Results for 'Formalization'

932 found
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  1. Carnapian Explication, Formalisms as Cognitive Tools, and the Paradox of Adequate Formalization.Catarina Dutilh Novaes & Erich Reck - 2017 - Synthese 194 (1):195-215.
    Explication is the conceptual cornerstone of Carnap’s approach to the methodology of scientific analysis. From a philosophical point of view, it gives rise to a number of questions that need to be addressed, but which do not seem to have been fully addressed by Carnap himself. This paper reconsiders Carnapian explication by comparing it to a different approach: the ‘formalisms as cognitive tools’ conception. The comparison allows us to discuss a number of aspects of the Carnapian methodology, as well as (...)
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  2. A Brief Critical Introduction to the Ontological Argument and its Formalization: Anselm, Gaunilo, Descartes, Leibniz and Kant.Ricardo Silvestre - 2018 - Journal of Applied Logics 5 (7):1441-1474.
    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims at introducing the ontological argument through the analysis of five historical developments: Anselm’s argument found in the second chapter of his Proslogion, Gaunilo’s criticism of it, Descartes’ version of the ontological argument found in his Meditations on First Philosophy, Leibniz’s contribution to the debate on the ontological argument and his demonstration of the possibility of God, and Kant’s famous criticisms against the (cartesian) ontological argument. Second, it intends to critically examine (...)
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  3.  33
    Formalization and the Meaning of “Theory” in the Inexact Biological Sciences.James Griesemer - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (4):298-310.
    Exact sciences are described as sciences whose theories are formalized. These are contrasted to inexact sciences, whose theories are not formalized. Formalization is described as a broader category than mathematization, involving any form/content distinction allowing forms, e.g., as represented in theoretical models, to be studied independently of the empirical content of a subject-matter domain. Exactness is a practice depending on the use of theories to control subject-matter domains and to align theoretical with empirical models and not merely a state (...)
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  4. Adequate Formalization.Michael Baumgartner & Timm Lampert - 2008 - Synthese 164 (1):93-115.
    This article identifies problems with regard to providing criteria that regulate the matching of logical formulae and natural language. We then take on to solve these problems by defining a necessary and sufficient criterion of adequate formalization. On the basis of this criterion we argue that logic should not be seen as an ars iudicandi capable of evaluating the validity or invalidity of informal arguments, but as an ars explicandi that renders transparent the formal structure of informal reasoning.
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  5.  96
    Reconstructing Arguments: Formalization and Reflective Equilibrium.Georg Brun - 2014 - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 17:94-129.
    Traditional logical reconstruction of arguments aims at assessing the validity of ordinary language arguments. It involves several tasks: extracting argumentations from texts, breaking up complex argumentations into individual arguments, framing arguments in standard form, as well as formalizing arguments and showing their validity with the help of a logical formalism. These tasks are guided by a multitude of partly antagonistic goals, they interact in various feedback loops, and they are intertwined with the development of theories of valid inference and adequate (...)
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  6. Formalization and the Objects of Logic.Georg Brun - 2008 - Erkenntnis 69 (1):1 - 30.
    There is a long-standing debate whether propositions, sentences, statements or utterances provide an answer to the question of what objects logical formulas stand for. Based on the traditional understanding of logic as a science of valid arguments, this question is firstly framed more exactly, making explicit that it calls not only for identifying some class of objects, but also for explaining their relationship to ordinary language utterances. It is then argued that there are strong arguments against the proposals commonly put (...)
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  7.  83
    Criteria for Logical Formalization.Jaroslav Peregrin & Vladimír Svoboda - 2013 - Synthese 190 (14):2897-2924.
    The article addresses two closely related questions: What are the criteria of adequacy of logical formalization of natural language arguments, and what gives logic the authority to decide which arguments are good and which are bad? Our point of departure is the criticism of the conception of logical formalization put forth, in a recent paper, by M. Baumgartner and T. Lampert. We argue that their account of formalization as a kind of semantic analysis brings about more problems (...)
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  8.  23
    Governing Knowledge: The Formalization Dilemma in the Governance of the Public Sciences.Peter Woelert - 2015 - Minerva 53 (1):1-19.
