The main thesis of this paper is that some of the most important ideas and symbolic devices that made Russell's theory of descriptions possible were already present in writings by Frege and especially Peano that Russell knew well. The paper contains a detailed comparison between the relevant parts of Russell's theory--including manuscripts recently published--and some of Frege and Peano's insights, as well as a discussion of numerous possible objections that could be posed to the main claim. Even if Russell was (...) not actually influenced by those insights, the parallelism is close enough to be worth analyzing, especially in the case of Peano, whose writings are not very well known. (shrink)
According to Ramsey (Representation reconsidered, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2007 ), only classical cognitive science, with the related notions of input–output and structural representations, meets the job description challenge (the challenge to show that a certain structure or process serves a representational role at the subpersonal level). By contrast, connectionism and other nonclassical models, insofar as they exploit receptor and tacit notions of representation, are not genuinely representational. As a result, Ramsey submits, cognitive science is taking a U-turn from (...) representationalism back to behaviourism, thus presupposing that (1) the emergence of cognitivism capitalized on the concept of representation, and that (2) the materialization of nonclassical cognitive science involves a return to some form of pre-cognitivist behaviourism. We argue against both (1) and (2), by questioning Ramsey’s divide between classical and representational, versus nonclassical and nonrepresentational, cognitive models. For, firstly, connectionist and other nonclassical accounts have the resources to exploit the notion of a structural isomorphism, like classical accounts (the beefing-up strategy); and, secondly, insofar as input–output and structural representations refer to a cognitive agent, classical explanations fail to meet the job description challenge (the deflationary strategy). Both strategies work independently of each other: if the deflationary strategy succeeds, contra (1), cognitivism has failed to capitalize on the relevant concept of representation; if the beefing-up strategy is sound, contra (2), the return to a pre-cognitivist era cancels out. (shrink)
Traces the development of British philosopher Russell's (1872-1970) ideas on mathematics from the 1890s to the publication of his Principles of mathematics in 1903. Draws from Russell's unpublished manuscripts, correspondence, and published works to point out the influence of Hegel, Cantor, Whitehead, Peano, and others. No index. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
In this article I try to show the philosophical continuity of Russell's ideas from his paradox of classes to Principia mathematica. With this purpose, I display the main results (descriptions, substitutions and types) as moments of the same development, whose principal goal was (as in his The principles) to look for a set of primitive ideas and propositions giving an account of all mathematics in logical terms, but now avoiding paradoxes. The sole way to reconstruct this central period in Russell (...) is to resort to unpublished manuscripts, which show the publications of these years to be the extremities of one same iceberg. Thus the logical problems (doubts about propositions, matrices and functions) are parallel to the ontological (the searching for genuine logical subjects) and methodological ones (the status of eliminative reduction). Paradoxes were the cause that the kind of (constructive) definition already applied by Russell, as an inheritance of Moorean analysis, obtained a new trait: ontological elimination, which, beginning with a ?no classes theory? and the theory of descriptions, led to a new theory of judgment (already present in manuscripts from 1906), ?incomplete symbols, and logical constructions. (shrink)
The COVID-19 global health emergency has greatly impacted the educational field. Faced with unprecedented stress situations, professors, students, and families have employed various coping and resilience strategies throughout the confinement period. High and persistent stress levels are associated with other pathologies; hence, their detection and prevention are needed. Consequently, this study aimed to design a predictive model of stress in the educational field based on artificial intelligence that included certain sociodemographic variables, coping strategies, and resilience capacity, and to study the (...) relationship between them. The non-probabilistic snowball sampling method was used, involving 337 people from the university education community in south-eastern Spain. The Perceived Stress Scale, Stress Management Questionnaire, and Brief Resilience Scale were administered. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to design the architecture of artificial neural networks. The results found that stress levels could be predicted by the synaptic weights of coping strategies and timing of the epidemic, with a predictive capacity of over 80% found in the neural network model. Additionally, direct and significant associations were identified between the use of certain coping strategies, stress levels, and resilience. The conclusions of this research are essential for effective stress detection, and therefore, early intervention in the field of educational psychology, by discussing the influence of resilience or lack thereof on the prediction of stress levels. Identifying the variables that maintain a greater predictive power in stress levels is an effective strategy to design more adjusted prevention programs and to anticipate the needs of the community. (shrink)
In this paper a definition of n-valued system in the context of the algebraizable logics is proposed. We define and study the variety V3, showing that it is definitionally equivalent to the equivalent quasivariety semantics for the “Three-valued BCK-logic”. As a consequence we find an axiomatic definition of the above system.
