Results for 'Frank Schaefer'

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  1. Reduction, Representation and Commensurability of Theories.Peter Schroeder-Heister & Frank Schaefer - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (1):130-157.
    Theories in the usual sense, as characterized by a language and a set of theorems in that language ("statement view"), are related to theories in the structuralist sense, in turn characterized by a set of potential models and a subset thereof as models ("non-statement view", J. Sneed, W. Stegmüller). It is shown that reductions of theories in the structuralist sense (that is, functions on structures) give rise to so-called "representations" of theories in the statement sense and vice versa, where representations (...)
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  2.  25
    Reassessing Diagrams of Cardiac Mechanics: From Otto Frank and Ernest Starling to Hiroyuki Suga.Johann-Peter Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Reidar K. Lie, Jochen Schaefer & Nicolaus Wilder - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (4):471-490.
    The main topic of this article is Otto Frank's forgotten notion of the pressure-volume diagram of the cardiac ventricle as a means to assess the external mechanical work of the heart. Developed by Frank at the end of the 19th century, this idea was reenvisioned as pressure-volume area about 70 to 80 years later by Hiroyuki Suga. This notion now serves as a perspective for defining cardiac contractility and thus enabling the controlled clinical application of cardiac assist devices. (...)
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  3. In Defense of Explanatory Ecumenism: Frank Jackson and Philip Pettit.Frank Jackson - 1992 - Economics and Philosophy 8 (1):1-21.
    Many of the things that we try to explain, in both our common sense and our scientific engagement with the world, are capable of being explained more or less finely: that is, with greater or lesser attention to the detail of the producing mechanism. A natural assumption, pervasive if not always explicit, is that other things being equal, the more finegrained an explanation, the better. Thus, Jon Elster, who also thinks there are instrumental reasons for wanting a more fine-grained explanation, (...)
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  4. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat.G. Owen Schaefer & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (2):188-202.
    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either (...)
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  5. Direct Vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.G. Owen Schaefer - 2015 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (3):261-289.
    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn’t want people to become more moral? Still, the project’s approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, (...)
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  6. Autonomy and Enhancement.G. Owen Schaefer, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (2):123-136.
    Some have objected to human enhancement on the grounds that it violates the autonomy of the enhanced. These objections, however, overlook the interesting possibility that autonomy itself could be enhanced. How, exactly, to enhance autonomy is a difficult problem due to the numerous and diverse accounts of autonomy in the literature. Existing accounts of autonomy enhancement rely on narrow and controversial conceptions of autonomy. However, we identify one feature of autonomy common to many mainstream accounts: reasoning ability. Autonomy can then (...)
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  7. The Obligation to Participate in Biomedical Research.G. Owen Schaefer, Ezekiel J. Emanuel & Alan Wertheimer - 2009 - Journal of the American Medical Association 302 (1):67-72.
    The current prevailing view is that participation in biomedical research is above and beyond the call of duty. While some commentators have offered reasons against this, we propose a novel public goods argument for an obligation to participate in biomedical research. Biomedical knowledge is a public good, available to any individual even if that individual does not contribute to it. Participation in research is a critical way to support an important public good. Consequently, all have a duty to participate. The (...)
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  8.  97
    Assessing the Effectiveness of a Large Database of Emotion-Eliciting Films: A New Tool for Emotion Researchers.Alexandre Schaefer, Frédéric Nils, Xavier Sanchez & Pierre Philippot - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (7):1153-1172.
  9.  39
    Ethics Education in the Workplace: An Effective Tool to Combat Employee Theft. [REVIEW]Arthur Gross-Schaefer, Jeff Trigilio, Jamie Negus & Ceng-Si Ro - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 26 (2):89 - 100.
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  10.  82
    Precision Medicine and Big Data: The Application of an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.G. Owen Schaefer, E. Shyong Tai & Shirley Sun - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):275-288.
    As opposed to a ‘one size fits all’ approach, precision medicine uses relevant biological, medical, behavioural and environmental information about a person to further personalize their healthcare. This could mean better prediction of someone’s disease risk and more effective diagnosis and treatment if they have a condition. Big data allows for far more precision and tailoring than was ever before possible by linking together diverse datasets to reveal hitherto-unknown correlations and causal pathways. But it also raises ethical issues relating to (...)
