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Fritz Allhoff, J.D., Ph.D.
Western Michigan University
  1. Ethics of Human Enhancement: 25 Questions & Answers.Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin, James Moor & John Weckert - 2010 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 4 (1).
    This paper presents the principal findings from a three-year research project funded by the US National Science Foundation on ethics of human enhancement technologies. To help untangle this ongoing debate, we have organized the discussion as a list of questions and answers, starting with background issues and moving to specific concerns, including: freedom & autonomy, health & safety, fairness & equity, societal disruption, and human dignity. Each question-and-answer pair is largely self-contained, allowing the reader to skip to those issues of (...)
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  2.  52
    Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology.Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin, James Moor, John Weckert & Mihail C. Roco - 2007 - Wiley.
    Nanoethics seeks to examine the potential risks and rewards of applications of nanotechnology. This up-to-date anthology gives the reader an introduction to and basic foundation in nanotechnology and nanoethics, and then delves into near-, mid-, and far-term issues. Comprehensive and authoritative, it: -/- - Goes beyond the usual environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns to explore such topics as privacy, nanomedicine, human enhancement, global regulation, military, humanitarianism, education, artificial intelligence, space exploration, life extension, and more -/- -Features contributions from forty (...)
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  3. On the Autonomy and Justification of Nanoethics.Fritz Allhoff - 2007 - NanoEthics 1 (3):185-210.
    In this paper, I take a critical stance on the emerging field of nanoethics. After an introductory section, “Conceptual Foundations of Nanotechnology” considers the conceptual foundations of nanotechnology, arguing that nanoethics can only be as coherent as nanotechnology itself and then discussing concerns with this latter concept; the conceptual foundations of nanoethics are then explicitly addressed in “Conceptual Foundations of Nanoethics”. “Issues in Nanoethics” considers ethical issues that will be raised through nanotechnology and, in “What’s New?”, it is argued that (...)
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  4.  19
    What is Nanotechnology and Why Does It Matter: From Science to Ethics.Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin & Daniel Moore - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Ongoing research in nanotechnology promises both innovations and risks, potentially and profoundly changing the world. This book helps to promote a balanced understanding of this important emerging technology, offering an informed and impartial look at the technology, its science, and its social impact and ethics. Nanotechnology is crucial for the next generation of industries, financial markets, research labs, and our everyday lives; this book provides an informed and balanced look at nanotechnology and its social impact Offers a comprehensive background discussion (...)
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  5.  44
    The Coming Era of Nanomedicine.Fritz Allhoff - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (10):3-11.
    This essay presents some general background on nanomedicine, particularly focusing on some of the investment that is being made in this emerging field. The bulk of the essay, however, consists of explorations of two areas in which the impacts of nanomedicine are likely to be most significant: diagnostics and medical records and treatment, including surgery and drug delivery. Each discussion includes a survey some of the ethical and social issues that are likely to arise in these applications.
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  6. Untangling the Debate: The Ethics of Human Enhancement. [REVIEW]Patrick Lin & Fritz Allhoff - 2008 - NanoEthics 2 (3):251-264.
    Human enhancement, in which nanotechnology is expected to play a major role, continues to be a highly contentious ethical debate, with experts on both sides calling it the single most important issue facing science and society in this brave, new century. This paper is a broad introduction to the symposium herein that explores a range of perspectives related to that debate. We will discuss what human enhancement is and its apparent contrast to therapy; and we will begin to tease apart (...)
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  7. Germ-Line Genetic Enhancement and Rawlsian Primary Goods.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (1):39-56.
    : Genetic interventions raise a host of moral issues and, of its various species, germ-line genetic enhancement is the most morally contentious. This paper surveys various arguments against germ-line enhancement and attempts to demonstrate their inadequacies. A positive argument is advanced in favor of certain forms of germ-line enhancements, which holds that they are morally permissible if and only if they augment Rawlsian primary goods, either directly or by facilitating their acquisition.
