Results for 'Fraud in science'

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  1.  17
    Guidelines for Research Ethics in Science and Technology.National Committee for Research Ethics in Science & Technology - 2009 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1).
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  2. Revolutions in Science Their Meaning and Relevance.William R. Shea, International Council of Scientific Unions, International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science & Universidade de Coimbra - 1988
     
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  3. Deontic Logic in Computer Science Normative System Specification.John-Jules Ch Meyer, Roel J. Wieringa & International Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science - 1993
     
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  4. Questionable, Objectionable or Criminal? Public Opinion on Data Fraud and Selective Reporting in Science.Justin T. Pickett & Sean Patrick Roche - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-21.
    Data fraud and selective reporting both present serious threats to the credibility of science. However, there remains considerable disagreement among scientists about how best to sanction data fraud, and about the ethicality of selective reporting. The public is arguably the largest stakeholder in the reproducibility of science; research is primarily paid for with public funds, and flawed science threatens the public’s welfare. Members of the public are able to make meaningful judgments about the morality of (...)
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  5. Fraud in Science.Robert L. Park - 2008 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (4):1135-1150.
    Even as today’s spectacular advances in science enhance the quality of life, so also are new opportunities created for those who would deliberately mislead a scientifically ill-informed public. The scientific community, made up of those who participate in professional science organizations and publish their methods and findings in the open scientific literature, have a responsibility to keep the public informed of scams carried out in the name of science. Fraud within the scientific community should be quickly (...)
     
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  6.  6
    Fraud in Science an Economic Approach.James R. Wible - 1992 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (1):5-27.
    In recent years, there have been multiple instances of misconduct in science, yet no coherent framework exists for characterizing this phenomenon. The thesis of this article is that economic analysis can provide such a framework. Economic analysis leads to two categories of misconduct: replication failure and fraud. Replication failure can be understood as the scientist making optimal use of time in a professional environment where innovation is emphasized rather than replication. Fraud can be depicted as a deliberate (...)
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  7. Science as a Matter of Honour: How Accused Scientists Deal with Scientific Fraud in Japan.A. Pellegrini Pablo - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-17.
    Practices related to research misconduct seem to have been multiplied in recent years. Many cases of scientific fraud have been exposed publicly, and journals and academic institutions have deployed different measures worldwide in this regard. However, the influence of specific social and cultural environments on scientific fraud may vary from society to society. This article analyzes how scientists in Japan deal with accusations of scientific fraud. For such a purpose, a series of scientific fraud cases that (...)
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  8. Fraud in Science: Who Patrols and Who Controls?Albert A. Barber - 1983 - In Brock K. Kilbourne & Maria T. Kilbourne (eds.), The Dark Side of Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division. pp. 1--91.
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  9.  2
    Fraud in Science: How Much, How Serious?Patricia Woolf - 1981 - Hastings Center Report 11 (5):9-14.
  10.  7
    Fraud and Trust in Science.Stephan Fuchs & S. D. Westervelt - 1996 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (2):248.
  11.  4
    Betrayers of the Truth: Fraud and Deceit in Science.D. Evans - 1986 - Journal of Medical Ethics 12 (3):160-161.
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  12. False Prophets: Fraud and Error in Science and MedicineAlexander Kohn.Anja Hiddinga - 1988 - Isis 79 (3):500-503.
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  13. Fraud, Misconduct or Normal Science in Medical Research--An Empirical Study of Demarcation.N. Lynoe, L. Jacobsson & E. Lundgren - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):501-506.
    OBJECTIVES: To study and describe how a group of senior researchers and a group of postgraduate students perceived the so-called "grey zone" between normal scientific practice and obvious misconduct. DESIGN: A questionnaire concerning various practices including dishonesty and obvious misconduct. The answers were obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). The central (two quarters) of the VAS were designated as a grey zone. SETTING: A Swedish medical faculty. SURVEY SAMPLE: 30 senior researchers and 30 postgraduate students. RESULTS: Twenty (...)
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  14. Betrayers of the Truth—Fraud and Deceit in the Halls of Science by William Broad and Nicholas Wade.Erwin di Cyan - 1986 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 30 (1):154-155.
  15. Fraud and Misconduct in Medical Research.Stephen Lock & F. O. Wells (eds.) - 1993 - Bmj.
     