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  11. Arabic Theology, Arabic Philosophy: From the Many to the One: Essays in Celebration of Richard M. Frank.Richard M. Frank & James E. Montgomery (eds.) - 2006 - Peeters.
    In this volume, fourteen scholars, many of them contemporaries of Professor Frank, engage with his legacy with important and seminal works which take some of ...
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  12. Procedural Moral Enhancement.G. Owen Schaefer & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):73-84.
    While philosophers are often concerned with the conditions for moral knowledge or justification, in practice something arguably less demanding is just as, if not more, important – reliably making correct moral judgments. Judges and juries should hand down fair sentences, government officials should decide on just laws, members of ethics committees should make sound recommendations, and so on. We want such agents, more often than not and as often as possible, to make the right decisions. The purpose of this paper (...)
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  13.  35
    Clarifying How to Deploy the Public Interest Criterion in Consent Waivers for Health Data and Tissue Research.G. Owen Schaefer, Graeme Laurie, Sumytra Menon, Alastair V. Campbell & Teck Chuan Voo - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-10.
    BackgroundSeveral jurisdictions, including Singapore, Australia, New Zealand and most recently Ireland, have a public interest or public good criterion for granting waivers of consent in biomedical research using secondary health data or tissue. However, the concept of the public interest is not well defined in this context, which creates difficulties for institutions, institutional review boards and regulators trying to implement the criterion.Main textThis paper clarifies how the public interest criterion can be defensibly deployed. We first explain the ethical basis for (...)
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  14.  10
    II–Frank Jackson.Frank Jackson - 1997 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 71 (1):269-282.
  15. Code-Consistent Ethics Review: Defence of a Hybrid Account.G. Owen Schaefer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):494-495.
    It is generally unquestioned that human subjects research review boards should assess the ethical acceptability of protocols. It says so right on the tin, after all: they are explicitly called research ethics committees in the UK. But it is precisely those sorts of unchallenged assumptions that should, from time to time, be assessed and critiqued, in case they are in fact unfounded. John Stuart Mill's objection to suppressers of dissent is instructive here: “If the opinion is right, they are deprived (...)
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  16. Consent and the Ethical Duty to Participate in Health Data Research.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (6):392-396.
    The predominant view is that a study using health data is observational research and should require individual consent unless it can be shown that gaining consent is impractical. But recent arguments have been made that citizens have an ethical obligation to share their health information for research purposes. In our view, this obligation is sufficient ground to expand the circumstances where secondary use research with identifiable health information is permitted without explicit subject consent. As such, for some studies the Institutional (...)
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  17. The Right to Withdraw From Research.G. Owen Schaefer & Alan Wertheimer - 2010 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (4):329-352.
    The right to withdraw from participation in research is recognized in virtually all national and international guidelines for research on human subjects. It is therefore surprising that there has been little justification for that right in the literature. We argue that the right to withdraw should protect research participants from information imbalance, inability to hedge, inherent uncertainty, and untoward bodily invasion, and it serves to bolster public trust in the research enterprise. Although this argument is not radical, it provides a (...)
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  18.  36
    A Reply to Joseph Frank.Frank Kermode - 1978 - Critical Inquiry 4 (3):579-588.
    I'm pleased to have been offered the chance of replying to Joseph Frank's criticisms . He is a courteous opponent, though capable of a certain asperity. . . . Frank complains that his critics appear incapable of attending to what he really said in his original essay. It is the blight critics are born for; and it is undoubtedly sometimes caused by the venal haste of reviewers, and sometimes by native dullness, and sometimes by malice. But there are (...)
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  19.  24
    Identification of Risk Factors for Moral Distress in Nurses: Basis for the Development of a New Assessment Tool.Rafaela Schaefer, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone Zoboli & Margarida Vieira - 2016 - Nursing Inquiry 23 (4):346-357.
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  20.  13
    The Buddhist Empiricism Thesis: FRANK J. HOFFMAN.Frank J. Hoffman - 1982 - Religious Studies 18 (2):151-158.
    In what follows I argue for two interrelated theses: that early Buddhism is not a form of empiricism, and that consequently there is no basis for an early Buddhist apologetic which contrasts an empirical early Buddhism with either a metaphysical Hinduism on the one hand, or with a baseless Christianity on the other.
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  21.  29
    The Right to Know: A Revised Standard for Reporting Incidental Findings.G. Owen Schaefer & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (2):22-32.
