Results for 'Frugal Heuristics'

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  1. Fast and Frugal Heuristics.Michael A. Bishop - 2006 - Philosophy Compass 1 (2):201–223.
    A heuristic is a rule of thumb. In psychology, heuristics are relatively simple rules for making judgments. A fast heuristic is easy to use and allows one to make judgments quickly. A frugal heuristic relies on a small fraction of the available evidence in making judgments. Typically, fast and frugal heuristics (FFHs) have, or are claimed to have, a further property: They are very reliable, yielding judgments that are about as accurate in the long run as (...)
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  2.  28
    Gerd Gigerenzer, Jean Czerlinski, & Laura Martignon.How Good Are Fast & Frugal Heuristics - 2002 - In Renée Elio (ed.), Common Sense, Reasoning, & Rationality. Oxford University Press.
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  3.  30
    Rational Foundations of Fast and Frugal Heuristics: The Ecological Rationality of Strategy Selection Via Improper Linear Models.Jason Dana & Clintin P. Davis-Stober - 2016 - Minds and Machines 26 (1-2):61-86.
    Research on “improper” linear models has shown that predetermined weighting schemes for the linear model, such as equally weighting all predictors, can be surprisingly accurate on cross-validation. We review recent advances that can characterize the optimal choice of an improper linear model. We extend this research to the understanding of fast and frugal heuristics, particularly to the ecologically rational goal of understanding in which task environments given heuristics are optimal. We demonstrate how to test this model using (...)
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  4.  52
    Fast and Frugal Heuristics: Rationality and the Limits of Naturalism.Horacio Arló-Costa & Arthur Paul Pedersen - 2013 - Synthese 190 (5):831-850.
    Gerd Gigerenzer and Thomas Sturm have recently proposed a modest form of what they describe as a normative, ecological and limited naturalism. The basic move in their argument is to infer that certain heuristics we tend to use should be used in the right ecological setting. To address this argument, we first consider the case of a concrete heuristic called Take the Best (TTB). There are at least two variants of the heuristic which we study by making explicit the (...)
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  5.  25
    Simplicity and Robustness of Fast and Frugal Heuristics.Martignon Laura & Schmitt Michael - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (4):565-593.
    Intractability and optimality are two sides of one coin: Optimal models are often intractable, that is, they tend to be excessively complex, or NP-hard. We explain the meaning of NP-hardness in detail and discuss how modem computer science circumvents intractability by introducing heuristics and shortcuts to optimality, often replacing optimality by means of sufficient sub-optimality. Since the principles of decision theory dictate balancing the cost of computation against gain in accuracy, statistical inference is currently being reshaped by a vigorous (...)
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  6.  27
    Normative Ecological Rationality: Normative Rationality in the Fast-and-Frugal-Heuristics Research Program.D. Wade Hands - 2014 - Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (4):396-410.
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the normative interpretation of the fast-and-frugal research program and in particular to contrast it with the normative reading of rational choice theory and behavioral economics. The ecological rationality of fast-and-frugal heuristics is admittedly a form of normative naturalism – it derives what agents “ought” to do from that which “is” ecologically rational – and the paper will examine how this differs from the normative rationality associated with rational choice theory. (...)
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  7.  37
    Fast and Frugal Heuristics and Naturalistic Decision Making: A Review of Their Commonalities and Differences. [REVIEW]Yixing Shan & Lili Yang - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (1):10-32.
    Both the fast and frugal heuristics and the naturalistic decision making research programmes have identified important areas of inquiry previously neglected in the traditional study of human judgment and decision making, and have greatly contributed to the understanding of people's real-world decision making under environmental constraints. The two programmes share similar theoretical arguments regarding the rationality, optimality, and role of experience in decision making. Their commonalities have made them appealing to each other, and efforts have been made, by (...)
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  8.  88
    Rationality, Logic, and Fast and Frugal Heuristics.José Luis Bermúdez - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):744-745.
