Bertrand Russell dedicó parte de su obra a la discusión sobre el problema de la referencia y la descripción . Russell, junto Whitehead, elaboró un tratado de lógica matemática, titulado Principia Mathematica en el que retomó el proyecto de Frege tratando de demostrar que la matemática es una rama de la lógica. Russell no sólo tiene este propósito logicista, sino que también quiere concebir un lenguaje lógicamente perfecto , esto es, un lenguaje preciso, en el que se elimina toda ambigüedad (...) y vaguedad. En una palabra, el lenguaje de la ciencia en el que a todo nombre, por ejemplo, le “corresponde” un objeto. El Wittgenstein de las Investigaciones filosóficas se enfrentará a tal proyecto y a la concepción de un lenguaje cartográfico de la realidad. El autor, propone por el contrario, la reivindicación de un lenguaje sencillo, austero, cotidiano y plural, lejos de toda “estructura oculta”, finalmente, un lenguaje que no trasgreda las prácticas comunes y de paso a un lenguaje filosófico menos “enredado” y “dogmatico”. Pretendemos resaltar cómo la crítica a la búsqueda de un lenguaje perfecto permite que al lenguaje y a la filosofía misma, se les conciba de un modo más abierto, cotidiano y plural, en palabras del mismo Wittgenstein, una filosofía descansada “que ya no se fustigue más con preguntas que la ponen a ella misma en cuestión”. (shrink)
The article deals with the theories of the American philosopher John Searle concerning his embracement of a form of emergentism of the mind and his ideas about consciousness, intentionality with ‘C’, and language as a critique of traditional standpoints closer to positivist theses. Bearing this in mind, the general purpose is to reveal how the philosophy of Searle aims to recover the active role of the agent and, in consequence, the semantic and pragmatic dimensions of language are vindicated, dimensions in (...) which consciousness and intentionality are key to the construction and dynamism of social reality. (shrink)
Entre enero y febrero de 1970, el norteamericano Saul Kripke impartió tres importantes conferencias en la Universidad de Princeton que posteriormente se publicaron bajo el titulo de El nombrar y la necesidad. En dichas conferencias el autor, además de hacer una fuerte crítica a las teorías descripcioncitas, abordó temas de primer orden, como son el de los nombres, la referencia, la rigidez, la modalidad y la necesidad. A partir, de sus tres conferencias, y del artículo “Identidad y necesidad” publicado un (...) año después (1971), abordaremos aquí cuatro puntos, a saber: 1) La necesidad e identidad en las teorías de la referencia directa, 2) Designadores rígidos y mundos posibles, 3) Bautizo inicial, 4) el nombrar y la necesidad. (shrink)
Algunos nombres usados en nuestro lenguaje no se aplican efectivamente a nada ni nadie si son tomados de forma literal, pues carecen de referente. En términos searleanos, su significatividad no depende que puedan dar cuenta o no de ejemplares en el mundo; su significatividad se "mide" en el uso de ellos en tal o cual discurso, en medio de explicaciones o caracterizaciones forjadas por reglas, pues hablar un lenguaje es tomar parte activa en una conducta compleja gobernada por reglas. Este (...) artículo sustenta cómo en la filosofía de Searle la significatividad de los discursos, entre ellos los de la ciencia o los de la ficción, se logra en la emisión de actos ilocucionarios que hacen posible la invención de mundos cargados de significados, aun cuando estos carezcan de referencia directa. Some names in our language are not indeed applied to anything or nobody if they are taken literally, because they lack their referent. According to Searle, names´ significance does not depend on how they can give account or not of world samples; their significance "is measured" in the use of them in this or that speech, amid explanations or characterizations forged by rules, because to speak a language it is to take active part in a complex rule-governed behavior. This article supports how in the philosophy of Searle meaningfulness of speeches, including those of science or fiction, is achieved in the issuance of illocutionary acts that make possible the invention of worlds full of meanings, even when they lack direct referent. (shrink)
Este texto quiere mostrar la lectura hecha por Borges del Quijote de la Mancha, como una de las más sencillas y desinteresadas maneras de leer, de encontrarse con la obra española desde tres puntos básicos: los libros, el sueño y lo imposible. Veremos, a través de sus poemas, cuentos fantásticos, conferencias y narraciones, su particular manera de leer el Quijote y la cercanía especial que tiene con este personaje de ficción.
