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Franklin G. Miller [120]Franklin Gerber Miller [1]
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  1.  16
    Changing the Conversation About Brain Death.Robert D. Truog & Franklin G. Miller - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):9-14.
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  2.  10
    A Critique of Clinical Equipoise: Therapeutic Misconception in the Ethics of Clinical Trials.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (3):19-28.
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  3.  68
    Facing Up to Paternalism in Research Ethics.Franklin G. Miller & Alan Wertheimer - 2007 - Hastings Center Report 37 (3):24-34.
    : Bioethicists have failed to understand the pervasively paternalistic character of research ethics. Not only is the overall structure of research review and regulation paternalistic in some sense; even the way informed consent is sought may imply paternalism. Paternalism has limits, however. Getting clear on the paternalism of research ethics may mean some kinds of prohibited research should be reassessed.
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  4.  69
    A Plea for Pragmatism in Clinical Research Ethics.David H. Brendel & Franklin G. Miller - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (4):24 – 31.
    Pragmatism is a distinctive approach to clinical research ethics that can guide bioethicists and members of institutional review boards (IRBs) as they struggle to balance the competing values of promoting medical research and protecting human subjects participating in it. After defining our understanding of pragmatism in the setting of clinical research ethics, we show how a pragmatic approach can provide guidance not only for the day-to-day functioning of the IRB, but also for evaluation of policy standards, such as the one (...)
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  5.  32
    Bench to Bedside: Mapping the Moral Terrain of Clinical Research.Steven Joffe & Franklin G. Miller - 2008 - Hastings Center Report 38 (2):30-42.
    : Medical research is widely thought to have a fundamentally therapeutic orientation, in spite of the fact that clinical research is thought to be ethically distinct from medical care. We need an entirely new conception of clinical research ethics—one that looks to science instead of the doctor-patient relationship.
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  6.  10
    Incidental Findings in Human Subjects Research: What Do Investigators Owe Research Participants?Franklin G. Miller, Michelle M. Mello & Steven Joffe - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 36 (2):271-279.
    The use of brain imaging technology as a common tool of research has spawned concern and debate over how investigators should respond to incidental fndings discovered in the course of research. In this article, we argue that investigators have an obligation to respond to incidental fndings in view of their entering into a professional relationship with research participants in which they are granted privileged access to private information with potential relevance to participants' health. We discuss the scope and limits of (...)
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  7.  52
    What Makes Placebo-Controlled Trials Unethical?Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):3 – 9.
    The leading ethical position on placebo-controlled clinical trials is that whenever proven effective treatment exists for a given condition, it is unethical to test a new treatment for that condition against placebo. Invoking the principle of clinical equipoise, opponents of placebo-controlled trials in the face of proven effective treatment argue that they (1) violate the therapeutic obligation of physicians to offer optimal medical care and (2) lack both scientific and clinical merit. We contend that both of these arguments are mistaken. (...)
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  8.  49
    The Ethics of Consent: Theory and Practice.Franklin G. Miller & Alan Wertheimer (eds.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    This book assembles the contributions of a distinguished group of scholars concerning the ethics of consent in theory and practice.
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  9.  19
    Rethinking the Ethics of Vital Organ Donations.Franklin G. Miller & Robert D. Truog - 2008 - Hastings Center Report 38 (6):38-46.
  10.  7
    Can RESEARCH and CARE Be Ethically Integrated?Emily A. Largent, Steven Joffe & Franklin G. Miller - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (4):37-46.
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  11.  23
    The Clinician-Investigator: Unavoidable but Manageable Tension.Howard Brody & Franklin G. Miller - 2003 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (4):329-346.
    : The "difference position" holds that clinical research and therapeutic medical practice are sufficiently distinct activities to require different ethical rules and principles. The "similarity position" holds instead that clinical investigators ought to be bound by the same fundamental principles that govern therapeutic medicine—specifically, a duty to provide the optimal therapeutic benefit to each patient or subject. Some defenders of the similarity position defend it because of the overlap between the role of attending physician and the role of investigator in (...)
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  12. The Ethics of Research on Enhancement Interventions.Lev Ori, G. Miller Franklin & J. Emanuel Ezekiel - 2010 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (2):101-113.
    Traditionally, biomedical research has been devoted to improvement in the understanding and treatment or prevention of disease. Building on the knowledge generated by the long history of disease-oriented research, the next few decades will witness an explosion of biomedical enhancements to make people faster, stronger, smarter, less forgetful, happier, prettier, and live longer (Turner et al. 2003; Vastag 2004; Rose 2002). As with other biomedical interventions, research to assess the safety and efficacy of these enhancements in humans should be conducted (...)