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  16.  53
    That's Not Science! The Role of Moral Philosophy in the Science/Non-Science Divide.Bjørn Hofmann - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):243-256.
    The science/non-science distinction has become increasingly blurred. This paper investigates whether recent cases of fraud in science can shed light on the distinction. First, it investigates whether there is an absolute distinction between science and non-science with respect to fraud, and in particular with regards to manipulation and fabrication of data. Finding that it is very hard to make such a distinction leads to the second step: scrutinizing whether there is a normative distinction (...)
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  17.  14
    Misconduct in Science and the German Law.Stefanic Stegemann-Bochl - 2000 - Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (1):57-62.
    In the past, only norms and rules developed for other types of illegal activities could be applied to misconduct in science in Germany. But only particularly blatant cases of misconduct can be dealt with efficiently in this way. Nowadays, a couple of very important funding agencies and research institutions have enacted special procedures that apply in cases of suspected scientific misconduct. A strongly decentralised system of dealing with misconduct in science is being established in Germany.
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  18.  5
    The Epidemic of Misconduct in Science: The Collapse of the Moralizer Treatment.Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira - 2015 - Scientiae Studia 13 (4):867-897.
    RESUMO O tema do artigo é a proliferação de más condutas na ciência que vem ocorrendo nas últimas décadas, designada ao longo do texto pelo termo "a epidemia". As más condutas são violações de normas éticas da ciência, sendo os tipos mais importantes as várias modalidades de fraude, e de falsidades autorais. O artigo divide-se em seis seções. Na primeira, apresenta-se o tema e alguns esclarecimentos terminológicos. Na segunda, são expostas as evidências que corroboram a existência da epidemia. A terceira (...)
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  19.  14
    Corruption and Internal Fraud in the Turkish Construction Industry.Murat Gunduz & Oytun Önder - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):505-528.
    The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding about the internal fraud and corruption problem in the Turkish construction industry. The reasons behind the internal fraud and corruption problem as well as the types of prevention methods were investigated; and as a result various recommendations were made. To this end, a risk awareness questionnaire was used to understand the behavioral patterns of the construction industry, and to clarify possible proactive and reactive measures against internal fraud (...)
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  20.  51
    The Emergence and Evolution of the Expression “Conflict of Interests” in Science : A Historical Overview, 1880–2006.Yves Gingras & Pierre-Marc Gosselin - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):337-343.
    The tendency is strong to take the notion of “conflict of interests” for granted as if it had an invariant meaning and an ethical content independent of the historical context. It is doubtful however, from an historical and sociological point of view, that many of the cases now considered as instances of “conflicts of interests” would also have been conceived and perceived as such in, say, the 1930s. The idea of a “conflict of interests” presupposes that there are indeed interests (...)
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  21.  19
    The Economics of Science: Methodology and Epistemology as If Economics Really Mattered.James R. Wible - 1998 - Routledge.
    This book explores aspects of science from an economic point of view. The author begins with economic models of misconduct in science, moving on to discuss other important issues, including market failure and the market place of ideas.
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  22.  46
    Peirce and Royce and the Betrayal of Science: Scientific Fraud and Misconduct.Jacquelyn Anne K. Kegley - 2010 - The Pluralist 5 (2):87-104.
    I believe that the long-neglected ideas on science and scientific method of Charles Sanders Peirce and Josiah Royce can illuminate some of the current attacks on science that have surfaced: misconduct and fraud in science and anti-scientism or the "new cynicism." In addition, Royce and Peirce offer insights relevant to the ferment in contemporary philosophy of science around the various forms of pluralism advocated by a number of philosophers (see Kellert, Longino, and Waters). "Pluralism" is (...)
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  23.  20
    Science. Stem Cells. And Fraud.David S. Oderberg - unknown
    The world of science was stunned, and the hopes of many people dashed, when Professor Hwang Woo Suk of Seoul National University was recently found guilty of massive scientific fraud. Until January 2006 he was considered one of the world’s leading experts in cloning and stem cell research. Yet he was found by his own university to have fabricated all of the cell lines he claimed, in articles published in Science in 2004 and 2005, to have derived (...)
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  24. Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy and Culture.Alan D. Sokal - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    In 1996, Alan Sokal, a Professor of Physics at New York University, wrote a paper for the cultural-studies journal Social Text, entitled: 'Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a transformative hermeneutics of quantum gravity'. It was reviewed, accepted and published. Sokal immediately confessed that the whole article was a hoax - a cunningly worded paper designed to expose and parody the style of extreme postmodernist criticism of science. The story became front-page news around the world and triggered fierce and wide-ranging controversy. (...)
     
