Significant amounts of wealth have been exchanged as part of marriage settlements throughout history. Although various models have been proposed for interpreting these practices, their development over time has not been investigated systematically. In this paper we use a Bayesian MCMC phylogenetic comparative approach to reconstruct the evolution of two forms of wealth transfers at marriage, dowry and bridewealth, for 51 Indo-European cultural groups. Results indicate that dowry is more likely to have been the ancestral practice, and that a minimum (...) of four changes to bridewealth is necessary to explain the observed distribution of the two states across the cultural groups. (shrink)
Se trata de un intento de exponer el significado que la “meditación” tiene en Ortega. Para ello se parte del sentido de la palabra, no sólo en su primer libro Meditaciones del Quijote, sino a lo largo de su obra, pues la meditación como estilo filosófico recorre toda la obra de Ortega, lo que se ve ya en las veces en que encabeza trabajos orteguiano. Por otro lado, en la meditación nos cruzamos con temas nucleares de la filosofía de Ortega, (...) tales como la relación de la teoría con la praxis; la relación hombre/animal; incluso el posicionamiento de Ortega en el campo de la historia de la filosofía al hacer depender la teoría de la circunstancia y acción. Al final se explora en qué medida esa meditación se expresa en el estilo del ensayo.The author starts from the sense of the word “meditation” not only in Ortega’s first book Meditations on Quixote, but throughout his work, for meditation as philosophical style runs throughout Ortega’s work along his life, what already can be seen in the times Ortega headed his texts by this word. Furthermore, in meditation we encounter nuclear issues of Ortega’s philosophy, such as the relationships of theory and praxis and human being and animal; Ortega’s positioning even in the field of history of philosophy by making the theory depending on the circumstances and action. In the end it explores the extent that meditation is expressed in the style of the essays. (shrink)
Nocebo effects occur when an adverse effect on the patient arises from the patient's own negative expectations. In accordance with informed consent, providers often disclose information that results in unintended adverse outcomes for the patient. While this may adhere to the principle of autonomy, it violates the doctrine of “primum non nocere,” given that side-effect disclosure may cause those side effects. In this article we build off previous work, particularly by Wells and Kaptchuk and by Cohen :3–11.[Taylor & Francis Online], (...) [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]), to suggest ethical guidelines that permit nondisclosure in the case when a nocebo effect is likely to occur on of the basis of nonmaleficence. We accept that that autonomy vis-à-vis informed consent must be forestalled, but salvage much of its role by elaborating a practical clinical approach to postencounter follow-up. In doing so, we reconcile a clinically practicable process of determining conditions of disclosure with long-standing ethical commitments to patients. (shrink)
Tre studiosi di filosofia interculturale espongono – molto sinteticamente – le loro posizioni su alcuni snodi problematici del loro oggetto di ricerca. Cacciatore si concentra sulla relazione teorica, assai fruttuosa, fra lo storicismo critico-problematico, antiontologico e antimetafisico, della Scuola napoletana e i temi connessi all’interculturalità. D’Anna ritrova in Aristotele – discusso anche attraverso Pietro Piovani e Raul Fornet-Betancourt – un concetto di universale che, distinto da quello di assoluto, è inclusivo della molteplicità e dunque funzionale alla riflessione interculturale. Diana (...) – seguendo un percorso che contamina letteratura e filosofia – mette in luce il carattere storico, plurimo e relazionale dell’identità individuale e chiarisce il senso del cogito autobiografico. (shrink)
La discussione delle grandi narrazioni storiografiche del pensiero medievale. Il definirsi di una prospettiva teorica e di una storiografica attraverso il confronto con Scoto Eriugena. La ricerca di un senso e il problema di Dio. Gli anni della guerra e l'importanza della prassi.
As the median age of practicing physicians increases, ethical dilemmas due to age-related cognitive decline among clinicians will become ever more pressing. Compelling data show that despite acknowledgement of their duty to protect the public, physicians often fail to report themselves, their colleagues, or their physician-patients when cognitive decline appears to impact medical practice adversely. As such, efforts to educate physicians about ethical obligations and various tactful methodologies to report themselves or others seem ineffective. Illustrated by a case report of (...) age-related cognitive decline in a practicing physician, practical recommendations are made both to develop and validate cognitive screening in middle-aged physicians, presumably before the onset of age-related cognitive decline. (shrink)
The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies (...) play a central role in the teaching of professional ethics, there is still much to be learned regarding how professionals learn ethics using case-based reasoning. Cases take many forms, and there are a variety of ways to write them and use them in teaching. This paper reports the results of a study designed to investigate one of the issues in teaching case-based ethics: the role of one’s professional knowledge in learning methods of moral reasoning. Using a novel assessment instrument, we compared case studies written and analyzed by three groups of students whom we classified as: Experts in a research domain in bioengineering. Novices in a research domain in bioengineering. The non-research group—students using an engineering domain in which they were interested but had no in-depth knowledge. This study demonstrates that a student’s level of understanding of a professional knowledge domain plays a significant role in learning moral reasoning skills. (shrink)
El artículo aborda la carta 93 de san Agustín. Analiza los argumentos rogatistas contra el "compelle intrare", la eclesiología que subyace en ellos, el contexto sociohistórico del uso de la violencia para imponer la ley, así como la evolución agustiniana al interpretar el "compelle intrare".
L'Autore ritiene che la critica vichiana delle borie non si riferisca solo a nazioni, culture e teorie filosofico-teologiche concentrate a discutere sull'origine oscura e favolosa dei tempi e sulla relazione tra storia sacra e storie profane. Ma è anche un dispositivo etico-filosofico che invita l'umanità, ormai al culmine del processo di incivilimento, a guardarsi da ogni forma di boria delle nazioni , così come da ogni manifestazione boriosa da parte dei dotti . The author argues that Vico's critique of conceit (...) does not refer only to nations and cultures, and to philosophical-theological theories focused on origins in ancient and mythical times and on the relationship between sacred and profane history. Vico's critique is also an ethical-philosophical device that invites humanity, now at the height of the civilizing process, to guard against any form of conceit by nations , as well as any self-important manifestations by intellectuals. (shrink)
In this article the author reflects on some of the most recent instances of the hybridization of identities, brought about by movements of migration in the more general context of globalization. New situations triggered by the epoch-making historical developments of the world we live in require us to modify our notion of individual identity, which is no longer seen as a fundamental and self-referential essence of the individual, but rather as the product of a number of relational variables, many of (...) which arise from processes of ethnic amalgamation and cultural blending. In this new historical condition, one that old styles of thought are no longer able to grasp, the notion of memory is paramount. Memory, as Said has indicated, is connected to Vico’s concept of “invention” as “finding again,” that is, as an incessant process of the remembrance and the discovery of stories that are lived, leading to a “re-creation” and reconfiguration of one’s roots. This article, however, does not simply formulate, articulate and discuss the problem, but also raises the question of its genealogy, locating this in Vico’s distinction between the topical and the critical, that is connected with the triad of memory-imagination-ingenuity, and in certain philosophical positions – such as that of Dilthey, which is specifically acknowledged here – that involve an instance of hybridism, interpreted as a relationship between biological-natural and psychological subjectivity on one hand and historical-cultural identity on the other. (shrink)