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  8. A Defense of Torture.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):243-264.
    In this paper, I argue for the permissibility of torture in idealized cases by application of separation of cases: if torture is permissible given any of the dominant moral theories (and if one of those is correct), then torture is permissible simpliciter and I can discharge the tricky business of trying to adjudicate among conflicting moral views. To be sure, torture is not permissible on all the dominant moral theories as at least Kantianism will prove especially recalcitrant to granting moral (...)
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  9.  66
    What’s So Special About Nanotechnology and Nanoethics?Fritz Allhoff & Patrick Lin - 2006 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (2):179-190.
    Nanoethics is a contentious field for several reasons. Some believe it should not be recognized as a proper area of study, because they believe that nanotechnology itself is not a true category but rather an amalgamation of other sciences, such as chemistry, physics, and engineering. Critics also allege that nanoethics does not raise any new issues but rather revisits familiar ones such as privacy. This paper answers such criticisms and sets the context for the papers that follow in this nanoethics (...)
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  10.  35
    Nanoscience and Nanoethics: Defining the Disciplines.Patrick Lin & Fritz Allhoff - forthcoming - Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology.
    This introduction provides background information on the emerging field of nanotechnology and its ethical dimensions. After defining nanotechnology and briefly discussing its status as a discipline, about which there exists a meta-controversy, this introduction turns to a discussion of the status of nanoethics and lays out particular issues of concern in the field, both current and emerging.
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  11.  25
    First Page Preview.Fritz Allhoff, Françoise Baylis, Richard Glen Boire, Christopher Buford, Tom Buller, Raymond DeVries, Hubert Doucet, Kathinka Evers, Joseph Fins & Ruth L. Fischbach - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):29-31.
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  12. Business Bluffing Reconsidered.Fritz Allhoff - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 45 (4):283 - 289.
    On the one hand, bluffing in business seems to bear a strong resemblance to lying, and therefore might be thought to be prima facie impermissible. On the other, many people have the intuition that bluffing is an appropriate and morally permissible negotiating tactic. Given this tension, what is the moral standing of bluffing in business? In this paper, I will consider influential accounts of both Albert Carr and Thomas Carson, and I will present my criticisms thereof. Drawing off of these (...)
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  13. Neuroscience and Metaphysics.Chris Buford & Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):34 – 36.
    In “Imaging or Imagining? A Neuroethics Challenge In- The assumption at issue here is the assumption that the formed by Genetics,” Judy Illes and Eric Racine (see this ismind literally is the brain (i.e., is numerically identical to sue) argue that “traditional bioethics analysis” (TBA), as de-.
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  14. Terrorism and Torture.Fritz Allhoff - 2003 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (1):121-134.
    This paper investigates the moral permissibility of torture. After briefly considering some empirical evidence, it discusses the conflict between deontological and consequentialist approaches to torture. It is argued that, even if we are to take rights seriously, torture should at least be allowed if some conditions are satisfied. Finally, the paper discusses what those conditions should be and what sorts of torture are morally permissible.
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  15. Terrorism and Torture.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - In Timothy Shanahan (ed.), International Journal of Applied Philosophy. Open Court. pp. 121-134.
    After the events of 9/11, the concept of torture has emerged as one that is both pertinent and provoking. National polls have shown that some Americans support torture in some situations, though the majority still stand opposed. Torture has not received a tremendous amount of discussion in the philosophical literature, though I suspect that the leftward slant of academia would, for the most part, ensure limited support for torture. In this paper, I would like to first discuss why torture is (...)
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  16.  23
    Nanotechnology & Society: Current and Emerging Ethical Issues.Fritz Allhoff (ed.) - 2008 - Springer.
    The essays tackle such contentious issues as environmental impact, health dangers, medical benefits, intellectual property, professional code of ethics, privacy ...
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  17. The Evolution of the Moral Sentiments and the Metaphysics of Morals.Fritz Allhoff - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (1):97-114.