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  13.  67
    The Placebo Phenomenon and Medical Ethics: Rethinking the Relationship Between Informed Consent and Risk–Benefit Assessment.Franklin G. Miller & Luana Colloca - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (4):229-243.
    It has been presumed within bioethics that the benefits and risks of treatments can be assessed independently of information disclosure to patients as part of the informed consent process. Research on placebo and nocebo effects indicates that this is not true for symptomatic treatments. The benefits and risks that patients experience from symptomatic treatments can be shaped powerfully by information about these treatments provided by clinicians. In this paper we discuss the implications of placebo and nocebo research for risk–benefit assessment (...)
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  14.  29
    Clinical Pragmatism: A Method of Moral Problem Solving.Joseph J. Fins, Matthew D. Bacchetta & Franklin G. Miller - 1997 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (2):129-143.
    : This paper presents a method of moral problem solving in clinical practice that is inspired by the philosophy of John Dewey. This method, called "clinical pragmatism," integrates clinical and ethical decision making. Clinical pragmatism focuses on the interpersonal processes of assessment and consensus formation as well as the ethical analysis of relevant moral considerations. The steps in this method are delineated and then illustrated through a detailed case study. The implications of clinical pragmatism for the use of principles in (...)
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  15.  39
    The Internal Morality of Medicine: An Evolutionary Perspective.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):581 – 599.
    A basic question of medical ethics is whether the norms governing medical practice should be understood as the application of principles and rules of the common morality to medicine or whether some of these norms are internal or proper to medicine. In this article we describe and defend an evolutionary perspective on the internal morality of medicine that is defined in terms of the goals of clinical medicine and a set of duties that constrain medical practice in pursuit of these (...)
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  16.  16
    The Incoherence of Determining Death by Neurological Criteria: A Commentary on Controversies in the Determination of Death, A White Paper by the President's Council on Bioethics.Franklin G. Miller & Robert D. Truog - 2009 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (2):185-193.
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  17. William James, Faith, and the Placebo Effect.Franklin G. Miller - 2005 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (2):273-281.
  18. Research Ethics and Misguided Moral Intuition.Franklin G. Miller - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 32 (1):111-116.
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  19.  18
    Death, Dying, and Organ Donation: Reconstructing Medical Ethics at the End of Life.Franklin G. Miller & Robert Truog - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    This book challenges fundamental doctrines of established medical ethics. It is argued that the routine practice of stopping life support technology causes the death of patients and that donors of vital organs (hearts, liver, lungs, and both kidneys) are not really dead at the time that their organs are removed for life-saving transplantation. Although these practices are ethically legitimate, they are not compatible with traditional medical ethics: they conflict with the norms that doctors must not intentionally cause the death of (...)
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  20.  18
    The Placebo Effect: Illness and Interpersonal Healing.Franklin G. Miller, Luana Colloca & Ted J. Kaptchuk - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (4):518-539.
  21.  93
    Moral Fictions and Medical Ethics.Franklin G. Miller, Robert D. Truog & Dan W. Brock - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (9):453-460.
    Conventional medical ethics and the law draw a bright line distinguishing the permitted practice of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from the forbidden practice of active euthanasia by means of a lethal injection. When clinicians justifiably withdraw life-sustaining treatment, they allow patients to die but do not cause, intend, or have moral responsibility for, the patient's death. In contrast, physicians unjustifiably kill patients whenever they intentionally administer a lethal dose of medication. We argue that the differential moral assessment of these two practices (...)
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  22.  1
    Incidental Findings in Human Subjects Research: What Do Investigators Owe Research Participants?Franklin G. Miller, Michelle M. Mello & Steven Joffe - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):271-279.
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  23.  11
    Placebo Effects and the Ethics of Therapeutic Communication: A Pragmatic Perspective.Marco Annoni & Franklin G. Miller - 2016 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):79-103.
    Doctor–patient communication is a crucial component in any therapeutic encounter. Physicians use words to formulate diagnoses and prognoses, to disclose the risks and benefits of medical interventions, and to explain why, how, and when a therapy will be administered to a patient. Likewise, patients communicate to describe their symptoms, to make sense of their conditions, to report side effects, to explore other therapeutic options, and to share their feelings. Throughout the history of medicine, the ethics of the doctor–patient communication has (...)
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  24.  7
    Professional Integrity and Physician‐Assisted Death.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 1995 - Hastings Center Report 25 (3):8-17.
  25.  17
    An Apology for Socratic Bioethics.Franklin G. Miller & Robert D. Truog - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (7):3 – 7.