    This paper offers a conceptually novel contribution to the understanding of the distinctive governance challenges arising from the increasing reliance on formalized knowledge in the governance of research activities. It uses the current Australian research governance system as an example – a system which exhibits a comparatively strong degree of formalization as to its knowledge mechanisms. Combining theoretical reflections on the political-administrative and epistemic dimensions of processes of formalization with analyses of interview data gathered at Australian universities, it (...)
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  9.  11
    From the Logical Square to Blanché’s Hexagon: Formalization, Applicability and the Idea of the Normative Structure of Thought. [REVIEW]Aimable-André Dufatanye - 2012 - Logica Universalis 6 (1-2):45-67.
    The square of opposition and many other geometrical logical figures have increasingly proven to be applicable to different fields of knowledge. This paper seeks to show how Blanché generalizes the classical theory of oppositions of propositions and extends it to the structure of opposition of concepts. Furthermore, it considers how Blanché restructures the Apuleian square by transforming it into a hexagon. After presenting G. Kalinowski’s formalization of Blanché’s hexagonal theory, an illustration of its applicability to mathematics, to modal logic, (...)
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  10.  14
    The Formalization of Critical Discussion.Erik Krabbe - 2017 - Argumentation 31 (1):101-119.
    This paper makes an independent start with formalizing the rules for the argumentation stage of critical discussions. It does not deal with the well-known code of conduct consisting of ten rules but with the system consisting of fifteen rules on which the code of conduct is based. The rules of this system are scrutinized and problems they raise are discussed. Then a formal dialectical system is defined that reflects most of the contents of these rules. The aim is to elucidate (...)
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  11.  58
    Adequate Formalization and de Morgan’s Argument.Georg Brun - 2012 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 85 (1):325-335.
    Lampert and Baumgartner (2010) critically discuss accounts of adequate formalization focusing on my analysis in (Brun 2004). There, I investigated three types of criteria of adequacy (matching truth conditions or inferential role, corresponding syntactical surface and systematicity) and argued that they ultimately call for a procedure of formalization. Although Lampert and Baumgartner have a point about matching truth conditions, their arguments target a truncated version of my account. They ignore all aspects of systematicity which make their counter-example unconvincing.
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  12.  63
    Semantic Criteria of Correct Formalization.Timm Lampert - 2010 - In Proceedings of Gap Conference.
    This paper compares several models of formalization. It articulates criteria of correct formalization and identifies their problems. All of the discussed criteria are so called “semantic” criteria, which refer to the interpretation of logical formulas. However, as will be shown, different versions of an implicitly applied or explicitly stated criterion of correctness depend on different understandings of “interpretation” in this context.
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  13.  44
    Technology, Knowledge, Governance: The Political Relevance of Husserl’s Critique of the Epistemic Effects of Formalization.Peter Woelert - 2013 - Continental Philosophy Review 46 (4):487-507.
    This paper explores the political import of Husserl’s critical discussion of the epistemic effects of the formalization of rational thinking. More specifically, it argues that this discussion is of direct relevance to make sense of the pervasive processes of ‘technization’, that is, of a mechanistic and superficial generation and use of knowledge, to be observed in current contexts of governance. Building upon Husserl’s understanding of formalization as a symbolic technique for abstraction in the thinking with and about numbers, (...)
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  14.  36
    Mathematizing Power, Formalization, and the Diagrammatical Mind Or: What Does “Computation” Mean? [REVIEW]Sybille Krämer - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):345-357.
    Computation and formalization are not modalities of pure abstractive operations. The essay tries to revise the assumption of the constitutive nonsensuality of the formal. The argument is that formalization is a kind of linear spatialization, which has significant visual dimensions. Thus, a connection can be discovered between visualization by figurative graphism and formalization by symbolic calculations: Both use spatial relations not only to represent but also to operate on epistemic, nonspatial, nonvisual entities. Descartes was one of the (...)
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  15.  20
    Analysis of Argument Strategies of Attack and Cooption: Stock Cases, Formalization, and Argument Reconstruction.Aaron Ben-Zeev - 1995 - Informal Logic 17 (2).
    Three common strategies used by informal logicians are considered: (1) the appeal to standard cases, (2) the attempt to partially formalize so-called "informal fallacies," and (3) restatement of arguments in such a way as to make their logical character more perspicuous. All three strategies are found to be useful. Attention is drawn to several advantages of a "stock case" approach, a minimalist approach to formalization is recommended, and doubts are raised about the applicability, from a logical point of view, (...)