Mainly because of the work of Gottlob Frege, philosophy of language seems to have inherited the pair sense /reference as the main aspects of the problem of meaning. Therefore, in a normal situation, a sign has, first of all, a sense which directs towards a reference or referent. As a result, sense is what one acquires when understanding an expression and a referent is the aspect of the real world to which the former directs. Motivated by the crucial problem of (...) the relation between signs and objects, the aim of the following paper is to make use of the idea of analogy in the context of the semantic problem of reference. (shrink)
Espino, Santamaria, and Garcia-Madruga (2000) report three results on the time taken to respond to a probe word occurring as end term in the premises of a syllogistic argument. They argue that these results can only be predicted by the theory of mental models. It is argued that two of these results, on differential reaction times to end-terms occurring in different premises and in different figures, are consistent with Chater and Oaksford's (1999) probability heuristics model (PHM). It is argued that (...) the third finding, on different reaction times between figures, does not address the issue of processing difficulty where PHM predicts no differences between figures. It is concluded that Espino et al.'s results do not discriminate between theories of syllogistic reasoning as effectively as they propose. (shrink)
We introduce a multimodal logic for order of magnitude reasoning which considers a new logic-based alternative to the notion of closeness, we provide an axiom system and prove its soundness and completeness.
A natural starting place for developing a phylogenetic species concept is to examine monophyletic groups of organisms. Proponents of “the” Phylogenetic Species Concept fall into one of two camps. The first camp denies that species even could be monophyletic and groups organisms using character traits. The second groups organisms using common ancestry and requires that species must be monophyletic. I argue that neither view is entirely correct. While monophyletic groups of organisms exist, they should not be equated with species. Instead, (...) species must meet the more restrictive criterion of being genealogically exclusive groups where the members are more closely related to each other than to anything outside the group. I carefully spell out different versions of what this might mean and arrive at a working definition of exclusivity that forms groups that can function within phylogenetic theory. I conclude by arguing that while a phylogenetic species concept must use exclusivity as a grouping criterion, a variety of ranking criteria are consistent with the requirement that species can be placed on phylogenetic trees. (shrink)
Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical-ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. A content analysis of opinion pieces in medical and nursing literature was conducted to examine how clinicians define and describe CSD, and how they justify this practice morally. Most publications were written by physicians and published in palliative or general medicine journals. Terminal Sedation and Palliative Sedation are (...) the most frequently used terms to describe CSD. Seventeen definitions with varying content were identified. CSD was found to be morally justified in 73 % of the publications using justifications such as Last Resort, Doctrine of Double Effect, Sanctity of Life, Autonomy, and Proportionality. The debate over CSD in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals lacks uniform terms and definitions, and is profoundly marked by ‘charged language’, aiming at realizing agreement in attitude towards CSD. Not all of the moral justifications found are equally straightforward. To enable a more effective debate, the terms, definitions and justifications for CSD need to be further clarified. (shrink)
La migración internacional nos enfrenta con problemas irresolubles desde la figura moderna del Estado nacional, su concepto de ciudadanía y su noción de justicia. Juan Carlos Velasco critica las limitaciones y la orientación de las políticas contemporáneas que nos hacen percibir a la migración como una “invasión”, y propone un modo radicalmente diferente de entender e intervenir el fenómeno desde lo trasnacional. Nacer de uno u otro lado de una línea divisoria es un evento azaroso, no obstante delimitar la (...) frontera es una construcción histórico-política: la desigualdad en las oportunidades que ofrecen las naciones es una situación estructural de injusticia que se perpetúa con las políticas de exclusión de los migrantes y la deslegitimación de su derecho a buscar una vida mejor. Esa circunstancia genera fracturas sociales, injustificables pero normalizadas, que imposibilitan alcanzar la justicia global. Velasco presenta un análisis completo que abarca las dimensiones política, jurídica y moral del tema, en el que lleva a la filosofía política a un terreno práctico del que se desprenden las claves para entender y actuar en esta nueva era en la que, debido a los conflictos sociales y políticos, la migración vuelve a ser argumento de discusión relevante. (Texto de la CONTRAPORTADA del libro). (shrink)
