32 found
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  1.  66
    The Self-Organization of Time and Causality: Steps Towards Understanding the Ultimate Origin. [REVIEW]Francis Heylighen - 2010 - Foundations of Science 15 (4):345-356.
    Possibly the most fundamental scientific problem is the origin of time and causality. The inherent difficulty is that all scientific theories of origins and evolution consider the existence of time and causality as given. We tackle this problem by starting from the concept of self-organization, which is seen as the spontaneous emergence of order out of primordial chaos. Self-organization can be explained by the selective retention of invariant or consistent variations, implying a breaking of the initial symmetry exhibited by randomness. (...)
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  2.  72
    Modelling Emergence.Francis Heylighen - 1991 - World Futures 32 (2):151-166.
    Emergence is defined as a process which cannot be described by a fixed model, consisting of invariant distinctions. Hence emergence must be described by a meta‐model, representing the transition of one model to another one by means of a distinction dynamics. The dynamics of distinctions is based on the processes of variation and selection, resulting in an invariant distinction, which constrains the variety and thus defines a new system. A classification of emergence processes is proposed, based on the following criteria: (...)
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  3. Complexity and Philosophy.Francis Heylighen, Paul Cilliers & Carlos Gershenson - 2006 - In [Book Chapter] (in Press).
    The science of complexity is based on a new way of thinking that stands in sharp contrast to the philosophy underlying Newtonian science, which is based on reductionism, determinism, and objective knowledge. This paper reviews the historical development of this new world view, focusing on its philosophical foundations. Determinism was challenged by quantum mechanics and chaos theory. Systems theory replaced reductionism by a scientifically based holism. Cybernetics and postmodern social science showed that knowledge is intrinsically subjective. These developments are being (...)
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  4.  66
    How Can We Think the Complex?Carlos Gershenson & Francis Heylighen - 2004 - In [Book Chapter] (Unpublished).
    In this chapter we want to provide philosophical tools for understanding and reasoning about complex systems. Classical thinking, which is taught at most schools and universities, has several problems for coping with complexity. We review classical thinking and its drawbacks when dealing with complexity, for then presenting ways of thinking which allow the better understanding of complex systems. Examples illustrate the ideas presented. This chapter does not deal with specific tools and techniques for managing complex systems, but we try to (...)
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  5. Getting Things Done: The Science Behind Stress-Free Productivity.Francis Heylighen & Clément Vidal - 2007 - Cogprints.
    Allen (2001) proposed the “Getting Things Done” (GTD) method for personal productivity enhancement, and reduction of the stress caused by information overload. This paper argues that recent insights in psychology and cognitive science support and extend GTD’s recommendations. We first summarize GTD with the help of a flowchart. We then review the theories of situated, embodied and distributed cognition that purport to explain how the brain processes information and plans actions in the real world. The conclusion is that the brain (...)
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  6.  41
    Objective, Subjective and Intersubjective Selectors of Knowledge.Francis Heylighen - 1997 - Evolution and Cognition 1.
    It is argued that the acceptance of knowledge in a community depends on several, approximately independent selection "criteria". The objective criteria are distinctiveness, invariance and controllability, the subjective ones are individual utility, coherence, simplicity and novelty, and the intersubjective ones are publicity, expressivity, formality, collective utility, conformity and authority. Science demarcates itself from other forms of knowledge by explicitly controlling for the objective criteria.
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  7. A Brain in a Vat Cannot Break Out: Why the Singularity Must Be Extended, Embedded and Embodied.Francis Heylighen & Center Leo Apostel Ecco - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (1-2):126-142.
    The present paper criticizes Chalmers's discussion of the Singularity, viewed as the emergence of a superhuman intelligence via the self-amplifying development of artificial intelligence. The situated and embodied view of cognition rejects the notion that intelligence could arise in a closed 'brain-in-a-vat' system, because intelligence is rooted in a high-bandwidth, sensory-motor interaction with the outside world. Instead, it is proposed that superhuman intelligence can emerge only in a distributed fashion, in the form of a self-organizing network of humans, computers, and (...)
     
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  8.  5
    Foundations of ArtScience: Formulating the Problem.Francis Heylighen & Katarina Petrović - forthcoming - Foundations of Science.
    While art and science still functioned side-by-side during the Renaissance, their methods and perspectives diverged during the nineteenth century, creating a still enduring separation between the "two cultures". Recently, artists and scientists again collaborate more frequently, as promoted most radically by the ArtScience movement. This approach aims at a true synthesis between the intuitive, imaginative methods of art and the rational, rule-governed methods of science. To prepare the grounds for a theoretical synthesis, this paper surveys the fundamental commonalities and differences (...)
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  9.  42
    Advantages and Limitations of Formal Expression.Francis Heylighen - 1999 - Foundations of Science 4 (1):25-56.