    Gigerenzer and his co-workers make some bold and striking claims about the relation between the fast and frugal heuristics discussed in their book and the traditional norms of rationality provided by deductive logic and probability theory. We are told, for example, that fast and frugal heuristics such as “Take the Best” replace “the multiple coherence criteria stemming from the laws of logic and probability with multiple correspondence criteria relating to real-world decision performance.” This commentary explores just (...)
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  9. From Meehl to Fast and Frugal Heuristics (and Back).Edouard Machery - unknown
    It is difficult to overestimate Paul Meehl’s influence on judgment and decision-making research. His ‘disturbing little book’ (Meehl, 1986, p. 370) Clinical versus Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence (1954) is known as an attack on human judgment and a call for replacing clinicians with actuarial methods. More than 40 years later, fast and frugal heuristics—proposed as models of human judgment—were formalized, tested, and found to be surprisingly accurate, often more so than the (...)
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  10.  22
    From Meehl to Fast and Frugal Heuristics - New Insights Into How to Bridge the Clinical-Actuarial Divide.Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos, Thorsten Pachur, Edouard Machery & Annika Wallin - unknown
    It is difficult to overestimate Paul Meehl's influence on judgment and decision-making research. His 'disturbing little book' Clinical versus Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence is known as an attack on human judgment and a call for replacing clinicians with actuarial methods. More than 40 years later, fast and frugal heuristics - proposed as models of human judgment - were formalized, tested, and found to be surprisingly accurate, often more so than the actuarial (...)
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  11.  27
    Fast and Frugal Heuristics: What About Unfriendly Environments?James Shanteau & Rickey P. Thomas - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):762-763.
    Simple heuristics that make us smart offers an impressive compilation of work that demonstrates fast and frugal (one-reason) heuristics can be simple, adaptive, and accurate. However, many decision environments differ from those explored in the book. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation that shows one-reason strategies are accurate in “friendly” environments, but less accurate in “unfriendly” environments characterized by negative cue intercorrelations, that is, tradeoffs.
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  12.  60
    The Power of Simplicity: A Fast-and-Frugal Heuristics Approach to Performance Science.Markus Raab & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  13.  9
    Psychological Plausibility of the Theory of Probabilistic Mental Models and the Fast and Frugal Heuristics.Michael R. Dougherty, Ana M. Franco-Watkins & Rick Thomas - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (1):199-211.
  14.  67
    Fast, Frugal, and Fit: Simple Heuristics for Paired Comparison.Laura Martignon & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2002 - Theory and Decision 52 (1):29-71.
    This article provides an overview of recent results on lexicographic, linear, and Bayesian models for paired comparison from a cognitive psychology perspective. Within each class, we distinguish subclasses according to the computational complexity required for parameter setting. We identify the optimal model in each class, where optimality is defined with respect to performance when fitting known data. Although not optimal when fitting data, simple models can be astonishingly accurate when generalizing to new data. A simple heuristic belonging to the class (...)
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  15.  12
    Fast and Frugal Heuristics Are Plausible Models of Cognition: Reply to Dougherty, Franco-Watkins, and Thomas.Gerd Gigerenzer, Ulrich Hoffrage & Daniel G. Goldstein - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (1):230-239.
  16.  2
    Performance of Understanding: Pragmatics and Fast and Frugal Heuristics.Marco Carapezza - 2020 - In Antonino Pennisi & Alessandra Falzone (eds.), The Extended Theory of Cognitive Creativity: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Performativity. Springer Verlag. pp. 319-331.
    What determines the meaning of an utterance is a logical matter and as such must be treated independently of the bio-cognitive constraints that operate in our bodies. This thesis, whose great supporter was Frege, implies a clear notion of rationality that seems not to bear comparison with what we know on the limits of our rationality. Various theories, thematizing the need to consider our rationality beginning from the bio-cognitive constraints that our body imposes on a mass of information, can be (...)