This paper aims to offer an account of affective experiences within Predictive Processing, a novel framework that considers the brain to be a dynamical, hierarchical, Bayesian hypothesis-testing mechanism. We begin by outlining a set of common features of affective experiences that a PP-theory should aim to explain: feelings are conscious, they have valence, they motivate behaviour, and they are intentional states with particular and formal objects. We then review existing theories of affective experiences within Predictive Processing and delineate two families (...) of theories: Interoceptive Inference Theories and Error Dynamics Theories. We highlight the strengths and shortcomings of each family of theories and develop a synthesis: the Affective Inference Theory. Affective Inference Theory claims that valence corresponds to the expected rate of prediction error reduction. In turn, the particular object of a feeling is the object predicted to be the most likely cause of expected changes in prediction error rate, and the formal object of a feeling is a predictive model of the expected changes in prediction error rate caused by a given particular object. Finally, our theory shows how affective experiences bias action selection, directing the organism towards allostasis and towards optimal levels of uncertainty in order to minimise prediction error over time. (shrink)
This paper investigates ontological dimensions of the blockchain by asking what kind of socio-technical object bitcoin is. It discusses both blockchain's political qualities and the political forms enabled by its emergence. It first observes recent approaches to the ontology of money and the political qualities of the ledgers used by the current fractional reserve banking model. It then directs the same questions at blockchain technology. The paper discusses an ontology proposed by Ole Bjerg and argues in favour of a mixed-ontology (...) approach to blockchains. It then questions the political qualities of the distributed ledger as a digital object and highlights the apparent absence of authority figures in the model. Finally, it argues that the political ontology of the blockchain can be framed as the displacement of authority from institutional actors into instrumental control of trust, in a dynamically distributed environment. (shrink)
An automatic theorem prover for a proof system in the style of dual tableaux for the relational logic associated with modal logic K has been introduced. Although there are many well-known implementations of provers for modal logic, as far as we know, it is the first implementation of a specific relational prover for a standard modal logic. There are two main contributions in this paper. First, the implementation of new rules, called (k1) and (k2), which substitute the classical relational rules (...) for composition and negation of composition in order to guarantee not only that every proof tree is finite but also to decrease the number of applied rules in dual tableaux. Second, the implementation of an order of application of the rules which ensures that the proof tree obtained is unique.As a consequence, we have implemented a decision procedure for modal logic K. Moreover, this work would be the basis for successive extensions of this logic, such as T, B and S4. (shrink)
Oaksford (2001) considers that the findings of Espino, Santamaria, and GarciaMadruga (2000a) could be explained by the Probability Heuristics Model (PHM) proposed by Chater and Oaksford (1999). He specifically voices three objections, the two main ones being based on the fact that PHM is not a theory about syllogism representation. If this is the case, we consider that PHM cannot explain our data, because most of them were registered before the participants evaluated the conclusion. We argue that only a theory (...) at the representational level can property explain these data. (shrink)
Self-Efficacy in Action provides a practitioner-friendly overview of the concepts, vocabulary, practices, and contexts related to teacher self-efficacy. This book engages readers in the meaningful discussions of practices and purposes of teacher self-efficacy to advance professionalism.
ABSTRACTThis paper attempts to shed light on Hegel’s recurring comment that Spinoza’s philosophy lacks the ‘principle of individuality’. It shows that this criticism can have three distinct meanings: that Spinozism cannot account for the multiplicity of finite individuals; that Spinozism leads to a moral devaluation of the finite individual; the form of substance is indifferent and lacks a differentiating principle. It is shown that Hegel argued, somewhat incoherently, for all three.