    Testing the validity of knowledge requires formal expression of that knowledge. Formality of an expression is defined as the invariance, under changes of context, of the expression's meaning, i.e. the distinction which the expression represents. This encompasses both mathematical formalism and operational determination. The main advantages of formal expression are storability, universal communicability, and testability. They provide a selective edge in the Darwinian competition between ideas. However, formality can never be complete, as the context cannot be eliminated. Primitive terms, observation (...)
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  10.  34
    (Meta)Systems as Constraints on Variation— a Classification and Natural History of Metasystem Transitions.Francis Heylighen - 1995 - World Futures 45 (1):59-85.
    A new conceptual framework is proposed to situate and integrate the parallel theories of Turchin, Powers, Campbell and Simon. A system is defined as a constraint on variety. This entails a 2 × 2 × 2 classification scheme for “higher‐order” systems, using the dimensions of constraint, (static) variety, and (dynamic) variation. The scheme distinguishes two classes of metasystems from supersystems and other types of emergent phenomena. Metasystems are defined as constrained variations of constrained variety. Control is characterized as a constraint (...)
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  11.  20
    Complexity and Evolution, by Max Pettersson, The Major Transitions in Evolution, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry, The Origins of Life From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry.Francis Heylighen - 2000 - Complexity 6 (1):53-57.
  12.  66
    Selection of Organization at the Social Level: Obstacles and Facilitators of Metasystem Transitions.Francis Heylighen & Donald Campbell - 1995 - World Futures 45 (1):181-212.
    (1995). Selection of organization at the social level: Obstacles and facilitators of metasystem transitions. World Futures: Vol. 45, The Quantum of Evolution, pp. 181-212.
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  13.  34
    Foundations and Methodology for an Evolutionary World View: A Review of the Principia Cybernetica Project. [REVIEW]Francis Heylighen - 2000 - Foundations of Science 5 (4):457-490.
    The Principia Cybernetica Project was created to develop an integrated philosophy or world view, based on the theories of evolution, self-organization, systems and cybernetics. Its conceptual network has been implemented as an extensive website. The present paper reviews the assumptions behind the project, focusing on its rationale, its philosophical presuppositions, and its concrete methodology for computer-supported collaborative development. Principia Cybernetica starts from a process ontology, where a sequence of elementary actions produces ever more complex forms of organization through the mechanism (...)
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  14.  13
    Publications on Complex, Evolving Systems: A Citation-Based Survey.Francis Heylighen - 1997 - Complexity 2 (5):31-36.
  15. What Makes a Meme Successful? Selection Criteria for Cultural Evolution.Francis Heylighen - unknown
    Meme replication is described as a 4-stage process, consisting of assimilation, retention, expression and transmission. The effect of different objective, subjective, intersubjective and meme-centered selection criteria on these different stages is discussed.
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  16.  68
    Variation in the Contextuality of Language: An Empirical Measure. [REVIEW]Francis Heylighen & Jean-Marc Dewaele - 2002 - Foundations of Science 7 (3):293-340.
    The context of a linguisticexpression is defined as everything outside theexpression itself that is necessary forunambiguous interpretation of the expression.As meaning can be conveyed either by theimplicit, shared context or by the explicitform of the expression, the degree ofcontext-dependence or ``contextuality'' ofcommunication will vary, depending on thesituation and preferences of the languageproducer. An empirical measure of thisvariation is proposed, the ``formality'' or``F-score'', based on the frequencies ofdifferent word classes. Nouns, adjectives,articles and prepositions are more frequent inlow-context or ``formal'' types of (...)
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  17.  23
    Symmetry, Potentiality and Reversibility.Francis Heylighen - 2011 - Foundations of Science 16 (4):335-336.
    This short comment confirms Longo’s observation about the importance of symmetries for understanding space and time, but raises the additional issue of the transition from reversible to irreversible transformations.
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  18.  13
    Fitness as Default: The Evolutionary Basis of Cognitive Complexity Reduction.Francis Heylighen - 1994 - In [Book Chapter].
    Given that knowledge consists of finite models of an infinitely complex reality, how can we explain that it is still most of the time reliable? Survival in a variable environment requires an internal model whose complexity (variety) matches the complexity of the environment that is to be controlled. The reduction of the infinite complexity of the sensed environment to a finite map requires a strong mechanism of categorization. A measure of cognitive complexity (C) is defined, which quantifies the average amount (...)
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  19.  3
    Talking Nets: A Multiagent Connectionist Approach to Communication and Trust Between Individuals.Frank Van Overwalle & Francis Heylighen - 2006 - Psychological Review 113 (3):606-627.
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  20. [Book Chapter] (Unpublished).Carlos Gershenson & Francis Heylighen - 2004
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  21.  2
    "Book and Software Reviews-The Complexity of Evolution: Review of" The Evolution of Complexity: The Violet Book of Einstein Meets Magritte". [REVIEW]Francis Heylighen, Johan Bollen, Alexander Riegler & Gunther J. Eble - 2001 - Complexity 6 (6):24-27.