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  16.  10
    Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research “Behaviour Formalization” System.Huong Thi Lan Nguyen & Vincent Lynn Meek - 2016 - Minerva 54 (1):45-73.
    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and organization of research at four leading Vietnamese universities. Through document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 55 participants, the study finds that the four case-study Vietnamese universities have accomplished a number of the more visible (...)
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  17.  12
    Formalization and Analysis of Reasoning by Assumption.Tibor Bosse, Catholijn M. Jonker & Jan Treur - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (1):147-180.
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  18.  9
    Natural Formalization: Deriving the Cantor-Bernstein Theorem in Zf.Wilfried Sieg & Patrick Walsh - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-44.
    Natural Formalization proposes a concrete way of expanding proof theory from the meta-mathematical investigation of formal theories to an examination of “the concept of the specifically mathematical proof.” Formal proofs play a role for this examination in as much as they reflect the essential structure and systematic construction of mathematical proofs. We emphasize three crucial features of our formal inference mechanism: (1) the underlying logical calculus is built for reasoning with gaps and for providing strategic directions, (2) the mathematical (...)
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  19. Formalization in Philosophy.Sven Ove Hansson - 2000 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (2):162-175.
    The advantages and disadvantages of formalization in philosophy are summarized. It is concluded that formalized philosophy is an endangered speciality that needs to be revitalized and to increase its interactions with non-formalized philosophy. The enigmatic style that is common in philosophical logic must give way to explicit discussions of the problematic relationship between formal models and the philosophical concepts and issues that motivated their development.
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  20.  38
    On Two Squares of Opposition: The Leśniewski’s Style Formalization of Synthetic Propositions. [REVIEW]Andrew Schumann - 2013 - Acta Analytica 28 (1):71-93.
    In the paper we build up the ontology of Leśniewski’s type for formalizing synthetic propositions. We claim that for these propositions an unconventional square of opposition holds, where a, i are contrary, a, o (resp. e, i) are contradictory, e, o are subcontrary, a, e (resp. i, o) are said to stand in the subalternation. Further, we construct a non-Archimedean extension of Boolean algebra and show that in this algebra just two squares of opposition are formalized: conventional and the square (...)
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  21.  19
    Bocheński's Formalization of Summa Theologiae (Ia,75,6) Reconsidered.Paolo Maffezioli - 2020 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (2):191-198.
    I investigate Bocheński's first-order logic formalization of the argument for the incorruptibility of the human soul given by Aquinas in Summa Theologiae (Ia,75,6). I suggest a slightly different axiomatization that reflect better Aquinas' informal argument. Along the way, I also fix a mistake in Bocheński's derivation that the human soul is not corruptible per se.
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  22. Theory and Formalization: Some Reflections on Experience.Joseph Berger - 2000 - Sociological Theory 18 (3):482-489.
    I describe in this paper some of my efforts in developing formal theories of social processes. These include work on models of occupational mobility, on models to describe the emergence of expectations out of performance evaluations, and on the graph theory formulation of the Status Characteristics theory. Not all models have been equally significant in developing theory. However, the graph theory formulation has played a central role in the growth of the Expectation States program. It has been involved in the (...)
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  23.  18
    The Problem of the Formalization of Constructive Topology.Silvio Valentini - 2004 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 44 (1):115-129.
    .Formal topologies are today an established topic in the development of constructive mathematics. One of the main tools in formal topology is inductive generation since it allows to introduce inductive methods in topology. The problem of inductively generating formal topologies with a cover relation and a unary positivity predicate has been solved in [CSSV]. However, to deal both with open and closed subsets, a binary positivity predicate has to be considered. In this paper we will show how to adapt to (...)
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  24.  87
    A Logical Formalization of the OCC Theory of Emotions.C. Adam, A. Herzig & D. Longin - 2009 - Synthese 168 (2):201-248.
    In this paper, we provide a logical formalization of the emotion triggering process and of its relationship with mental attitudes, as described in Ortony, Clore, and Collins’s theory. We argue that modal logics are particularly adapted to represent agents’ mental attitudes and to reason about them, and use a specific modal logic that we call Logic of Emotions in order to provide logical definitions of all but two of their 22 emotions. While these definitions may be subject to debate, (...)
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  25.  25
    The Emergence of Logical Formalization in the Philosophy of Religion: Genesis, Crisis, and Rehabilitation.Anders Kraal - 2013 - History and Philosophy of Logic 34 (4):351 - 366.