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  25.  5
    Conflicts of Interest and Commitment in Academic Science in the United States.Henry Etzkowitz - 1996 - Minerva 34 (3):259-277.
    An interest in economic development has been extended to a set of research universities which since the late nineteenth century had been established, or had transformed themselves, to focus upon discipline-based fundamental investigations.21 The land-grant model was reformulated, from agricultural research and extension, to entrepreneurial transfers of science-based industrial technology by faculty members and university administrators.The norms of science, a set of values and incentives for proper institutional conduct,22 have been revised as an unintended consequence of the second (...)
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  26. Modeling and Inferring in Science.Emiliano Ippoliti, Thomas Nickles & Fabio Sterpetti - 2016 - In Emiliano Ippoliti, Fabio Sterpetti & Thomas Nickles (eds.), Models and Inferences in Science. Springer. pp. 1-9.
    Science continually contributes new models and rethinks old ones. The way inferences are made is constantly being re-evaluated. The practice and achievements of science are both shaped by this process, so it is important to understand how models and inferences are made. But, despite the relevance of models and inference in scientific practice, these concepts still remain contro-versial in many respects. The attempt to understand the ways models and infer-ences are made basically opens two roads. The first one (...)
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  27. Values in Science Beyond Underdetermination and Inductive Risk.Matthew J. Brown - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):829-839.
    Proponents of the value ladenness of science rely primarily on arguments from underdetermination or inductive risk, which share the premise that we should only consider values where the evidence runs out or leaves uncertainty; they adopt a criterion of lexical priority of evidence over values. The motivation behind lexical priority is to avoid reaching conclusions on the basis of wishful thinking rather than good evidence. This is a real concern, however, that giving lexical priority to evidential considerations over values (...)
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  28.  5
    History and Philosophy of Science in Science Education, in Brazil.Roberto de Andrade Martins, Cibelle Celestino Silva & Maria Elice Brzezinski Prestes - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 2271-2299.
    This paper addresses the context of emergence, development, and current status of the use of history and philosophy of science in science education in Brazil. After a short overview of the three areas (history of science, philosophy of science, and science education) in Brazil, the paper focuses on the application of this approach to teaching physics, chemistry, and biology at the secondary school level. The first Brazilian researches along this line appeared more consistently in the (...)
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  29. Consciousness in Contemporary Science.Anthony J. Marcel & E. Bisiach (eds.) - 1988 - Oxford University Press.
    The significance of consciousness in modern science is discussed by leading authorities from a variety of disciplines. Presenting a wide-ranging survey of current thinking on this important topic, the contributors address such issues as the status of different aspects of consciousness; the criteria for using the concept of consciousness and identifying instances of it; the basis of consciousness in functional brain organization; the relationship between different levels of theoretical discourse; and the functions of consciousness.
     
