Platonism, Ficino to Foucault explores some key chapters in the history Platonic philosophy from the revival of Plato in the fifteenth century to the new reading of Platonic dialogues promoted by the so-called ‘Critique of Modernity’.
A controversial issue in Rousseau’s philosophy is the relationship between the people as a whole, who want the good but cannot see it, and individuals, who see the good but do not want it. This predicament has to be overcome by the Legislator, whose characteristics seem however to be inconsistent with the theory propounded in the first book of the Contrat Social. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the current debate by exploring three possible functions of this (...) key figure, which are 1. to formulate the content of constitutional law; 2. to make the people aware of their sovereignty by bringing to light the rules underlining the social contract; 3.to mediate between the political and the socio-economic sphere, that is between the sovereign people’s efforts to bring about the general will and individuals’ efforts to advance their own particular interest. Being structurally different from the first two, this last hypothesis need not be seen as conflicting with either of them. (shrink)
La Nouvelle Héloïse di Jean-Jacques Rousseau, pur essendo a tutti gli effetti un romanzo, presenta molti elementi leggibili in chiave di filosofia politica. Tra questi emerge la descrizione di Clarens, la parte più politica dell’opera, che è stata interpretata da alcuni come una sorta di utopia, da altri come un laboratorio della politica, preparatorio di alcune delle tematiche del Contrat social. Entrambe queste interpretazioni hanno dei riscontri nel testo: lo dimostra il fatto che si rintracciano fianco a fianco temi come (...) quelli del dirigismo e dell’eudemonismo e quelli della creazione di un forte sentimento comunitario; il fatto che il problema dell’uguaglianza si pone in modo complesso, a volte affermato a volte negato; il fatto che la conduzione dell’economia della tenuta è retta da forti elementi utilitaristici e, nello stesso tempo, è ispirata dai principi del conseguimento del bene comune e della moderazione nelle fortune; infine, dal fatto che i ruoli di Julie e Wolmar all’interno della comunità invitano a meditare sulla difficile figura del Legislatore del Contrat social, non privo di connotazioni che possono in qualche modo riportarlo al fondatore delle utopie. (shrink)
On the basis of an initial reference to a number of critical appraisals of H. Dooyeweerd’s philosophy, this article proceeds by provisionally focusing on the image of Franz Xavier Von Baader1 — who was intellectually active during the first part of the nineteenth century — in secondary literature . The main concern, however, is to enter into a more detailed evaluation of the claim made by J.G. Friesen,2 namely that all the basic systematic insights and distinctions found in the philosophy (...) of Herman Dooyeweerd are already present in the thought of Von Baader. That Dooyeweerd was indeed influenced by numerous philosophers and philosophical insights spanning the entire history of philosophy is beyond doubt. However, that there is any direct influence on his thought from Von Baader cannot be substantiated on the basis of the available sources even though it is not unlikely that he might have been aware of the existence of Von Baader. Both the quotations used by Friesen in support of his thesis and an extensive reading of the original Collected Works of Von Baader serve as a basis for the assessment of the claims made by Friesen. In fact, there are a number of philosophical distinctions found in the original works of Von Baader that, considered in isolation, are much closer to views of Dooyeweerd. However, once these are placed within the context of Von Baader’s thought, the striking and significant distance between the thought of Von Baader and Dooyeweerd once again become apparent. (shrink)
What is the criterion of truth? This is a question that was resolved long ago by the revolutionary teachers of the proletariat. But as a result of damage done by the "Gang of Four" and a mass of distorted propaganda in the media under their control, it has become muddled beyond compare in recent years. In order to deepen the criticism of the "Gang of Four" and eradicate the remnants of their poison and influence, it is very important to clear (...) this up and sort it out. (shrink)
This is a follow-up article of Strauss 2011. In order to transcend the shortcomings present in the dialectical legacy regarding normativity, this article further explores key elements within the dialectical tradition focused on the basic motive of nature and freedom and the effect it had on modern social contract theories which aimed at reconstructing human society from its “atoms,” the individuals. The transition to an alternative approach commences with a discussion of the distinction between conditions and what is conditioned. It (...) concerns a correlation found within all aspects of reality, namely that between the law side or norm side on the one hand and the factual side on the other. The basic assumption of this alternative view is found in the idea of ontic normativity which is rooted in a non-reductionist ontology. Against this broader background shortcomings in Kelsen’s theory of law are briefly traced to the dialectic of the causal and non-causal, before a positive characterization of the concept of a principle is given. It turned out that it is a compound basic concept in which terms from different modal aspects of reality are encapsulated at once. The recognition of ontic normativity therefore also enables a distinct methodology, the transcendental-empirical method, which makes it possible to distinguish between the pre-positive nature of a principle, as a universal and constant starting-point for human action, and the historically varying ways in which such a principle can be made valid, through a competent organ disposing over an accountable will and capable to interpret the unique historical circumstances in which the principle has to be positivized . The nature of modal norms is highlighted in terms of various examples, such as jural, historical, logical and aesthetic principles, with special reference to Derrida’s understanding of credit as economic trust or economic faith. In order to make this transcendental-empirical method understandable a more detailed account of the nature of modal aspects is given. The emphasis on ontic normativity also helps us to steer clear of conceptions of natural law, historicism and the shortcomings present in the idea of a social construction of the world. The guiding perspective flowing from this analysis is that modal norms can be articulated through an analysis of analogical structural moments on the law sides of the normative aspects. The last part of this article briefly introduces the distinction between modal and typical norms without entering into a discussion of the latter. (shrink)