In this paper we consider twelve classical laws of negation and study their relations in the context of BCK-algebras. A classification of the laws of negation is established and some characterizations are obtained. For example, using the concept of translation we obtain some characterizations of Hilbert algebras and commutative BCK-algebras with minimum. As a consequence we obtain a theorem relating those algebras to Boolean algebras.
François Mauriac desarrolló fundamentalmente su producción literaria en la primera mitad del siglo pasado, un periodo marcado por las dos Guerras Mundiales en una Francia en creciente proceso de secularización. Así las cosas, con motivo del cincuenta aniversario de su fallecimiento la pretensión de este trabajo es hacer emerger la figura de Mauriac como apologeta que, desde el ámbito literario, defendió algunos de los principales postulados católicos cuestionados por el alma moderna. En efecto, el premio Nobel de literatura pertenece a (...) esa constelación de autores católicos que, profundizando en las raíces del Cristianismo, intentan dar una salida a la crisis de la Modernidad, cimentada fundamentalmente en el positivismo y el materialismo. De hecho, veremos cómo plantea el problema del mal en el mundo y la solución al mismo desde el ámbito de la caridad por medio de mártires inmolados. Asimismo, asistiremos a la crítica sistemática del novelista francés contra el antitestimonio cristiano o contra el fariseísmo religioso como elementos clave de su pedagogía apologética. (shrink)
Contemporary literature distinguishes two ways to defend the claim that cognition is a matter of representations: one, cognition involves representation-hungry tasks; two, cognition involves a complex form of informational covariation between subcomponents of a system with an adaptive function. Each of these conceptions involves a different notion of representation, and promotes a particular view of the architecture of cognition. But despite the differences, each of them aims to support the claim that cognition is a matter of representations on architectural constraints. (...) The objective of this article is twofold: one, it is argued that architectural constraints do not entail either of those two ways to defend the claim that cognition is a matter of representations; two, it is claimed that both notions of representation share an objectionable common element – namely, the idea of a model that grounds the representational reading– that must be abandoned, in favor of a more economical explanation in terms of causal relations, in order to get a clear view of cognition. (shrink)
Aberrations introduced by the atmospheric turbulence in large telescopes are compensated using adaptive optics systems, where the use of deformable mirrors and multiple sensors relies on complex control systems. Recently, the development of larger scales of telescopes as the E-ELT or TMT has created a computational challenge due to the increasing complexity of the new adaptive optics systems. The Complex Atmospheric Reconstructor based on Machine Learning is an algorithm based on artificial neural networks, designed to compensate the atmospheric turbulence. During (...) recent years, the use of GPUs has been proved to be a great solution to speed up the learning process of neural networks, and different frameworks have been created to ease their development. The implementation of CARMEN in different Multi-GPU frameworks is presented in this paper, along with its development in a language originally developed for GPU, like CUDA. This implementation offers the best response for all the presented cases, although its advantage of using more than one GPU occurs only in large networks. (shrink)
One of the objectives in the field of artificial intelligence for some decades has been the development of artificial agents capable of coexisting in harmony with people and other systems. The computing research community has made efforts to design artificial agents capable of doing tasks the way people do, tasks requiring cognitive mechanisms such as planning, decision-making, and learning. The application domains of such software agents are evident nowadays. Humans are experiencing the inclusion of artificial agents in their environment as (...) unmanned vehicles, intelligent houses, and humanoid robots capable of caring for people. In this context, research in the field of machine ethics has become more than a hot topic. Machine ethics focuses on developing ethical mechanisms for artificial agents to be capable of engaging in moral behavior. However, there are still crucial challenges in the development of truly Artificial Moral Agents. This paper aims to show the current status of Artificial Moral Agents by analyzing models proposed over the past two decades. As a result of this review, a taxonomy to classify Artificial Moral Agents according to the strategies and criteria used to deal with ethical problems is proposed. The presented review aims to illustrate the complexity of designing and developing ethical mechanisms for this type of agent, and that there is a long way to go before this type of artificial agent can replace human judgment in difficult, surprising or ambiguous moral situations. (shrink)