A new deduction system for deciding validity for the minimal decidable normal modal logic K is presented in this article. Modal logics could be very helpful in modelling dynamic and reactive systems such as bio-inspired systems and process algebras. In fact, recently the Connectionist Modal Logics has been presented, which combines the strengths of modal logics and neural networks. Thus, modal logic K is the basis for these approaches. Soundness, completeness and the fact that the system itself is a decision (...) procedure are proved in this article. The main advantages of this approach are: first, the system is deterministic, i.e. it generates one proof tree for a given formula; second, the system is a validity-checker, hence it generates a proof of a formula ; and third, the language of deduction and the language of a logic coincide. Some of these advantages are compared with other classical approaches. (shrink)
A number of recent papers have criticized what they call the dynamical interpretation of evolutionary theory found in Elliott Sober’s The Nature of Selection. Sober argues that we can think of evolutionary theory as a theory of forces analogous to Newtonian mechanics. These critics argue that there are several important disanalogies between evolutionary and Newtonian forces: Unlike evolutionary forces, Newtonian forces can be considered in isolation, they have source laws, they compose causally in a straightforward way, and they are intermediate (...) causes in causal chains. Here we defend and extend the forces analogy by arguing that each of these criticisms is based on a misunderstanding of Newtonian forces. Our discussion also has the interesting consequence that natural selection turns out to be more similar to forces such as friction and elastic forces rather than the more canonical gravitation. (shrink)
Henley argued that for Kuhn psychology is a nonparadigmatic science and that Skinner rejects the formulation of theories in psychology The present article shows that in a Kuhnian use of the concept of “paradigm” psychology is a paradigmatic science. This paper also demonstrates that Skinner himself formulated a theory of behavior as an alternative to traditional theoretical approaches in psychology. 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
We present a relational proof system in the style of dual tableaux for a multimodal propositional logic for order of magnitude qualitative reasoning to deal with relations of negligibility, non-closeness, and distance. This logic enables us to introduce the operation of qualitative sum for some classes of numbers. A relational formalization of the modal logic in question is introduced in this paper, i.e., we show how to construct a relational logic associated with the logic for order-of-magnitude reasoning and its dual (...) tableau system which is a validity checker for the modal logic. For that purpose, we define a validity preserving translation of the modal language into relational language. Then we prove that the system is sound and complete with respect to the relational logic defined as well as with respect to the logic for order of magnitude reasoning. Finally, we show that in fact relational dual tableau does more. It can be used for performing the four major reasoning tasks: verification of validity, proving entailment of a formula from a finite set of formulas, model checking, and verification of satisfaction of a formula in a finite model by a given object. (shrink)
Mind Association 2017Elliott Sober’s first book, Simplicity, defends the view that the simplicity of a theory or hypothesis is a measure of its informativeness – roughly, simpler theories require less new information to be added to them to answer relevant questions of interest. While this measure of simplicity is question-relative, it is still what you might call a global view of simplicity – simplicity means the same thing across different scientific problems and it is always an epistemic virtue. Ockham’s Razor (...) is just good scientific reasoning. Sober’s 1988 book Reconstructing the Past: Parsimony, Evolution, and Inference argues against this global conception of simplicity and replaces it with a local one. Here, in one context parsimony means one thing while in another context it may mean something different. Similarly, whether the more parsimonious hypothesis is to be preferred is also a local matter; it... (shrink)
Eight focus groups were conducted in four public hospitals in Madrid to explore healthcare professionals’ perceptions of advance directives in order to improve the understanding of their lack of success among physicians and patients. A purposive sample of sixty healthcare professionals discussed ADs and reasons for their infrequent use. Three main themes were identified: perceptions about their meaning, appraisals of their use in clinical practice, and decision-making about them. Healthcare professionals perceived a lack of clarity about their definition and implementation. (...) There is insufficient awareness of their efficacy in improving the quality of clinical relationships and decision-making, and they are often perceived only as a bureaucratic procedure. Advance directives are not integrated in the clinical practice of Madrid’s healthcare specialist services because their application is exceedingly complex, because of insufficient education about them, and because of lack of procedural clarity. Consequently, healthcare professionals are not aware of how ADs could improve clinical decision-making, of when and for whom their use is appropriate, and of who has responsibility for providing ADs-related information to patients. These circumstances contribute to patients’ lack of interest in completing these documents and to physicians’ sceptical views about their usefulness. (shrink)