    So-called evolutionary error theorists, such as Michael Ruse and Richard Joyce, have argued that naturalistic accounts of the moral sentiments lead us to adopt an error theory approach to morality. Roughly, the argument is that an appreciation of the etiology of those sentiments undermines any reason to think that they track moral truth and, furthermore, undermines any reason to think that moral truth actually exists. I argue that this approach offers us a false dichotomy between error theory and some form (...)
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  18. What Are Applied Ethics?Fritz Allhoff - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (1):1-19.
    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons (...)
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  19. Ethics of Human Enhancement: An Executive Summary. [REVIEW]Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin & Jesse Steinberg - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):201-212.
    With multi-year funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), a team of researchers has just released a comprehensive report detailing ethical issues arising from human enhancement (Allhoff et al. 2009). While we direct the interested reader to that (much longer) report, we also thank the editors of this journal for the invitation to provide an executive summary thereof. This summary highlights key results from each section of that report and does so in a self-standing way; in other words, this (...)
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  20.  25
    Physician Involvement in Hostile Interrogations.Fritz Allhoff - 2006 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (4):392-402.
    In this paper, I have two main goals. First, I will argue that traditional medical values mandate, as opposed to forbid, at least minimal physician participation in hostile interrogations. Second, I will argue that traditional medical duties or responsibilities do not apply to medically-trained interrogators. In support of this conclusion, I will argue that medically-trained interrogators could simply choose not to enter into a patient-physician relationship. Recognizing that this argument might not be convincing, I will then propose three further arguments (...)
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  21. Philosophy of Science.Fritz Allhoff - manuscript
    Course Description: Science appears to be extraordinarily successful is two crucial respects. First, science apparently serves as an extremely reliable vehicle for arriving at the truth (as contrasted with astrology or palm reading). Second, the methodology of science seems eminently rational (again as opposed to the methodologies of astrology or palm reading). Philosophers have been quite interested in these two apparent virtues of science. Some philosophers think that the two virtues are illusory and that, upon reflection, science is not significantly (...)
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  22.  24
    Physicians at War: The Dual-Loyalties Challenge.Fritz Allhoff - 2008 - Journal of Military Ethics 7 (4):320-322.
    There are a range of ethical issues that confront physicians in times of war, as well as some of the uses of physicians during wars. This book presents a theoretical apparatus which undergirds those debates, namely by casting physicians as being confronted with dual-loyalties during times of war. While this theoretical apparatus has already been developed in other contexts, it has not been specifically brought to bear on the ethical conflicts that attain in wars. Arguably, wars thrust physicians into ethical (...)
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  23.  58
    Medieval Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary.Gyula Klima, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Jayprakash Vaidya (eds.) - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This collection of readings with extensive editorial commentary brings together key texts of the most influential philosophers of the medieval era to provide a comprehensive introduction for students of philosophy. Features the writings of Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Boethius, John Duns Scotus and other leading medieval thinkers Features several new translations of key thinkers of the medieval era, including John Buridan and Averroes Readings are accompanied by expert commentary from the editors, who are leading scholars in the field.
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  24.  70
    Against Unrestricted Human Enhancement.Patrick Lin & Fritz Allhoff - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):35-41.
    The defining debate in this new century will be about technology and human enhancement, according to many across the political spectrum.[1] Our ability to use science to enhance our bodies and minds – as opposed to its application for therapeutic purposes – is one of the most personal and therefore passionate issues in an era where emerging technologies seduce us with new and fantastic possibilities for our future. But in the process, we are forced to rethink what it means to (...)
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  25. Germ-Line Genetic Enhancement and Rawlsian Primary Goods.Fritz Allhoff - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):10-26.
    Genetic interventions raise a host of moral issues and, of its various species, germ-line genetic enhancement is the most morally contentious. This paper surveys various arguments against germ-line enhancement and attempts to demonstrate their inadequacies. A positive argument is advanced in favor of certain forms of germ-line enhancements, which holds that they are morally permissible if and only if they augment Rawlsian primary goods, either directly or by facilitating their acquisition.