    The “best-medical-interests” standard for reporting findings does not go far enough. Research subjects have a right to know about any comprehensible piece of information about them that is generated by research in which they are participating. An even broader standard may sometimes be appropriate: if subjects agree to accept information that they may not understand, then all information may be disclosed.
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  22.  51
    Public Interest in Health Data Research: Laying Out the Conceptual Groundwork.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):610-616.
    The future of health research will be characterised by three continuing trends: rising demand for health data; increasing impracticability of obtaining specific consent for secondary research; and decreasing capacity to effectively anonymise data. In this context, governments, clinicians and the research community must demonstrate that they can be responsible stewards of health data. IRBs and RECs sit at heart of this process because in many jurisdictions they have the capacity to grant consent waivers when research is judged to be of (...)
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  23. Naturalism and the Fate of the M-Worlds: Frank Jackson.Frank Jackson - 1997 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 71 (1):247 - 282.
    We make a huge variety of claims framed in vocabularies drawn from physics and chemistry, everyday talk, neuroscience, ethics, mathematics, semantics, folk and professional psychology, and so on and so forth. We say, for example, that Jones feels cold, that Carlton might win, that there are quarks, that murder is wrong, that there are four fundamental forces, and that a certain level of neurological activity is necessary for thought. If we follow Huw Price's Carnapian lead, we can put this by (...)
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  24. Toward Realism About Genetic Enhancement.G. Owen Schaefer - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (7):28-30.
    Volume 19, Issue 7, July 2019, Page 28-30.
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  25. From Metaphysics to Ethics: A Defence of Conceptual Analysis.Frank Jackson - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
    Frank Jackson champions the cause of conceptual analysis as central to philosophical inquiry. In recent years conceptual analysis has been undervalued and widely misunderstood, suggests Jackson. He argues that such analysis is mistakenly clouded in mystery, preventing a whole range of important questions from being productively addressed. He anchors his argument in discussions of specific philosophical issues, starting with the metaphysical doctrine of physicalism and moving on, via free will, meaning, personal identity, motion, and change, to ethics and the (...)
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  26. Genetic Affinity and the Right to ‘Three-Parent IVF’.G. Owen Schaefer & Markus Labude - 2017 - Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 34 (12):1577-1580.
    With the recent report of a live birth after use of Mitochondrial replacement therapy, sometimes called ‘Three-parent IVF’, the clinical application of the technique is fast becoming a reality. While the United Kingdom allows the procedure under regulatory scrutiny, it remains effectively outlawed in many other countries. We argue that such prohibitions may violate individuals’ procreative rights, grounded in individuals’ interest in genetic affinity. The interest in genetic affinity was recently endorsed by Singapore’s highest court, reflecting an emphasis on the (...)
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  27.  62
    His Sense of an Ending in Memory of Frank Kermode.Joseph Frank - 2011 - Common Knowledge 17 (3):427-432.
    In this memorial essay on Sir Frank Kermode (1919–2010), the author focuses on his own exchange of views with Kermode during the 1970s. In Kermode's book The Sense of an Ending (1966), he had criticized Frank's essay “Spatial Form in Modern Literature” (1945) as part of a larger critique of what the Romantic-Symbolist tradition of English poetry had become in the twentieth century. Yeats, Pound, Eliot, and other late Symbolists had turned artists into advocates of an irrational wisdom (...)
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  28.  65
    The Aš‘Arite Ontology: I Primary Entities: RICHARD M. FRANK.Richard M. Frank - 1999 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 9 (2):163-231.
    The present study seeks to lay out the most basic elements of the ontology of classical Aš‘arite theology. In several cases this requires a careful examination of the traditional and the formal lexicography of certain key expressions. The topics primarily treated are: how they understood “Being/ existence” and “being/existent” and essential natures; the systematic exploitation of the equivocities of certain expressions within a general context in which other than words there are no universals proves to be elegant as well as (...)
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  29. Frank Lloyd Wright Collected Writings Including an Autobiography.Frank Lloyd Wright & Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer - 1992
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  30.  20
    Ethics in the Era of Big Data.G. Owen Schaefer - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (2):169-171.
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  31. Shareholders and Social Responsibility.Brian P. Schaefer - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):297-312.