    The paper offers a historical survey of the emergence of logical formalization in twentieth-century analytically oriented philosophy of religion. This development is taken to have passed through three main ?stages?: a pioneering stage in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (led by Frege and Russell), a stage of crisis in the 1920s and early 1930s (occasioned by Wittgenstein, logical positivists such as Carnap, and neo-Thomists such as Maritain), and a stage of rehabilitation in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s (...)
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  26. Formalization and Infinity.André Porto - 2008 - Manuscrito 31 (1):25-43.
    This article discusses some of Chateaubriand’s views on the connections between the ideas of formalization and infinity, as presented in chapters 19 and 20 of Logical Forms. We basically agree with his criticisms of the standard construal of these connections, a view we named “formal proofs as ultimate provings”, but we suggest an alternative way of picturing that connection based on some ideas of the late Wittgenstein.
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  27.  18
    Implementation, Formalization, and Representation: Challenges for Integrated Information Theory.C. Montemayor, J. A. de Barros & L. P. G. De Assis - 2019 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 26 (1-2):107-132.
    Any theory of information needs to comply with what we call the implementation, formalization, and representation constraints. These constraints are justified by basic considerations concerning scientific modelling and methodology. In the first part of this paper, we argue that the implementation and formalization constraints cannot be satisfied because the relation between Shannon information and IIT must be clarified. In the second part of the paper, we focus on the representation constraint. We argue that IIT cannot succeed in satisfying (...)
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  28.  15
    On the Formalization of Classical Categorial Grammar.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2006 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 89:269.
    This article summarizes the main ideas for formalizing categorial languages genrated by classical categorial grammar originated by K. Ajdukiewicz [1935,1960].This formalization is presented in detail in the author's monographs in Polish "Teorie Języków Syntaktycznie Kategorialnych" ("Theories of Syntactically Categorical Languages"), PWN, Warszawa-Wrocław 1985 and in English "Theory of Language Syntax, Categorial Approach", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston-London-Dordrecht 1991.
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  29. AWide-Reflective-Equilibrium Conception of Reconstructive Formalization.Winfried Löffler - 2014 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 17 (1):130-151.
    I propose that a logical formalization of a natural language text may be regarded as adequate if the following three groups of beliefs can be integrated into a wide reflective equilibrium: our initial, spontaneous beliefs about the structure and logical quality of the text; our beliefs about its structure and logical quality as reflected in the proposed formalization, and our background beliefs about the original text’s author, his thought and other contextually relevant factors. Unlike a good part of (...)
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  30.  51
    Formalization in Philosophical Logic.Dale Jacquette - 1994 - The Monist 77 (3):358-375.
    The tools of logic are used properly or improperly relative to two interrelated purposes. Logic is both a symbolism for the expression of the formal structures of thought and an inference mechanism. Formalization in philosophical logic is justified to the extent that it contributes to our understanding of logical properties and the conceptual problems they may help to state, clarify, or resolve. This view of the value and limits of formalization in logic affords a pragmatic perspective that in (...)
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  31.  13
    Foundations for the Formalization of Metamathematics and Axiomatizations of Consequence Theories.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2004 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 127 (1-3):243-266.
    This paper deals with Tarski's first axiomatic presentations of the syntax of deductive system. Andrzej Grzegorczyk's significant results which laid the foundations for the formalization of metalogic, are touched upon briefly. The results relate to Tarski's theory of concatenation, also called the theory of strings, and to Tarski's ideas on the formalization of metamathematics. There is a short mention of author's research in the field. The main part of the paper surveys research on the theory of deductive systems (...)
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  32.  57
    Formalization, Syntax and the Standard Model of Arithmetic.Luca Bellotti - 2007 - Synthese 154 (2):199-229.
    I make an attempt at the description of the delicate role of the standard model of arithmetic for the syntax of formal systems. I try to assess whether the possible instability in the notion of finiteness deriving from the nonstandard interpretability of arithmetic affects the very notions of syntactic metatheory and of formal system. I maintain that the crucial point of the whole question lies in the evaluation of the phenomenon of formalization. The ideas of Skolem, Zermelo, Beth and (...)