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  17.  27
    Fast and Frugal Heuristics in Medical Decision Making.Gerd Gigerenzer & Stephanie Kurzenhauser - 2005 - In Roger Bibace (ed.), Science and Medicine in Dialogue: Thinking Through Particulars and Universals. Praeger. pp. 3--15.
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  18.  5
    Postscript: Fast and Frugal Heuristics.Gerd Gigerenzer, Ulrich Hoffrage & Daniel G. Goldstein - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (1):238-239.
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  19.  21
    From Meehl to Fast and Frugal Heuristics : New Insights Into How to Bridge the Clinical–Actuarial Divide.Katsikopoulos Konstantinos, Pachur Thorsten, Machery Eduard & Annika Wallin - unknown
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  20.  34
    Where Does Fast and Frugal Cognition Stop? The Boundary Between Complex Cognition and Simple Heuristics.Thom Baguley & S. Ian Robertson - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):742-743.
    Simple heuristics that make us smart presents a valuable and valid interpretation of how we make fast decisions particularly in situations of ignorance and uncertainty. What is missing is how this intersects with thinking under even greater uncertainty or ignorance, such as novice problem solving, and with the development of expert cognition.
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  21.  19
    Fast, Frugal, and Surprisingly Accurate Heuristics.R. Duncan Luce - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):757-758.
    A research program is announced, and initial, exciting progress described. Many inference problems, poorly modeled by some traditional approaches, are surprisingly well handled by kinds of simple-minded Bayesian approximations. Fuller Bayesian approaches are typically more accurate but rarely are they either fast or frugal. Open issues include codifying when to use which heuristic and to give detailed evolutionary explanations.
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  22.  16
    How Good Are Fast and Frugal Inference Heuristics in Case of Limited Knowledge?Edgar Erdfelder & Martin Brandt - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):747-748.
    Gigerenzer and his collaborators have shown that the Take the Best heuristic (TTB) approximates optimal decision behavior for many inference problems. We studied the effect of incomplete cue knowledge on the quality of this approximation. Bayesian algorithms clearly outperformed TTB in case of partial cue knowledge, especially when the validity of the recognition cue is assumed to be low.
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  23. Precis of Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart-Open Peer Commentary-How Good Are Fast and Frugal Inference Heuristics in Case of Limited Knowledge?P. M. Todd, G. Gigerenzer, E. Erdfelder & M. Brandt - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):747-748.
  24.  91
    Homo Heuristicus Outnumbered: Comment on Gigerenzer and Brighton (2009).Benjamin E. Hilbig & Tobias Richter - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (1):187-196.
    Gigerenzer and Brighton (2009) have argued for a “Homo heuristicus” view of judgment and decision making, claiming that there is evidence for a majority of individuals using fast and frugal heuristics. In this vein, they criticize previous studies that tested the descriptive adequacy of some of these heuristics. In addition, they provide a reanalysis of experimental data on the recognition heuristic that allegedly supports Gigerenzer and Brighton’s view of pervasive reliance on heuristics. However, their arguments and (...)
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  25.  78
    How Do Simple Rules `Fit to Reality' in a Complex World?Malcolm R. Forster - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (4):543-564.
    The theory of fast and frugal heuristics, developed in a new book called Simple Heuristics that make Us Smart (Gigerenzer, Todd, and the ABC Research Group, in press), includes two requirements for rational decision making. One is that decision rules are bounded in their rationality –- that rules are frugal in what they take into account, and therefore fast in their operation. The second is that the rules are ecologically adapted to the environment, which means that (...)
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  26.  36
    How Causal Knowledge Simplifies Decision-Making.Rocio Garcia-Retamero & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (3):365-380.
    Making decisions can be hard, but it can also be facilitated. Simple heuristics are fast and frugal but nevertheless fairly accurate decision rules that people can use to compensate for their limitations in computational capacity, time, and knowledge when they make decisions [Gigerenzer, G., Todd, P. M., & the ABC Research Group (1999). Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart. New York: Oxford University Press.]. These heuristics are effective to the extent that they can exploit the structure (...)