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  30.  65
    [Book Review] the Science Question in Feminism. [REVIEW]Sandra G. Harding - 1988 - Feminist Studies 14 (1):561-574.
    This essay is a critical review of Sandra Harding's The Science Question in Feminism. Her text constitutes a monumental effort to capture an overview of recent feminist critique of science and to develop a feminist dialectical and materialist conception of the history of masculinist science. In this analysis of Harding's work, the organizing categories as well as the main assumptions of the text are reconstructed for closer examination within the context of modern feminist critique of science (...)
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  31. Intellectual Impostures: Postmodern Philosophers' Abuse of Science.Alan D. Sokal - 1999 - Profile Books.
  32.  45
    Beauty in Science: A New Model of the Role of Aesthetic Evaluations in Science[REVIEW]Ulianov Montano - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):133-156.
    In Beauty and Revolution in Science, James McAllister advances a rationalistic picture of science in which scientific progress is explained in terms of aesthetic evaluations of scientific theories. Here I present a new model of aesthetic evaluations by revising McAllister’s core idea of the aesthetic induction. I point out that the aesthetic induction suffers from anomalies and theoretical inconsistencies and propose a model free from such problems. The new model is based, on the one hand, on McAllister’s original (...)
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  33. Marian Smoluchowski's manuscripts - important source for philosophy in science.Polak Paweł & Dziekan Małgorzata - 2017 - Philosophical Problems in Science 62:141-169.
    The aim of tis article is to present the selected Marian Smoluchowski's manuscripts to be published in this volume. At the beginning, a history and current state of research of his manusript legacy was showed. Next there were characterized a philosophical significance of his unpublished manuscripts and a short analysis of the manuscripts published in this volume. At the end of the article the details about the current edition of Smoluchowski's manuscripts were described.
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  34. Free Radicals: The Secret Anarchy of Science.Michael Brooks - 2011 - Profile Books.
     
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  35. Bibliography on Scientific Fraud.A. C. Higgins - 1994 - Exams Unlimited.
     
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  36. Promoting Virtue or Punishing Fraud: Mapping Contrasts in the Language of ‘Scientific Integrity’.S. P. J. M. Horbach & W. Halffman - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-25.
    Even though integrity is widely considered to be an essential aspect of research, there is an ongoing debate on what actually constitutes research integrity. The understanding of integrity ranges from the minimal, only considering falsification, fabrication and plagiarism, to the maximum, blending into science ethics. Underneath these obvious contrasts, there are more subtle differences that are not as immediately evident. The debate about integrity is usually presented as a single, universal discussion, with shared concerns for researchers, policymakers and ‘the (...)
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  37. The Dark Side of Science.Brock K. Kilbourne & Maria T. Kilbourne (eds.) - 1983 - American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division.
     