    Bioethics is a hybrid discipline. As a theoretical enterprise it stands for untrammeled inquiry and argument. Yet it aims to influence medical practice and policy. In this article we explore tensions between these two dimensions of bioethics and examine the merits and perils of a “Socratic” approach to bioethics that challenges “the conventional wisdom.”.
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  26.  9
    Adverstising for Clinical Research.Franklin G. Miller & Andrew F. Short - forthcoming - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
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  27.  19
    The Internal Morality of Medicine: Explication and Application to Managed Care.Howard Brody & Franklin G. Miller - 1998 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (4):384 – 410.
    Some ethical issues facing contemporary medicine cannot be fully understood without addressing medicine's internal morality. Medicine as a profession is characterized by certain moral goals and morally acceptable means for achieving those goals. The list of appropriate goals and means allows some medical actions to be classified as clear violations of the internal morality, and others as borderline or controversial cases. Replies are available for common objections, including the superfluity of internal morality for ethical analysis, the argument that internal morality (...)
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  28.  14
    Nudging, Autonomy, and Valid Consent: Context Matters.Franklin G. Miller & Luke Gelinas - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):12-13.
  29.  23
    A Normative Justification for Distinguishing the Ethics of Clinical Research From the Ethics of Medical Care.Paul Litton & Franklin G. Miller - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 33 (Fall 2005):566-74.
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  30.  8
    Treatment-Resistant Depression and Physician-Assisted Death.Franklin G. MIller - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (11):885-886.
  31. The Incoherence of Determining Death by Neurological Criteria: Reply to John Lizza.G. Miller Franklin & D. Truog Robert - 2009 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (4):397-399.
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  32.  16
    When Scientists Deceive: Applying the Federal Regulations.Collin C. O'Neil & Franklin G. Miller - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 37 (2):344-350.
    Deception is a useful methodological device for studying attitudes and behavior, but deceptive studies fail to fulfill the informed consent requirements in the U.S. federal regulations. This means that before they can be approved by Institutional Review Boards, they must satisfy the four regulatory conditions for a waiver or alteration of these requirements. To illustrate our interpretation, we apply the conditions to a recent study that used deception to show that subjects judged the same wine as more enjoyable when they (...)
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  33.  34
    Brain Death: Justifications and Critiques.Robert D. Truog & Franklin G. Miller - 2012 - Clinical Ethics 7 (3):128-132.
    Controversies about the diagnosis and meaning of brain death have existed as long as the concept itself. Here we review the historical development of brain death, and then evaluate the various attempts to justify the claim that patients who are diagnosed as brain dead can be considered dead for all legal and social purposes, and especially with regard to procuring their vital organs for transplantation. While we agree with most commentators that death should be defined as the loss of integration (...)
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  34.  5
    Forgoing Debriefing in Deceptive Research: Is It Ever Ethical?Roseanna Sommers & Franklin G. Miller - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (2):98-116.
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  35. The Research‐Clinical Practice Distinction, Learning Health Systems, and Relationships.Howard Brody & Franklin G. Miller - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (5):41-47.
  36.  21
    Evaluating the Therapeutic Misconception.Franklin G. Miller & Steven Joffe - 2006 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (4):353-366.
    : The "therapeutic misconception," described by Paul Appelbaum and colleagues more than 20 years ago, refers to the tendency of participants in clinical trials to confuse the design and conduct of research with personalized medical care. Although the "therapeutic misconception" has become a term of art in research ethics, little systematic attention has been devoted to the ethical significance of this phenomenon. This article examines critically the way in which Appelbaum and colleagues formulate what is at stake in the therapeutic (...)
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  37.  22
    Principles of Early Stopping of Randomized Trials for Efficacy: A Critique of Equipoise and an Alternative Nonexploitation Ethical Framework.David Buchanan & Franklin G. Miller - 2005 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (2):161-178.
    : Recent controversial decisions to terminate several large clinical trials have called attention to the need for developing a sound ethical framework to determine when trials should be stopped in light of emerging efficacy data. Currently, the fundamental rationale for stopping trials early is based on the principle that equipoise has been disturbed. We present an analysis of the ethical and practical problems with the "equipoise disturbed" position and describe an alternative ethical framework based on the principle of nonexploitation. This (...)
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  38.  78
    Cosmetic Surgery and the Internal Morality of Medicine.Franklin G. Miller, Howard Brody & Kevin C. Chung - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (3):353-364.
    Cosmetic surgery is a fast-growing medical practice. In 1997 surgeons in the United States performed the four most common cosmetic procedures443,728 times, an increase of 150% over the comparable total for 1992. Estimated total expenditures for cosmetic surgery range from $1 to $2 billion. As managed care cuts into physicians' income and autonomy, cosmetic surgery, which is not covered by health insurance, offers a financially attractive medical specialty.
