Examination of a limited number of publisher’s Instructions for Authors, guidelines from two scientific societies, and the widely accepted policy document of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provided useful information on authorship practices. Three of five journals examined (Nature, Science, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) publish papers across a variety of disciplines. One is broadly focused on topics in medical research (New England Journal of Medicine) and one publishes research reports in a single (...) discipline (Journal of Bacteriology). Similar elements of publication policy and accepted practices were found across the policies of these journals articulated in their Instructions for Authors. A number of these same elements were found in the professional society guidelines of the Society for Neuroscience and the American Chemical Society, as well as the ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Taken together, these sources provide the basis for articulating best practices in authorship in scientific research. Emerging from this material is a definition of authorship, as well as policy statements on duplicative publication, conflict of interest disclosure, electronic access, data sharing, digital image integrity, and research requiring subjects’ protection, including prior registration of clinical trials. These common elements provide a foundation for teaching about scientific authorship and publication practices across biomedical and life sciences disciplines. (shrink)
Policies and processes dealing with institutional conflict of interest lag well behind those dealing with individual COI. To remediate this, academic institutions must develop strategies for addressing some of the unique challenges in iCOI, including: clarifying the definition of iCOI that addresses the range of individuals potentially involved; implementing a well-designed electronic database for reporting and managing iCOI across multiple leadership constituencies; and providing ongoing education to appropriate institutional officials that communicates the importance of managing iCOI.
Herbert Spencer: Legacies explores and assesses the impact of the ideas and work of the great Victorian polymath Herbert Spencer across a wide range of disciplines. In the course of the essays a significant re-evaluation of his influence on Victorian and Edwardian thought is provided. Spencer's contribution to the fields of sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology and ecology are considered, alongside his influence on key figures in science and philosophy. The book brings together scholars from a wide range of disciplines to (...) explore Spencer's nuanced and complex ideas and will be invaluable for historians of science and ideas, and all those interested in the intellectual culture of the late Victorian and Edwardian period. Contributors: Peter J. Bowler, James Elwick, Mark Francis, Bernard Lightman, Chris Renwick, Vanessa L. Ryan, John Skorupski, Michael W. Taylor, Stephen Tomlinson, and Jonathan H. Turner. (shrink)
We investigate claims about the frequency of "know" made by philosophers. Our investigation has several overlapping aims. First, we aim to show what is required to confirm or disconfirm philosophers’ claims about the comparative frequency of different uses of philosophically interesting expressions. Second, we aim to show how using linguistic corpora as tools for investigating meaning is a productive methodology, in the sense that it yields discoveries about the use of language that philosophers would have overlooked if they remained in (...) their "armchairs of an afternoon", to use J.L. Austin’s phrase. Third, we discuss facts about the meaning of "know" that so far have been ignored in philosophy, with the aim of reorienting discussions of the relevance of ordinary language for philosophical theorizing. (shrink)
This special issue of AVANT is all about Cognitive Innovation. It is not about CogNovo, the interdisciplinary and international doctoral training programme that produced three different Off the Lip events. It is not about Off the Lip 2017, the novel symposium format we developed to collaboratively create a publication resulting in this special issue of AVANT. It is not about the seemingly heterogeneous collection of papers that follow this preface. Collaborative Approaches to Cognitive Innovation required something else, something we are (...) starting to capture in the four GIFT principles. While this special issue is not solely about CogNovo, Off the Lip events, or the content of the following submissions, all these aforementioned elements were necessary to shape our current understanding of Cognitive Innovation, the very process which led to numerous publications, exhibitions, and events during the past three years. In a sense, all of our previous endeavours have culminated in this collection of 26 distinct pieces of work, yet we hope and believe that this special issue also marks a beginning. Let us explain. [...]. (shrink)
Kasm does not offer any concept of proof which is regulative for all metaphysics, for he is convinced that each metaphysical approach requires its own proper logic and methodology. Within this pluralistic framework he seeks to discern the structure of formal truth as expressed in the concept of proof inherent in various metaphysical approaches.--L. S. F.
Francis Bacon critique souvent l’attitude et les pratiques des alchimistes. Pour autant, il ne rejette pas l’alchimie, qui est la chimie de son temps. Non seulement il intègre dans sa philosophie naturelle des aspects essentiels de la pensée paracelsienne, mais surtout il fait de l’alchimie l’une des sciences auxquelles sa nouvelle méthode doit s’appliquer de manière privilégiée en vue de la perfectionner. Comme de nombreux philosophes naturels du XVIIe siècle, il n’hésite pas à développer sa propre conception de la (...) transmutation des métaux.Francis Bacon often criticizes both attitude and practice of the alchemists. Yet he doesn’t, give away alchemy which is the chemistry of his time. Not only does he integrate in his natural philosophy a few major aspects of Paracelsian thought, but first and foremost does he turn alchemy into one of the sciences to which his new method should be applied in a priviledged way in order to improve it. As was the case with quite a few natural philosophers of the XVIIth century, never does he quavers in developing his own conception of the metallic transmutation. (shrink)
La nouvelle biographie de Colette vient satisfaire une curiosité qui ne faiblit pas depuis sa mort en 1954. Contrairement à tant de ses contemporaines dans le monde des lettres, aujourd'hui oubliées, Colette a gagné la bataille de la postérité. Sa vie toute en audace puis en sagesse, son œuvre sensuelle et spirituelle, enfin sa place paradoxale dans le siècle lui donnent en effet une envergure exceptionnelle. Colette était moderne et l'est restée. Claude Francis et Fernande Gontier, qu..
Bacon fait partie de ces rares penseurs qui ont eu des responsabilités politiques à la hauteur de leur ambition intellectuelle. Ce n'est pas pour autant que la réforme du savoir qu'il propose aurait pour but essentiel, comme une grande partie de la critique baconienne le suggère, de mettre les sciences au service de la grandeur de l'Angleterre et, d'une façon plus générale, de la volonté de puissance de l' État absolu à l'âge classique. Bien au contraire, pour Bacon, c'est l' (...) État lui-même qui doit servir l'augmentation et le rayonnement des sciences en vue de refonder l'empire du savoir que l'humanisme du siècle précédent n'avait su maintenir. Bacon belongs to those few thinkers who had quite a few political responsibilities parallel to their intellectual ambition. Yet the reform of knowledge doesn't necessarily, when all is said, and as suggested by the major part of the Baconian criticism, aim first and foremost as to put sciences at the service of the greatness of England, and, more generally, of the will for power of the absolute State of the Renaissance. Quite reversely it is the very State which is meant to serve the rise and influence of sciences meant as they are to re-establish a supremacy of knowledge which the humanism of the previous century had been unable to keep alive. (shrink)
Jardine examines the evolution of concepts of dialectics during the Renaissance and problems of methodology that influenced the teachings of the founder of philosophy in the modern era, F. Bacon. The work traces the sources of these problems in the dialectics of antiquity and its medieval interpretation. Sources little known to the Soviet reader are cited. In order to evaluate Bacon's reaction to the dialectics of his day, the author also describes works named in the statutes of Cambridge University in (...) the sixteenth century as textbooks on dialectics. They are writings by humanists — bearers of the ideas of the Enlightenment — I. Caesarius, R. Agricola, D. Seton, and others. To a certain extent they were based on the work by Peter the Spaniard Summulae Logicales, which is taken as a point of departure for the further evolution of dialectics. (shrink)