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  27.  44
    Simple Inference Heuristics Versus Complex Decision Machines.Peter M. Todd - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (4):461-477.
  28. Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.Gerd Gigerenzer, Peter M. Todd & A. B. C. Research Group - 1999 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart invites readers to embark on a new journey into a land of rationality that differs from the familiar territory of cognitive science and economics. Traditional views of rationality tend to see decision makers as possessing superhuman powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and all of eternity in which to ponder choices. To understand decisions in the real world, we need a different, more psychologically plausible notion of rationality, and this book provides it. It is (...)
     
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  29. Précis of Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):727-741.
    How can anyone be rational in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury? Traditional models of unbounded rationality and optimization in cognitive science, economics, and animal behavior have tended to view decision-makers as possessing supernatural powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and endless time. But understanding decisions in the real world requires a more psychologically plausible notion of bounded rationality. In Simple heuristics that make us smart (Gigerenzer et al. 1999), (...)
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  30.  25
    Action as a Fast and Frugal Heuristic.Terry Connolly - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (4):479-496.
    Decision making is usually viewed as involving a period of thought, while the decision maker assesses options, their likely consequences, and his or her preferences, and selects the preferred option. The process ends in a terminating action. In this view errors of thought will inevitably show up as errors of action; costs of thinking are to be balanced against costs of decision errors. Fast and frugal heuristics research has shown that, in some environments, modest thought can lead to (...)
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  31.  99
    Can Evolution Get Us Off the Hook? Evaluating the Ecological Defence of Human Rationality.Maarten Boudry, Michael Vlerick & Ryan McKay - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:524-535.
    This paper discusses the ecological case for epistemic innocence: does biased cognition have evolutionary benefits, and if so, does that exculpate human reasoners from irrationality? Proponents of ‘ecological rationality’ have challenged the bleak view of human reasoning emerging from research on biases and fallacies. If we approach the human mind as an adaptive toolbox, tailored to the structure of the environment, many alleged biases and fallacies turn out to be artefacts of narrow norms and artificial set-ups. However, we argue that (...)
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  32.  21
    Demons of Ecological Rationality.Maria Otworowska, Mark Blokpoel, Marieke Sweers, Todd Wareham & Iris van Rooij - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):1057-1066.
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  33.  7
    Demons of Ecological Rationality.Maria Otworowska, Mark Blokpoel, Marieke Sweers, Todd Wareham & Iris Rooij - forthcoming - Cognitive Science.
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  34.  14
    Does Causal Knowledge Help Us Be Faster and More Frugal in Our Decisions?Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Annika Wallin & Anja Dieckmann - unknown
    One challenge that has to be addressed by the fast and frugal heuristics program is how people manage to select, from the abundance of cues that exist in the environment, those to rely on when making decisions. We hypothesize that causal knowledge helps people target particular cues and estimate their validities. This hypothesis was tested in three experiments. Results show that when causal information about some cues was available, participants preferred to search for these cues first and to (...)
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  35.  42
    The Pertinence of Incontinence.António Zilhão - 2005 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 9 (1-2):193-211.
    In this paper I suggest a reconstruction of the traditional concepts of con-tinent and incontinent action. This reconstruction proceeds along the lines of a standpoint of bounded rationality. My suggestion agrees with some relevant aspects of Davidson’s treatment of this topic. One of these aspects is that incontinent action is typically signalled by the following two subjective experiences: a feeling of surprise towards one’s own action and a difficulty in understanding oneself; another is that incontinence cannot simply be disposed of (...)
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  36.  66
    What Is the Foundation of Norms of Rationality?Thomas Sturm - 2008 - In Ansgar Beckermann, Holm Tetens & Sven Walter (eds.), Philosophie: Grundlagen und Anwendungen/Philosophy: Foundations and Applications. Mentis.
    An overview of debates about the relation between the psychology of human rationality and naturalized epistemology, introducing three papers by Michael Bishop, Gerd Gigerenzer, and Alvin Goldman.