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  33.  12
    Time and Physical Geometry. A Formalization of Putnam’s Proof.Jan Czerniawski - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    Putnam’s proof that time flow is incompatible with Relativity is underestimated, mostly due to Stein’s interpretation of the notion of reality in it as a two-term relation. This interpretation makes it vulnerable to easy criticism and makes various ways of escaping its conclusion possible. An alternative approach is proposed, resulting in a formalization which seems closer to Putnam’s intentions where reality is interpreted as a non-relational property. Although it makes the proof immune to all standard strategies of blocking the (...)
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  34.  45
    Modelling Inference in Argumentation Through Labelled Deduction: Formalization and Logical Properties. [REVIEW]Carlos Iván Chesñevar & Guillermo Ricardo Simari - 2007 - Logica Universalis 1 (1):93-124.
    . Artificial Intelligence (AI) has long dealt with the issue of finding a suitable formalization for commonsense reasoning. Defeasible argumentation has proven to be a successful approach in many respects, proving to be a confluence point for many alternative logical frameworks. Different formalisms have been developed, most of them sharing the common notions of argument and warrant. In defeasible argumentation, an argument is a tentative (defeasible) proof for reaching a conclusion. An argument is warranted when it ultimately prevails over (...)
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  35.  32
    Back to Inertia: Theoretical Implications of Alternative Styles of Logical Formalization.Gábor L. Péli, László Pólos & Michael T. Hannan - 2000 - Sociological Theory 18 (2):195-215.
    This article applies two new criteria, desirability and faithfulness, to evaluate Peli et al.'s (1994) formalization of Hannan and Freeman's structural inertia argument (1984, 1989). We conclude that this formalization fails to meet these criteria. We argue that part of the rational reconstruction on which this formalization builds does not reflect well the substantive argument in translating the natural language theory into logic. We propose two alternative formalizations that meet both of these criteria. Moreover, both derive the (...)
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  36.  21
    A Sequence Formalization for SCI.Anita Wasilewska - 1976 - Studia Logica 35 (3):213 - 217.
    This paper can be treated as a simplification of the Gentzen formalization of SCI-tautologies presented by A. Michaels in [1].
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  37.  8
    Formalization of Context-Free Language Theory.Marcus Vinícius Midena Ramos - 2019 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 25 (2):214-214.
    Proof assistants are software-based tools that are used in the mechanization of proof construction and validation in mathematics and computer science, and also in certified program development. Different such tools are being increasingly used in order to accelerate and simplify proof checking, and the Coq proof assistant is one of the most well known and used in large-scale projects. Language and automata theory is a well-established area of mathematics, relevant to computer science foundations and information technology. In particular, context-free language (...)
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  38.  28
    A Finitely Axiomatized Formalization of Predicate Calculus with Equality.Norman D. Megill - 1995 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (3):435-453.
    We present a formalization of first-order predicate calculus with equality which, unlike traditional systems with axiom schemata or substitution rules, is finitely axiomatized in the sense that each step in a formal proof admits only finitely many choices. This formalization is primarily based on the inference rule of condensed detachment of Meredith. The usual primitive notions of free variable and proper substitution are absent, making it easy to verify proofs in a machine-oriented application. Completeness results are presented. The (...)
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  39. Formalization of Intensional Functions and Epistemic Knowledge Representation Systems.Grzegorz Malinowski - 1999 - Logica Trianguli 3:111-118.
    o formalization of intensional functions was made for the purpose of many-valued interpretation of the belief-operators within the scope of the classical logic system. The first aim of the paper is to present and discuss this rather unknown many-valued construction and its properties. The fact that the manyvaluedness of o systems is purely formal - their characteristic matrices are Boolean - calls for further consideration. Departing from intristic similarities of the tables for the epistemic operators to the information functions (...)
     
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  40.  8
    Bachelard, Lacan and the Impurity of Scientific Formalization.Tom Eyers - 2012 - Paragraph 35 (3):320-337.
    This essay examines the conjunction of French historical epistemology and Lacanian theory in postwar France. In particular, Lacan's account of scientific formalization is scrutinized insofar as it develops aspects of the prior epistemological research of Gaston Bachelard, whose innovative approach to the problem of the nature and limits of scientific knowledge proved so influential on the subsequent field of French structuralism. Lacan's reflections on formalization will be shown, in contrast to Bachelard, to place an emphasis on the constitutive (...)