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  26.  57
    Risk, Precaution, and Emerging Technologies.Fritz Allhoff - 2009 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 3 (2).
    This paper explores a framework for thinking about risks inherent in emerging technologies; given uncertainty about the magnitude—or even nature—of those risks, deliberation about those technologies is challenged. §1 develops a conceptual framework for risk, and §2 integrates that conception into cost-benefit analysis. Given uncertainty, we are often pushed toward precautionary approaches, and such approaches are explored in §3. These first three sections are largely literature review, and then a positive argument for how to think about the relationship between risk, (...)
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  27.  23
    Routledge Handbook of Ethics and War: Just War Theory in the 21st Century.Fritz Allhoff, Nicholas Evans & Adam Henschke (eds.) - 2013 - Routledge.
    This new Handbook offers a comprehensive overview of contemporary extensions and alternatives to the just war tradition in the field of the ethics of war. -/- The modern history of just war has typically assumed the primacy of four particular elements: jus ad bellum, jus in bello, the state actor, and the solider. This book will put these four elements under close scrutiny, and will explore how they fare given the following challenges: -/- • What role do the traditional elements (...)
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  28. What Is Modesty?Fritz Allhoff - 2009 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2):165-187.
    This paper examines the virtue of modesty and provides an account of what it means to be modest. A good account should not only delimit the proper application of the concept, but should also capture why it is that we think that modesty is a virtue. Recent work has yielded several interesting, but flawed, accounts of modesty. Julia Driver has argued that it consists in underestimating one’s self-worth, while Owen Flanagan has argued that modesty must entail an accurate—as opposed to (...)
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  29.  32
    Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture: A Philosophical Analysis.Fritz Allhoff - 2012 - University of Chicago Press.
    In Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture, Fritz Allhoff demonstrates the weakness of the case against torture; while allowing that torture constitutes a moral wrong, he nevertheless argues that, in exceptional cases, it represents the ...
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  30.  85
    Ethics and Cyber Warfare: The Quest for Responsible Security in the Age of Digital Warfare, by George Lucas.Fritz Allhoff - 2017 - Journal of Military Ethics 16 (1-2):124-127.
    This book review responds to George Lucas's Ethics and Cyber Warfare: The Quest for Responsible Security in an Age of Digital Warfare, laying out the structure of the work as well as highlighting areas of strength.
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  31.  22
    Free-Riding and Research Ethics.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):50 – 51.
    In "Rethinking Research Ethics," Rosamond Rhodes argues that everyone has a responsibility to participate in research ethics programs (Rhodes 2005). After discussing the moral underpinnings upon which such a claim might rest, this article brings up two concerns in response to Rhodes' claim. The first worry is pragmatic: Rhodes argues that the focus in research ethics should be on the hypothetical consent of idealized moral agents, an approach that is constrained by practical considerations. The second objection is that, in most (...)
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  32.  97
    The War on Terror and the Ethics of Exceptionalism.Fritz Allhoff - 2009 - Journal of Military Ethics 8 (4):265-288.
    The war on terror is commonly characterized as a fundamentally different kind of war from more traditional armed conflict. Furthermore, it has been argued that, in this new kind of war, different rules, both moral and legal, must apply. In the first part of this paper, three practices endemic to the war on terror -- torture, assassination, and enemy combatancy status -- are identified as exceptions to traditional norms. The second part of the paper uses these examples to motivate a (...)
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  33.  15
    On Economic Justifications of Bioterrorism Defense Spending.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (4):52-54.
    *The opinions contained in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the American Medical Association.
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  34.  22
    Introduction: Nanotechnology, Society, and Ethics.Patrick Lin & Fritz Allhoff - 2008 - In Fritz Allhoff (ed.), Nanotechnology & Society: Current and Emerging Ethical Issues. Dordrecht: Springer.