    The article presents an analysis and critique of Milton Friedman’s argument that the social responsibility of business is merely to increase its profits. The analysis uncovers a central claim that Friedman implies, but does not explicitly defend, namely that the shareholders of a corporation have no duty to direct that corporation’s management to exercise social responsibility. An argument against this claim is then advanced by way of a convergence strategy, whereby multiple influential moral approaches are shown to align themselves against (...)
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  32. The Need for Donor Consent in Mitochondrial Replacement.G. Owen Schaefer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):825-829.
    Mitochondrial replacement therapy requires oocytes of women whose mitochondrial DNA will be transmitted to resultant children. These techniques are scientifically, ethically and socially controversial; it is likely that some women who donate their oocytes for general in vitro fertilisation usage would nevertheless oppose their genetic material being used in MRT. The possibility of oocytes being used in MRT is therefore relevant to oocyte donation and should be included in the consent process when applicable. In present circumstances, specific consent should be (...)
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  33.  17
    Mere Science: Mapping the Land Bridge Between Emotion, Politics, and Ethics.Donovan O. Schaefer - 2019 - Zygon 54 (2):382-386.
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  34.  72
    Managing Relationships with Environmental Stakeholders: A Study of U.K. Water and Electricity Utilities. [REVIEW]Brian Harvey & Anja Schaefer - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 30 (3):243 - 260.
    In this paper we report a study of the approach of six U.K. water and electricity companies towards managing the relationship with their ''green'' stakeholders. Stakeholders are accorded increasing importance in political discourse and stakeholder theory is emerging as a promising framework for the analysis of corporate social performance.We studied the companies'' general approach towards green stakeholders, their dealings with specific stakeholder groups and whether they emphasised the consultation or the information aspect of stakeholder management. We found that none of (...)
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  35. An Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.Vicki Xafis, G. Owen Schaefer, Markus K. Labude, Iain Brassington, Angela Ballantyne, Hannah Yeefen Lim, Wendy Lipworth, Tamra Lysaght, Cameron Stewart, Shirley Sun, Graeme T. Laurie & E. Shyong Tai - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):227-254.
    Ethical decision-making frameworks assist in identifying the issues at stake in a particular setting and thinking through, in a methodical manner, the ethical issues that require consideration as well as the values that need to be considered and promoted. Decisions made about the use, sharing, and re-use of big data are complex and laden with values. This paper sets out an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research developed by a working group convened by the Science, Health and (...)
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  36.  21
    What Is the Goal of Moral Engineering?G. Owen Schaefer - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (4):10-11.
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  37.  77
    Andrew Dickson White and the History of a Religious Future.Richard Schaefer - 2015 - Zygon 50 (1):7-27.
    Andrew Dickson White played a pivotal role in constructing the image of a necessary, and even violent, confrontation between religion and science that persists to this day. Though scholars have long acknowledged that his position is more complex, given that White claimed to be saving religion from theology, there has been no attempt to explore what this means in light of his overwhelming attack on existing religions. This essay draws attention to how White's role as a historian was decisive in (...)
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  38.  35
    The Problem of Evil and a Plausible Defence: FRANK J. MURPHY.Frank J. Murphy - 1995 - Religious Studies 31 (2):243-250.
    This paper argues that God may create and exist in any possible world, no matter how much suffering of any sort that world includes. It combines the traditional free will defence with the notion of an ‘occasion’ for good or evil action and limits God's responsibility to the creation of these occasions. Since no possible world contains occasions for more evil than good action, God is morally permitted to create any possible world. With regard to suffering that is not due (...)
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  39.  11
    Ethics. Frank Chapman Sharp.Frank Thilly - 1929 - International Journal of Ethics 39 (2):235-239.
  40.  36
    Human Rights.Brian Schaefer - 2005 - Social Theory and Practice 31 (1):27-50.
  41.  22
    RNAs, Phase Separation, and Membrane‐Less Organelles: Are Post‐Transcriptional Modifications Modulating Organelle Dynamics?Aleksej Drino & Matthias R. Schaefer - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (12):1800085.
    Membranous organelles allow sub‐compartmentalization of biological processes. However, additional subcellular structures create dynamic reaction spaces without the need for membranes. Such membrane‐less organelles (MLOs) are physiologically relevant and impact development, gene expression regulation, and cellular stress responses. The phenomenon resulting in the formation of MLOs is called liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS), and is primarily governed by the interactions of multi‐domain proteins or proteins harboring intrinsically disordered regions as well as RNA‐binding domains. Although the presence of RNAs affects the formation and (...)