The present work tackles the issue of the effects of digitalisation on employment. This issue has been attracting a growing interest, in particular because of the anxiety generated by the idea that digital technologies could cancel a large number of jobs. Although I agree with argument put forward in opposition to the existence of a causal link between technological innovation and increased productivity at the macroeconomic level, I believe that the novelty and pervasiveness of digital technologies require more in-depth micro-level (...) analysis in order to understand the extent to which new digital technologies are currently employed by leading manufacturing companies and the ways new technologies are affecting employment. The empirical findings show that among the different technologies included under the umbrella of Industry 4.0, mainly robots have received a great deal of attention so far, while the current application and employment impact for other emerging technological opportunities such as 3D printing, Internet of Things, Augmented reality, Big data Analytics have not been studied yet. In relation to the qualitative changes of the labour market, our empirical research confirms that there are new types of skills that will be demanded in the future in manufacturing, in particular in relation to service provision and software development. (shrink)
We argue for a new conventionalism about many kinds of evolutionary groups, including clades, cohesive units, and populations. This rejects a consensus, which says that given any one of the many legitimate grouping concepts, only objective biological facts determine whether a collection is such a group. Surprisingly, being any one kind of evolutionary group typically depends on which of many incompatible values are taken by suppressed variables. This is a novel pluralism underlying most any one group concept, rather than a (...) familiar pluralism claiming many concepts are legitimate. Consequently, we must help biological facts determine grouphood, even when given a single grouping concept. (shrink)
La imparable pérdida del poder soberano de los Estados nacionales y el correlativo afloramiento de una constelación postnacional serían dos de las grandes tendencias que, según Habermas, caracterizarían en términos políticos el actual estado de cosas en el mundo. Ante este contexto geopolítico emergente, cuyos lineamientos definitivos aún estarían por definir, Habermas perfila una posible respuesta política en clave democrática: recuperar el proyecto cosmopolita de Kant y avanzar en la juridificación de la esfera internacional. En ese horizonte, compatibilizar la necesidad (...) de una gobernanza global de los asuntos comunes de la humanidad y las exigencias de participación democrática constituye uno de los mayores escollos a salvar. La conformación de una praxis democrática postwestfaliana en concordancia con una estructuración multinivel de las relaciones internacionales podría representar una salida plausible. (shrink)
It is unknown whether hospital-based medical professionals in Spain educate patients about advance directives. The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of hospital-based physicians’ and nurses’ engagement in AD discussions in the hospital and which patient populations merit such efforts. A short question-and-answer-based survey of physicians and nurses taking care of inpatients was conducted at a university hospital in Madrid, Spain. In total, 283 surveys were collected from medical professionals, of whom 71 per cent were female, with (...) an average age of thirty-four years. Eighty-four per cent had never educated patients about ADs because of lack of perceived responsibility, time, or general knowledge of ADs. Patient populations that warranted AD discussions included those with terminal illnesses, chronic diseases, and elderly patients. Regarding degree of AD understanding in medical professionals: 57 per cent of medical professionals claimed sufficient general knowledge of ADs, 19 per cent understood particulars regarding AD document creation, and 16 per cent were aware of AD regulatory policies. Engagement in AD discussions was considered important by 83 per cent of medical professionals, with 79 per cent interested in participating in such discussions themselves. The majority of hospital physicians and nurses do not educate their patients about ADs, despite acknowledging their importance. Patient populations of highest priority included those with terminal diseases or chronic illness or who are of advanced age. (shrink)
The status of constructivism as a metaethical or metanormative theory is unclear partly due to the lack of a clear semantics for central normative terms such as ‘reason’ and ‘ought’. In a series of recent papers, Sharon Street has attempted to clarify the central commitments of constructivism by focusing on the idea of a practical point of view and what follows from it. We improve upon the informal understanding provided by Street and attempt to provide a semantics for ‘ought’. Our (...) semantics respects the core intuition of the constructivist that normative claims are made true because of our practical commitments as agents and also reflects the constructivist’s commitment to the centrality of practical deliberation to normative truth. On our view, a normative claim of the form ⌜S ought to ϕ⌝ is true if ϕ is entailed from S’s set of evaluative attitudes. We argue that a virtue of our definition is that it allows us to see precisely what is distinctive about constructivism as opposed to realism and expressivism. (shrink)
Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical–ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death (PAD), that it is a form of “slow euthanasia.” A qualitative thematic content analysis of opinion pieces was conducted to describe and classify arguments that support or reject a moral difference between CSD and PAD. Arguments pro and (...) contra a moral difference refer basically to the same ambiguous themes, namely intention, proportionality, withholding artificial nutrition and hydration, and removing consciousness. This demonstrates that the debate is first and foremost a semantic rather than a factual dispute, focusing on the normative framework of CSD. Given the prevalent ambiguity, the debate on CSD appears to be a classical symbolic struggle for moral authority. (shrink)