This article tries to elucidate the Deleuzian project of the reversal of Platonism in relation to that of Nietzsche. To this aim, I have made a predominantly historiographic sketch of the question in both authors. In the case of Nietzsche, I inquired about both the relationship that the reversal of Platonism presents in his philosophy with the problem of nihilism and the evolution that the topic undergoes throughout his vast intellectual production, until it reaches its final formulation. With regard to (...) Deleuze, I offer a broad overview of his work aimed at tracing the subject, from his interpretation of the Nietzschean formulation, as opposed to that of Heidegger, to the meticulous way in which it fits into his own philosophy as a shift of the essence in favour of the event as a source of singularities. (shrink)
The largest project managers and adjudicators of a country, both by number of projects and by cost, are public procurement agencies. Therefore, knowing and characterising public procurement announcements is fundamental for managing public resources well. This article presents the case of public procurement in Spain, analysing a dataset from 2012 to 2018: 58,337 tenders with a cost of 31,426 million euros. Many studies of public procurement have been conducted globally or theoretically, but there is a dearth of data analysis, especially (...) regarding Spain. A quantitative, graphical, and statistical description of the dataset is presented. Mainly, the analysis is of the relation between the award price and the bidding price. An award price estimator is proposed that uses the random forest regression method. A good estimator would be very useful and valuable for companies and public procurement agencies. It would be a key tool in their project management decision making. Finally, a similar analysis, employing a dataset from European countries, is presented to compare and generalise the results and conclusions. Hence, this is a novel study which fills a gap in the literature. (shrink)
Nowadays, the quality standards of higher education institutions pay special attention to the performance and evaluation of the students. Then, having a complete academic record of each student, such as number of attempts, average grade and so on, plays a key role. In this context, the existence of missing data, which can happen for different reasons, leads to affect adversely interesting future analysis. Therefore, the use of imputation techniques is presented as a helpful tool to estimate the value of missing (...) data. This work deals with the academic records of engineering students, in which imputation techniques are applied. More specifically, it is assessed and compared to the performance of the multivariate imputation by chained equations methodology, the adaptive assignation algorithm based on multivariate adaptive regression splines and a hybridization based on self-organisation maps with Mahalanobis distances and AAA algorithm. The results show that proposed methods obtain successfully results regardless the number of missing values, in general terms. (shrink)
Recommending the identity of bidders in public procurement auctions has a significant impact in many areas of public procurement, but it has not yet been studied in depth. A bidders recommender would be a very beneficial tool because a supplier can search appropriate tenders and, vice versa, a public procurement agency can discover automatically unknown companies which are suitable for its tender. This paper develops a pioneering algorithm to recommend potential bidders using a machine learning method, particularly a random forest (...) classifier. The bidders recommender is described theoretically, so it can be implemented or adapted to any particular situation. It has been successfully validated with a case study: an actual Spanish tender dataset which has 102,087 tenders from 2014 to 2020 and a company dataset which has 1,353,213 Spanish companies. Quantitative, graphical, and statistical descriptions of both datasets are presented. The results of the case study were satisfactory: the winning bidding company is within the recommended companies group, from 24% to 38% of the tenders, according to different test conditions and scenarios. (shrink)
La Allgemeine Psychopatologiede Karl Jaspers es una obra clave del pensamiento del siglo XX. Une de forma interdisciplinar la medicina, la psicología y la filosofía existencial. De entre los conceptos que trata, este ensayo verá la función del concepto de símbolo y a través de él la función de la Filosofía como guía de la Psiquiatría y de la Psicopatología en general. En la Psiquiatría contemporánea cada vez se da más importancia a la “simbolización” como concepto clave bajo el que (...) el sujeto humano interpreta su existencia. El símbolo es un esquema de realidad que se construye y reconstruye continuamente a través de las experiencias del ser humano. Puede decirse entonces que, a través del símbolo, el ser humano construye su mundo. En esa construcción, la Filosofía puede suponer una ayuda si se plantea como “ansia de saber” o, en su lugar, como una rémora si se presenta como una totalidad omnicomprehensiva inflexible bajo la que subsumen todas las experiencias de la vida. (shrink)
In the paper we obtain a new characterization of the BCK-algebras which are subdirect product of BCK-chains. We give an axiomatic algebraizable extension of the BCK-calculus, by means of a recursively enumerable set of axioms, such that its equivalent algebraic semantics is definitionally equivalent to the quasivariety of BCK-algebras generated by the BCK-chains. We propose the concept of "linearization of a system" and we give some examples.