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  42.  17
    The Madness of Franz Brentano: Religion, Secularisation and the History of Philosophy.Richard Schaefer - 2013 - History of European Ideas 39 (4):541-560.
    In recent decades, scholars have shown a distinct new willingness to concede the important place of religion in the life and thought of the philosopher Franz Brentano. However, these studies are still dominated by the presumption that Brentano's life and thought are best understood according to a model of secularisation as a progressive waning of religion. This essay asks whether such a presumption is the best way of understanding the complex interconnections between various elements of his philosophical and religious ideas. (...)
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  43.  16
    Is the Free Will Defence Irrelevant?: FRANK B. DILLEY.Frank B. Dilley - 1982 - Religious Studies 18 (3):335-364.
    Recently Steven E. Boër gave another turn to the discussion of the free will defence by claiming that the free will defence is irrelevant to the justification of moral evil. Conceding that free will may be of real value, Boër claims that free will could have been allowed creatures without that leading to any moral evil at all. What I shall hereafter refer to as the ‘Boër reform’ is the suggestion that God could have allowed creatures to exercise free choices (...)
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  44. A Guided Tour of Minimal Indices and Shortest Descriptions.Marcus Schaefer - 1998 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 37 (8):521-548.
    The set of minimal indices of a Gödel numbering $\varphi$ is defined as ${\rm MIN}_{\varphi} = \{e: (\forall i < e)[\varphi_i \neq \varphi_e]\}$ . It has been known since 1972 that ${\rm MIN}_{\varphi} \equiv_{\mathrm{T}} \emptyset^{\prime \prime }$ , but beyond this ${\rm MIN}_{\varphi}$ has remained mostly uninvestigated. This paper collects the scarce results on ${\rm MIN}_{\varphi}$ from the literature and adds some new observations including that ${\rm MIN}_{\varphi}$ is autoreducible, but neither regressive nor (1,2)-computable. We also study several variants of (...)
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  45.  12
    Illiberal Justice: John Rawls Vs. The American Political Tradition.David L. Schaefer - 2007 - University of Missouri.
    "Schaefer challenges John Rawls's practically sacrosanct status among scholars of political theory, law, and ethics by demonstrating how Rawls's teachings deviate from the core tradition of American constitutional liberalism toward ...
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  46.  34
    Trade Associations and Corporate Social Responsibility: Evidence From the UK Water and Film Industries.Anja Schaefer & Finola Kerrigan - 2008 - Business Ethics 17 (2):171–195.
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  47.  30
    Embodied Disbelief: Poststructural Feminist Atheism.Donovan O. Schaefer - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (2):371-387.
    “I quite rightly pass for an atheist,” Jacques Derrida announces in Circumfession. Grace Jantzen's suggestion that the poststructuralist critique of modernity can also be trained on atheism helps us make sense of this playfully cryptic statement: although Derrida sympathizes with the “idea” of atheism, he is wary of the modern brand of atheism, with its insistence on rationally arranging—straightening out—religion. In this paper, I will argue that poststructural feminism, with its focus on embodied epistemology, offers a way to re-explain Derrida's (...)
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  48. Philosophical Papers.Frank Plumpton Ramsey - 1925 - Cambridge University Press.
    Frank Ramsey was the greatest of the remarkable generation of Cambridge philosophers and logicians which included G. E. Moore, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Maynard Keynes. Before his tragically early death in 1930 at the age of twenty-six, he had done seminal work in mathematics and economics as well as in logic and philosophy. This volume, with a new and extensive introduction by D. H. Mellor, contains all Ramsey's previously published writings on philosophy and the foundations of mathematics. The (...)
     
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  49.  27
    Affect and Non-Uniform Characteristics of Predictive Processing in Musical Behaviour.Rebecca S. Schaefer, Katie Overy & Peter Nelson - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):226-227.
    The important roles of prediction and prior experience are well established in music research and fit well with Clark's concept of unified perception, cognition, and action arising from hierarchical, bidirectional predictive processing. However, in order to fully account for human musical intelligence, Clark needs to further consider the powerful and variable role of affect in relation to prediction error.
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  50.  5
    Who Am I: The Conscious and the Unconscious Self.Michael Schaefer & Georg Northoff - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
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