    This introduction provides background information on the emerging field of nanotechnology and its ethical dimensions. After defining nanotechnology and briefly discussing its status as a discipline, about which there exists a meta-controversy, this introduction turns to a discussion of the status of nanoethics and lays out particular issues of concern in the field, both current and emerging.
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  35.  14
    Arctic 2.0: How Artificial Intelligence Can Help Develop a Frontier.Patrick Lin & Fritz Allhoff - 2019 - Ethics and International Affairs 33 (2):193-205.
  36.  12
    Neuroscience and Metaphysics.Chris Buford & Fritz Allhoff - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):58-60.
    In "Imaging or Imagining? A Neuroethics Challenge Informed by Genetics," Judy Illes and Eric Racine argue that "traditional bioethics analysis" (TBA) is insufficient to deal with moral and metaphysical challenges endemic to recent developments in neuroscience, apparently because they believe that these developments differ in kind, not merely degree, from previous developments. This article suggests that recent neuroscientific developments do not have any metaphysical implications that pose the sort of challenge with which Illes and Racine are concerned. Illes and Racine's (...)
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  37.  7
    Medical Error and Moral Luck.Fritz Allhoff - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 29 (3):187-203.
    This special issue on ethics and error in medicine reinvigorates a conversation that has been substantially dormant for twenty years. The papers in this issue elaborate and update that conversation in significant ways, particularly with regard to vulnerable populations and the epistemology of medical error. But this first paper is largely conceptual, laying out the motivation for caring about medical error in the first place, exploring what medical error is, and proposing a moral framework to help us think about it. (...)
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  38.  7
    Rural Bioethics: The Alaska Context.Fritz Allhoff & Luke Golemon - forthcoming - HEC Forum:1-19.
    With by far the lowest population density in the United States, myriad challenges attach to healthcare delivery in Alaska. In the “Size, Population, and Accessibility” section, we characterize this geographic context, including how it is exacerbated by lack of infrastructure. In the “Distributing Healthcare” section, we turn to healthcare economics and staffing, showing how these bear on delivery—and are exacerbated by geography. In the “Health Care in Rural Alaska” section, we turn to rural care, exploring in more depth what healthcare (...)
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  39.  25
    Business Ethics.Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.) - 2005 - Sage Publications.
    Business Ethics is a three-volume collection which provides students and researchers with the historically most important of the classic articles in business ethics, as well as the best of the contemporary and trendsetting work in this burgeoning area. The collection will serve as a sourcebook for academics and researchers entering or already established in the area of business ethics. The editors bring together a breadth of articles across business ethics, with an orientation that is diverse as well as international. The (...)
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  40.  46
    Nanoethics and Human Enhancement: A Critical Evaluation of Recent Arguments.Patrick Lin & Fritz Allhoff - 2006 - Nanotechnology Perceptions 2:47-52.
    Human enhancement – our ability to use technology to enhance our bodies and minds, as opposed to its application for therapeutic purposes – is a critical issue facing nanotechnology. It will be involved in some of the near-term applications of nanotechnology, with such research labs as MIT’s Institute for Soldier Technologies working on exoskeletons and other innovations that increase human strength and capabilities. It is also a core issue related to far-term predictions in nanotechnology, such as longevity, nanomedicine, artificial intelligence (...)
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  41.  35
    A Defense of Torture: Separation of Cases, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Moral Justification.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):243-264.
    In this paper, I argue for the permissibility of torture in idealized cases by application of separation of cases: if torture is permissible given any of the dominant moral theories, then torture is permissible simpliciter and I can discharge the tricky business of trying to adjudicate among conflicting moral views. To be sure, torture is not permissible on all the dominant moral theories as at least Kantianism will prove especially recalcitrant to granting moral license of torture, even in idealized cases. (...)
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  42. A World Without Values: Essays on John Mackie's Moral Error Theory – Richard Joyce and Simon Kirchin (Eds).Fritz Allhoff - 2011 - Philosophical Quarterly 61 (243):429-431.
