.
    Neste artigo, estudamos as características que o filósofo espanhol Ortega y Gasset atribuiu à vida. Mostramos que o essencial de sua meditação girou em torno do assunto. No entanto, o tema ganhou densidade metafísica somente no final dos anos 1920, quando suas considerações foram inseridas na tradição filosófica do ocidente. Foi quando ele apontou a insuficiência do realismo e do idealismo na abordagem do fundamento pretendido pela Filosofia e apresentou a filosofia da razão vital como um passo adiante das duas (...)
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  47.  32
    A Biologist's Perspective on the Future of the Science‐Religion Dialogue in the Twenty‐First Century.John J. Carvalho - 2008 - Zygon 43 (1):217-226.
  48.  53
    Incorrigibilidade nas circunstâncias adequadas: “qualquer tipo de enunciado pode oferecer evidências para qualquer outro tipo”.Eros Carvalho - 2014 - Analytica (Rio) 18 (2):41-65.
    In this paper, I present the discussion between Ayer and Austin about whether sentences or utterances can be incorrigible and I argue in favor of Austin position. I defend Austin against objections from Ayer presented after the publication of Sense & Sensibilia. Unlike what was sustained by Ayer, experiential sentences and material object sentences are not epistemically asymmetrical. A material object sentence can be incorrigible if uttered in appropriated circumstances, and an experiential sentence can be corrigible if uttered in unappropriated (...)
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  49.  36
    The Scientist as Statesman: Biologists and Third World Health.John J. Carvalho - 2007 - Zygon 42 (2):289-300.
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    Seeing Qualitons as Qualia: A Dialogue with Wittgenstein on Private Experience, Sense Data and the Ontology of Mind.Hilan Bensusan & Eros Moreira De Carvalho - 2013 - Papers of the 33rd International Wittgenstein Symposium.
    In this paper we put forward the thesis that qualia are tropes (or qualitons), and not (universal) properties. Further, we maintain that Wittgenstein hints in this direction. We also find in Wittgenstein elements of an account of language acquisition that takes the presence of qualia as an enabling condition. We conclude by pointing out some difficulties of this view.
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