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  41.  17
    Meaning and Description in Non-Dualism: A Formalization and Extension.M. Staude - 2008 - Constructivist Foundations 3 (3):231-248.
    Problem: The article seeks to tackle three problems of Mitterer's non-dualistic philosophy. Firstly, the key term description remains not only rather unclear and rudimentary but also isolated from relevant neighboring terms and theories of other disciplines. Secondly, a logical reconstruction and formal model of non-dualism is still lacking. Thirdly, there are hardly any extensions of philosophical non-dualism to non-philosophical disciplines and fields. Findings: The three main findings of the article are based on the abovementioned problems. Firstly, the non-dualistic term description (...)
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  42.  27
    A Nonmonotonic Modal Formalization of the Logic of Acceptance and Rejection.Anna Gomolińska - 1997 - Studia Logica 58 (1):113-127.
    The problems we deal with concern reasoning about incomplete knowledge. Knowledge is understood as ability of an ideal rational agent to make decisions about pieces of information. The formalisms we are particularly interested in are Moore's autoepistemic logic (AEL) and its variant, the logic of acceptance and rejection (AEL2). It is well-known that AEL may be seen as the nonmonotonic KD45 modal logic. The aim is to give an appropriate modal formalization for AEL2.
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  43.  28
    Formalization of Functionally Complete Propositional Calculus with the Functor of Implication as the Only Primitive Term.Czes?aw Lejewski - 1989 - Studia Logica 48 (4):479 - 494.
    The most difficult problem that Leniewski came across in constructing his system of the foundations of mathematics was the problem of defining definitions, as he used to put it. He solved it to his satisfaction only when he had completed the formalization of his protothetic and ontology. By formalization of a deductive system one ought to understand in this context the statement, as precise and unambiguous as possible, of the conditions an expression has to satisfy if it is (...)
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  44.  26
    On Detachment-Substitutional Formalization in Normal Modal Logics.Wieslaw Dziobiak - 1977 - Studia Logica 36 (3):165 - 171.
    The aim of this paper is to propose a criterion of finite detachment-substitutional formalization for normal modal systems. The criterion will comprise only those normal modal systems which are finitely axiomatizable by means of the substitution, detachment for material implication and Gödel rules.
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  45.  21
    Limitations of Formalization.Constantine Politis - 1965 - Philosophy of Science 32 (3/4):356-360.
    After several decades during which formalization has flourished it now becomes possible to detect its shortcomings. A definition of formalization is given at the outset. It is next shown that the main justification of formalization as making explicit the form of a proof has serious difficulties. An important shortcoming is found in the fact that many validation procedures in logic and mathematics are not adequately represented deductively. Several such procedures relating to the validation of logical and mathematical (...)
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  46.  22
    On the Formalization of Semantic Conventions.James G. Williams - 1990 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (1):220-243.
    This paper discusses six formalization techniques, of varying strengths, for extending a formal system based on traditional mathematical logic. The purpose of these formalization techniques is to simulate the introduction of new syntactic constructs, along with associated semantics for them. We show that certain techniques (among the six) subsume others. To illustrate sharpness, we also consider a selection of constructs and show which techniques can and cannot be used to introduce them. The six studied techniques were selected on (...)
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  47.  2
    F. Full Formalization of Functional Logic.Rudolf Carnap - 1959 - In Introduction to Semantics and Formalization of Logic. Harvard University Press. pp. 407-426.
  48.  9
    Church's Thesis, "Consistency", "Formalization", "Proof Theory" : Dictionary Entries.Wilfried Sieg - unknown
    Wilfred Sieg. “Church's Thesis”, “Consistency”, “Formalization”, “Proof Theory”: Dictionary Entries.
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  49.  3
    E. Full Formalization of Propositional Logic.Rudolf Carnap - 1959 - In Introduction to Semantics and Formalization of Logic. Harvard University Press. pp. 399-406.
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  50.  2
    On the Logical Formalization of Theory Change and Scientific Anomalies.Ricardo Silvestre - 2012 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 20 (2):517-532.
    An investigation of what might be called the logical formalization of the process of theory change due to anomalies is presented. By anomaly, we mean an observed fact falling into the explanatory scope of a theory that does not agree with the theory prevision. A classical approach to restore the explicative power of a theory faced with an anomaly is to propose new, tentative auxiliary hypotheses which, along with part of the old set of auxiliary hypotheses, are able to (...)
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