    This article provides of review of the book A World without Values: Essays on John Mackie's Moral Error Theory, edited by Richard Joyce and Simon Kirchin.
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  43. Fashion - Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking with Style.Fritz Allhoff, Jessica Wolfendale & Jeanette Kennett (eds.) - 2011 - Wiley.
    If you just can't decide what to wear, this enlightening guide will lead you through the diverse and sometimes contradictory aspects of fashion in a series of lively, entertaining and thoughtful essays from prominent philosophers and writers. A unique and enlightening insight into the underlying philosophy behind the power of fashion Contributions address issues in fashion from a variety of viewpoints, including aesthetics, the nature of fashion and fashionability, ethics, gender and identity politics, and design Includes a foreword by Jennifer (...)
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  44. Nanotechnology and Human Enhancement: A Symposium.Fritz Allhoff & Patrick Lin - 2008 - Nanoethics: The Ethics of Technologies That Converge at the Nanoscale 2:251-327.
    Human enhancement, in which nanotechnology is expected to play a major role, continues to be a highly contentious ethical debate, with experts on both sides calling it the single most important issue facing science and society in this brave, new century. This paper is a broad introduction to the symposium herein that explores a range of perspectives related to that debate. We will discuss what human enhancement is and its apparent contrast to therapy; and we will begin to tease apart (...)
     
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  45.  86
    Telomeres and the Ethics of Human Cloning.Fritz Allhoff - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (2):29 – 31.
    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.
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  46.  85
    The Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology.Timothy J. McGrew, Marc Alspector-Kelly & Fritz Allhoff (eds.) - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    speaking there are only two sorts of opposition to be found here. One is the opposition between motion and rest, together with the opposition between ...
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  47.  21
    Wine and Philosophy.Fritz Allhoff (ed.) - 2008 - Blackwell.
    In Wine & Philosophy, philosophers, wine critics, and winemakers share their passion for wine through well-crafted essays that explore wine’s deeper meaning, nature, and significance.
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  48.  8
    Discriminating Against "Organ Takers".Fritz Allhoff - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (4):31 – 33.
    This article responds to David Steinberg's proposal in favor of an organ donation system that gives allocation preference to people who agree to donate after they die. This article challenges the notion that organ taking is morally impermissible and questions Steinberg’s program on the grounds that it would unfairly discriminate against these people by deprioritizing their claims to the kidney supply. Relatedly, the article suggests that Steinberg’s proposal effectively coerces people to opt in, thus calling into question the legitimacy of (...)
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  49.  58
    Evolutionary Ethics From Darwin to Moore.Fritz Allhoff - 2003 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 25 (1):51 - 79.
    Evolutionary ethics has a long history, dating all the way back to Charles Darwin.1 Almost immediately after the publication of the Origin, an immense interest arose in the moral implications of Darwinism and whether the truth of Darwinism would undermine traditional ethics. Though the biological thesis was certainly exciting, nobody suspected that the impact of the Origin would be confined to the scientific arena. As one historian wrote, 'whether or not ancient populations of armadillos were transformed into the species that (...)
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  50.  22
    Ethics of Spying: A Reader for the Intelligence Professional, Vol. I.Joel H. Rosenthal, J. E. Drexel Godfrey, R. V. Jones, Arthur S. Hulnick, David W. Mattausch, Kent Pekel, Tony Pfaff, John P. Langan, John B. Chomeau, Anne C. Rudolph, Fritz Allhoff, Michael Skerker, Robert M. Gates, Andrew Wilkie, James Ernest Roscoe & Lincoln P. Bloomfield Jr (eds.) - 2006 - Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
    This is the first book to offer the best essays, articles, and speeches on ethics and intelligence that demonstrate the complex moral dilemmas in intelligence collection, analysis, and operations. Some are recently declassified and never before published, and all are written by authors whose backgrounds are as varied as their insights, including Robert M. Gates, former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency; John P. Langan, the Joseph Cardinal Bernardin Professor of Catholic Social Thought at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown (...)
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