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  38.  16
    Moral Economies in Science: From Ideal to Pragmatic.Janet Atkinson-Grosjean & Cory Fairley - 2009 - Minerva 47 (2):147-170.
    In the following pages we discuss three historical cases of moral economies in science: Drosophila genetics, late twentieth century American astronomy, and collaborations between American drug companies and medical scientists in the interwar years. An examination of the most striking differences and similarities between these examples, and the conflicts internal to them, reveals constitutive features of moral economies, and the ways in which they are formed, negotiated, and altered. We critically evaluate these three examples through the filters of rational (...)
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  39.  9
    History and Philosophy of Science and the Teaching of Science in England.John L. Taylor & Andrew Hunt - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 2045-2081.
    This chapter relates a broadly chronological story of the developments over the last 50 years that have sought to reshape the science curriculum in English schools by introducing aspects of the history of science and nature of science. The chapter highlights key curriculum projects by outlining the contexts in which they developed and summarising their rationales as set out in their publications. It also provides signposts to some of the reports of research and scholarship that have evaluated (...)
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  40.  26
    Models and Inferences in Science.Emiliano Ippoliti, Fabio Sterpetti & Thomas Nickles (eds.) - 2016 - Springer.
    The book answers long-standing questions on scientific modeling and inference across multiple perspectives and disciplines, including logic, mathematics, physics and medicine. The different chapters cover a variety of issues, such as the role models play in scientific practice; the way science shapes our concept of models; ways of modeling the pursuit of scientific knowledge; the relationship between our concept of models and our concept of science. The book also discusses models and scientific explanations; models in the semantic view (...)
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  41.  10
    Reality in Science.E. Ruttkamp - 1999 - South African Journal of Philosophy 18 (2):149-191.
    One way in which to address the intriguing relations between science and reality is to work via the models (mathematical structures) of formal scientific theories which are interpretations under which these theories turn out to be true. The so-called 'statement approach' to scientific theories -- characteristic for instance of Nagel, Carnap, and Hempel --depicts theories in terms of 'symbolic languages' and some set of 'correspondence rules' or 'definition principles'. The defenders of the oppositionist non-statement approach advocate an analysis where (...)
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  42.  24
    The Role of History in Science.Richard Creath - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (2):207 - 214.
    The case often made by scientists (and philosophers) against history and the history of science in particular is clear. Insofar as a field of study is historical as opposed to law-based, it is trivial. Insofar as a field attends to the past of science as opposed to current scientific issues, its efforts are derivative and, by diverting attention from acquiring new knowledge, deplorable. This case would be devastating if true, but it has almost everything almost exactly wrong. The (...)
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  43.  92
    Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society.Bruno Latour - 1987 - Harvard University Press.
    In this book Bruno Latour brings together these different approaches to provide a lively and challenging analysis of science, demonstrating how social context..
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  44.  41
    Identification of Matrices in Science and Engineering.Vincent Fella Hendricks, Arne Jakobsen & Stig Andur Pedersen - 2000 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 31 (2):277-305.
    Engineering science is a scientific discipline that from the point of view of epistemology and the philosophy of science has been somewhat neglected. When engineering science was under philosophical scrutiny it often just involved the question of whether engineering is a spin-off of pure and applied science and their methods. We, however, hold that engineering is a science governed by its own epistemology, methodology and ontology. This point is systematically argued by comparing the different sciences (...)
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  45.  18
    Aesthetic Values in Science.Milena Ivanova - forthcoming - Philosophy Compass.
  46.  2
    A Moral Imperative: Retaining Women of Color in Science Education.Angela Johnson, Sybol Cook Anderson & Kathryn J. Norlock - 2009 - Atlantis: Critical Studies in Gender, Culture and Social Justice 33 (2):72-82.
    This article considers the experiences of a group of women science students of color who reported encountering moral injustices, including misrecognition, lack of peer support, and disregard for their altruistic motives. We contend that university science departments face a moral imperative to cultivate equal relationships and the altruistic power of science.
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  47.  39
    The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies.Michael Gibbons (ed.) - 1994 - Sage Publications.
    As we approach the end of the twentieth century, the ways in which knowledge--scientific, social, and cultural--is produced are undergoing fundamental changes. In The New Production of Knowledge, a distinguished group of authors analyze these changes as marking the transition from established institutions, disciplines, practices, and policies to a new mode of knowledge production. Identifying such elements as reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, and heterogeneity within this new mode, the authors consider their impact and interplay with the role of knowledge in social relations. (...)
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  48.  1
    Discovery in Science and in Teaching Science.Nahum Kipnis - 2007 - Science and Education 16 (9-10):883-920.
    A proper presentation of scientific discoveries may allow science teachers to eliminate certain myths about the nature of science, which originate from an uncertainty among scholars about what constitutes a discovery. It is shown that a disagreement on this matter originates from a confusion of the act of discovery with response to it. It is suggested to separate these two concepts and also to distinguish the ‘scientific’ response from the ‘social’ one. The analysis is based on historical examples, (...)
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  49.  65
    Values in Pure and Applied Science.Sven Ove Hansson - 2007 - Foundations of Science 12 (3):257-268.
    In pure science, the standard approach to non-epistemic values is to exclude them as far as possible from scientific deliberations. When science is applied to practical decisions, non-epistemic values cannot be excluded. Instead, they have to be combined with scientific information in a way that leads to practically optimal decisions. A normative model is proposed for the processing of information in both pure and applied science. A general-purpose corpus of scientific knowledge, with high entry requirements, has a (...)
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  50.  3
    Boundary Work and Power in the Controversy Over Therapeutic Touch in Finnish Nursing Science.Pia Vuolanto - 2015 - Minerva 53 (4):359-380.
    The boundary work approach has been established as one of the main ways to study controversies in science. However, it has been proposed that it does not meet the power dynamics of the scientific field sufficiently. This article concentrates on the intertwining of boundary work and power. It combines the boundary work approach developed by Thomas Gieryn and the analysis of power in the work of Pierre Bourdieu. Based on a literature review and an analysis of a controversy over (...)
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