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  39.  9
    Does Research Ethics Rest on a Mistake?Franklin G. Miller - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):34 – 36.
  40.  5
    Clinical Pragmatism: Bridging Theory and Practice.Joseph J. Fins, Franklin G. Miller & Matthew D. Bacchetta - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (1):37-42.
    : This response to Lynn Jansen's critique of clinical pragmatism concentrates on two themes: (1) contrasting approaches to moral epistemology and (2) the connection between theory and practice in clinical ethics. Particular attention is paid to the status of principles and the role of consensus, with some closing speculations on how Dewey might view the current state of bioethics.
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  41.  38
    Debriefing and Accountability in Deceptive Research.G. Miller Franklin, P. GluckJohn & Wendler David - 2008 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (3):235-251.
    Debriefing is a standard ethical requirement for human research involving the use of deception. Little systematic attention, however, has been devoted to explaining the ethical significance of debriefing and the specific ethical functions that it serves. In this article, we develop an account of debriefing as a tool of moral accountability for the prima facie wrong of deception. Specifically, we contend that debriefing should include a responsibility to promote transparency by explaining the deception and its rationale, to provide an apology (...)
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  42.  16
    Sham Surgery: An Ethical Analysis.Franklin G. Miller - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):41-48.
    Surgical clinical trials have seldom used a “sham” or placebo surgical procedure as a control, owing to ethical concerns. Recently, several ethical commentators have argued that sham surgery is either inherently or presumptively unethical. In this article I contend that these arguments are mistaken, and that there are no sound ethical reasons for an absolute prohibition of sham surgery in clinical trials. Reflecting on three cases of sham surgery, especially on the recently reported results of a sham-controlled trial of arthroscopic (...)
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  43.  15
    Evidence-Based Medicine: Watching Out for Its Friends.Howard Brody, Franklin G. Miller & Elizabeth Bogdan-Lovis - 2005 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):570-584.
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  44.  13
    Placebo and Deception: A Commentary.Anne Barnhill & Franklin G. Miller - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (1):69-82.
    In a recent article in this Journal, Shlomo Cohen and Haim Shapiro introduce the concept of “comparable placebo treatments” —placebo treatments with biological effects similar to the drugs they replace—and argue that doctors are not being deceptive when they prescribe or administer CPTs without revealing that they are placebos. We critique two of Cohen and Shapiro’s primary arguments. First, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not lying to the patient, but rather is making a self-fulfilling prophecy—telling a (...)
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  45.  55
    Clinical Equipoise and the Incoherence of Research Ethics.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2007 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (2):151 – 165.
    The doctrine of clinical equipoise is appealing because it appears to permit physicians to maintain their therapeutic obligation to offer optimal medical care to patients while conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The appearance, however, is deceptive. In this article we argue that clinical equipoise is defective and incoherent in multiple ways. First, it conflates the sound methodological principle that RCTs should begin with an honest null hypothesis with the questionable ethical norm that participants in these trials should never be randomized (...)
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  46. Research on Medical Records Without Informed Consent.Franklin G. Miller - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (3):560-566.
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  47.  2
    Striking the Right Balance in Research Ethics and Regulation.Franklin G. Miller - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):65-65.
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  48.  2
    A Prescription for Ethical Learning.Emily A. Largent, Franklin G. Miller & Steven Joffe - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (s1):28-29.
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  49.  7
    The Ethics of Clinical Trials Research in Severe Mood Disorders.Allison C. Nugent, Franklin G. Miller, Ioline D. Henter & Carlos A. Zarate - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (6):443-453.
    Mood disorders, including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, are highly prevalent, frequently disabling, and sometimes deadly. Additional research and more effective medications are desperately needed, but clinical trials research in mood disorders is fraught with ethical issues. Although many authors have discussed these issues, most do so from a theoretical viewpoint. This manuscript uses available empirical data to inform a discussion of the primary ethical issues raised in mood disorders research. These include issues of consent and decision-making capacity, including (...)
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  50.  60
    Semiotics and the Placebo Effect.Franklin G. Miller & Luana Colloca - 2010 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (4):509-516.
    Despite growing scientific interest in the placebo effect and increasing understanding of neurobiological mechanisms (Finniss et al. 2010), theoretical conceptualization of the placebo effect remains primitive (Miller, Colloca, and Kaptchuk 2009). Mechanistic research on this phenomenon appears largely free-floating, with little guidance by any systematic theoretical paradigm. A partial explanation is the pervasive conceptual confusion that characterizes thinking about the placebo effect. The philosopher of science Adolf Grunbaum noted that "the medical and psychiatric literature on placebos and their effects is (...)
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