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  22. [Book Chapter] (in Press).Francis Heylighen, Paul Cilliers & Carlos Gershenson - 2006
  23.  21
    Distributed (Design) Knowledge Exchange.Ann Heylighen, Francis Heylighen, Johan Bollen & Mathias Casaer - 2007 - AI and Society 22 (2):145-154.
    Despite the intrinsic complexity of integrating individual, social and technologically supported intelligence, the paper proposes a relatively simple ‘connectionist’ framework for conceptualizing distributed cognitive systems. Shared information sources (documents) are represented as nodes connected by links of variable strength, which increases as the documents co-occur in the usage patterns. This learning procedure captures and exploits its users’ implicit knowledge to help them find relevant information, thus supporting an unconscious form of exchange. These principles are applied to a concrete problem domain: (...)
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  24.  5
    Entanglement, Symmetry Breaking and Collapse: Correspondences Between Quantum and Self-Organizing Dynamics.Francis Heylighen - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-23.
    Quantum phenomena are notoriously difficult to grasp. The present paper first reviews the most important quantum concepts in a non-technical manner: superposition, uncertainty, collapse of the wave function, entanglement and non-locality. It then tries to clarify these concepts by examining their analogues in complex, self-organizing systems. These include bifurcations, attractors, emergent constraints, order parameters and non-local correlations. They are illustrated with concrete examples that include Rayleigh–Bénard convection, social self-organization and Gestalt perception of ambiguous figures. In both cases, quantum and self-organizing, (...)
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  25.  92
    Life is an Adventure! An Agent-Based Reconciliation of Narrative and Scientific Worldviews.Francis Heylighen - unknown
    The scientific worldview is based on laws, which are supposed to be certain, objective, and independent of time and context. The narrative worldview found in literature, myth and religion, is based on stories, which relate the events experienced by a subject in a particular context with an uncertain outcome. This paper argues that the concept of “agent”, supported by the theories of evolution, cybernetics and complex adaptive systems, allows us to reconcile scientific and narrative perspectives. An agent follows a course (...)
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  26.  21
    Mind Outside Brain: A Radically Non-Dualist Foundation for Distributed Cognition.Francis Heylighen & Shima Beigi - 2018 - In J. A. Carter, A. Clark, Jesper Kallestrup, S. Orestis Palermos & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Socially Extended Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 59-86.
    We approach the problem of the extended mind from a radically non-dualist perspective. The separation between mind and matter is an artefact of the outdated mechanistic worldview, which leaves no room for mental phenomena such as agency, intentionality, or feeling. We propose to replace it by an action ontology, which conceives mind and matter as aspects of the same network of processes. By adopting the intentional stance, we interpret the catalysts of elementary reactions as agents exhibiting desires, intentions, and sensations. (...)
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  27.  8
    Non-Rational Cognitive Processes as Changes of Distinctions.Francis Heylighen - 1992 - In G. van der Vijve (ed.), New Perspectives on Cybernetics. pp. 220--77.
  28. Paul S. Agutter Was Reader in Cell Biology at Napier University in Edinburgh, and His Main Experimental Interest is in the Transport of Molecules Between the Nuclear and the Cytoplasm. His Most Recent Book, The Meaning of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport, Co-Authored with Philip Taylor, Was Published in 1996 by RG Landes Company. [REVIEW]Francis Heylighen - 1999 - Foundations of Science 4:107-109.
  29.  32
    Towards a Theory of Metasystem Transitions: Introduction to the Special Issue.Francis Heylighen & Cliff Joslyn - 1995 - World Futures 45 (1):1-4.
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  30. The Evolution of Complexity the Violet Book of "Einstein Meets Magritte".Francis Heylighen, Johan Bollen & Alexander Riegler - 1999
  31.  5
    The Dark Side of Thinking Through Other Minds.Sander Van de Cruys & Francis Heylighen - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We show that TTOM has a lot to offer for the study of the evolution of cultures, but that this also brings to the fore the dark implications of TTOM, unexposed in Veissière et al. Those implications lead us to move beyond meme-centered or an organism-centered concept of fitness based on free-energy minimization, toward a social system-centered view.
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  32. Ethics and Complexity: Why Standard Ethical Frameworks Cannot Cope with Socio-Technological Change.Clément Vidal & Francis Heylighen - forthcoming - In P. Jorion (ed.), Investigating Transhumanisms and Their Narratives.
    : Standard ethical frameworks struggle to deal with transhumanism, ecological issues and the rising technodiversity because they are focused on guiding and evaluating human behavior. Ethics needs its Copernican revolution to be able to deal with all moral agents, including not only humans, but also artificial intelligent agents, robots or organizations of all sizes. We argue that embracing the complexity worldview is the first step towards this revolution, and that standard ethical frameworks are still entrenched in the Newtonian worldview. We (...)
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