In this paper an algebraic version for temporal algebras of the logical filtrations for modal and temporal logics is analysed. A structure theorem for free temporal algebras and also some results with regard to the variety of temporal algebras are obtained.
According to the received view, Russell rediscovered about 1900 the logical definition of cardinal number given by Frege in 1884. In the same way, we are told, he stated and developed independently the idea of logicism, using the principle of abstraction as the philosophical ground. Furthermore, the role commonly ascribed in this to Peano was only to invent an appropriate notation to be used as mere instrument. In this paper I hold that the study of Russell's unpublished manuscripts and Peano's (...) (and disciples) writings (as part of a larger investigation only pointed out here) shows, on the contrary, that Russell obtained the method to transform definitions by abstraction into nominal definitions and the general logicist idea from Peano (and his school). The only original insight from Russell, the principle of abstraction, partially derived from Moore's early philosophy, was finally abandoned because it was not of practical use. (shrink)
In this paper the structure of pretemporal algebra is used to study some aspects of temporal algebras and modal algebras. The paper contains a computational approach to finite temporal algebras and a general splitting theorem for finite temporal algebras.
The goal of this research is to know and compare the emotions and reactions to confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic in children and adolescents with high abilities and community samples. This is a mixed study with an exploratory reach that is descriptive, and which combines survey and qualitative methodologies to examine the emotions and reactions to confinement experiences of children and adolescents aged between 5 and 14 years. An online poll was designed with 46 questions, grouped into three sections: (...) General Data, Reactions to the health contingencies of COVID-19, and Positive and negative emotions. This last section was included the Oros’ positive emotions questionnaire and the scales of the negative effect of the PANAS Schedule positive and negative affect on children and adolescents between 8 and 14 years old. Data were collected online with a convenience sample. Quantitative data were analyzed with the SPSS statistics program and qualitative data with Alceste software. Among the main findings is the fact that there are no significant differences between the groups by ability in terms of reactions and emotions; however, there are differences between age groups and sex. The study discusses the implications for educational intervention in situations like the current pandemic. (shrink)
This is an essay-review of C. Wade Savage and C. Anthony Anderson (editors), Rereading Russell: Essays in Bertrand Russell's Metaphysics and Epistemology, Volume XII of Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1989. The book is devoted to studying Russell's later philosophy, although the actual content concerns also Russell's early logical and epistemological writings. Here I study and criticize a group of contributions (mainly those by Hylton, Goldfarb, Cocchiarella, Pears and Demopoulos/Friedman) from a global and (...) methodological approach to Russell's whole philosophy I have developed in other publications. (shrink)
In this article I propose a new explanation of the relationship between Russell and ther first Wittgenstein. There are five main novelties in my interpretation; the use of all relevant unpublished manuscripts of Russell; the discovery of the first apparition of the “multiple theory of judgment” in a purely logical and unpublished context; the role of the Bradleian objection against relations in the evolution of the nation of form in both Russell and Wittgenstein; a general point of view to obtain (...) a common explanation of all the criticisms of Wittgenstein against Russell and of the abandonment to Theory of Knowledge; and the first account of the contribution of Whitehead to the progressive Russellian evolution from atomism to holism. (shrink)
This paper is devoted to show the development of some of the model-theoretic ideas which are clearly present in the main members of the Peano school (Peano himself, Burali-Forti, Pieri and Padoa) asa result of their conception of nominal definitions. Also, their semantic definition of logical consequence (Pieri, Padoa) is viewed as one of the outcomes of that conception. Some examples of their use of theexpression “nominal definition” are presented first. Second, the main advantages of this kind of definition, as (...) they saw them, are briefly explained, mainly in a philosophical context. Finally, already in the kernel of the paper, some of the details of the model-theoretic view itself are shown, first in Peano, then in Pieri and Padoa, including in both cases some study of their semantic definitions of logicalconsequence. (shrink)
B. Russell, Foundations of logic 1903-05, The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell, Volume 4, Edited by Urquhart, A. with the assistance of Lewis, A. C. London and New York:Routledge, 1994, Hi+ 743 pp. £100.
Una nueva edición en castellano de una obra de John Locke, La razonabilidad del cristianismo tal como es presentado en las Escrituras, sirve no solo para con rmar en el primer plano del pensamiento a un autor cuya in uencia hasta nuestros días es innegable, sino también para advertir la amplitud de sus preocupaciones y el atractivo interés con el que se desenvolvió al ocuparse de las mismas. Aunque para muchos comentadores del pensamiento del lósofo inglés, su mayor mérito -a (...) veces, algunos incluso parece que acaben convirtiéndolo en su mayor defecto-, era haber dado origen y fundamento al liberalismo, hubo un tiempo en el que sus aportaciones más reconocidas fueron las que tenían que ver con el empirismo, el contractualismo, la tolerancia o la educación. (shrink)
Shaughan La Vine, Understanding the Infinite.Cambridge, Massachussets :Harvard University Press, 1994, ix + 372 pp.£31.95/$47.95 B.Russell, Foundations of logic 1903‐05, The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell, Volume 4, Edited by Urquhart, A.with the assistance of Lewis, A.C.London and New York:Routledge, 1994, Hi+ 743 pp.£100 Ray Monk and Anthony Palmer, Bertrand Russell and the Origins of Analytical Philosophy.Introduction by Ray Monk and Anthony Palmer.Bristol, U.K.:Thoemmes Press, 1996. xvi + 383 pp.£48.00/$78.00 ; £16.95/$29.95 T.J.Holopainen, Dialectic & Theology in the Eleventh Century.Leiden:E.J.Brill, 1996. (...) vii+171pp.$78. (shrink)
Este artículo analiza las fuentes que Bernard Manin recupera de la filosofía antigua y sobre las que sustenta los argumentos de una parte de su teoría política, contenida fundamentalmente en su obra: _Los principios del gobierno representativo_. Tanto en sus reflexiones como en el diálogo con otros, Manin volverá en ocasiones, casi siempre de forma poco explícita, a lecturas de la democracia ateniense sobre las que surgen controversias por el sentido de su trabajo, manteniendo de ese modo su vigencia para (...) la comprensión del presente. En este artículo se mostrará que tanto el autor como su obra están atravesados por una tensión intelectual de un marcado carácter filosófico y político y que, entre dicha tensión y las disputas por una definición de qué es una buena democracia, se dibuja un espacio que arroja luz sobre tales controversias. Las controversias, concluiremos, no son resultado de malos entendidos; o si lo son, cobran sentido en el propio texto de Bernard Manin. (shrink)
Resumen. En la presente investigación se describe el análisis de sentimiento realizado en comentarios publicados en la red social de Twitter. Los datos se obtuvieron al monitorear durante 36 días la evaluación del sentimiento de los comentarios que resultaron de hacer búsquedas de catorce diferentes sistemas operativos para celular; utilizando para dicha evaluación la herramienta Twitter-Sentiment. Se encontró que los comentarios positivos y negati¬vos presentan una correlación positiva para la mayoría de los sistemas operativos utilizados en la investigación.. The present (...) research describes the sentiment analysis carried on com¬ments published on the social network Twitter. The data were obtained by monitoring over 36 days of evaluation on the sentiment of the comments that resulted from querying four¬teen different mobile operating systems; using Twitter-Sentiment for the evaluation. It was found that the positive and negative comments have a positive correlation for most operating systems used in this research. (shrink)
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