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  37.  33
    The Natural Frequency Hypothesis and Evolutionary Arguments.Yuichi Amitani - 2015 - Mind and Society 15 (1):1-19.
    In the rationality debate, Gerd Gigerenzer and his colleagues have argued that human’s apparent inability to follow probabilistic principles does not mean our irrationality, because we can do probabilistic reasoning successfully if probability information is given in frequencies, not percentages (the natural frequency hypothesis). They also offered an evolutionary argument to this hypothesis, according to which using frequencies was evolutionarily more advantageous to our hominin ancestors than using percentages, and this is why we can reason correctly about probabilities in the (...)
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  38.  17
    Simple Heuristics: From One Infinite Regress to Another?Aidan Feeney - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):749-750.
    Gigerenzer, Todd, and the ABC Research Group argue that optimisation under constraints leads to an infinite regress due to decisions about how much information to consider when deciding. In certain cases, however, their fast and frugal heuristics lead instead to an endless series of decisions about how best to decide.
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  39.  14
    Re-Assessing the Heuristics Debate: Mark G. Kelman: The Heuristics Debate, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011.Andrea Polonioli - 2013 - Mind and Society 12 (2):263-271.
    Mark Kelman’s recent book, The Heuristics Debate , has two main goals. First, it seeks to reconstruct the controversy in decision science between Kahneman et al.’s heuristics-and-biases approach and Gigerenzer et al.’s fast-and-frugal heuristics approach. Second, it tries to discuss its implications for jurisprudence and policy-making. This study focuses on the first task only. The study attempts to show that, although HD has several important merits, its interpretation of the controversy misses some crucial aspects. Specifically, HD (...)
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  40.  1
    Implications of Smart Decision-Making and Heuristics for Production Theory and Material Welfare.Morris Altman - 2019 - Mind and Society 18 (2):167-179.
    Conventional theory assumes that economic agents perform at optimal levels of efficiency by definition and this is achieved when individuals behave in a particular fashion. Moreover, neoclassical production theory masks the process by which optimal output can be achieved. I argue that economic theory should be revised to incorporate some key findings of behavioural economics, while retaining the conventional theory’s normative ideal of optimum output whilst rejecting its normative procedural ideals of how to achieve optimality in production. I argue that (...)
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  41.  35
    Simple Heuristics Could Make Us Smart; but Which Heuristics Do We Apply When?Richard Cooper - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):746-746.
    Simple heuristics are clearly powerful tools for making near optimal decisions, but evidence for their use in specific situations is weak. Gigerenzer et al. (1999) suggest a range of heuristics, but fail to address the question of which environmental or task cues might prompt the use of any specific heuristic. This failure compromises the falsifiability of the fast and frugal approach.
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  42.  16
    On the Descriptive Validity and Prescriptive Utility of Fast and Frugal Models.Clare Harries & Mandeep K. Dhami - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):753-754.
    Simple heuristics and regression models make different assumptions about behaviour. Both the environment and judgment can be described as fast and frugal. We do not know whether humans are successful when being fast and frugal. We must assess both global accuracy and the costs of Type I and II errors. These may be “smart heuristics that make researchers look simple.”.
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  43. Suppose and Tell: The Semantics and Heuristics of Conditionals.Timothy Williamson - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    What does 'if' mean? Timothy Williamson presents a controversial new approach to understanding conditional thinking, which is central to human cognitive life. He argues that in using 'if' we rely on psychological heuristics, fast and frugal methods which can lead us to trust faulty data and prematurely reject simple theories.
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  44. How (Far) Can Rationality Be Naturalized?Gerd Gigerenzer & Thomas Sturm - 2012 - Synthese 187 (1):243-268.
    The paper shows why and how an empirical study of fast-and-frugal heuristics can provide norms of good reasoning, and thus how (and how far) rationality can be naturalized. We explain the heuristics that humans often rely on in solving problems, for example, choosing investment strategies or apartments, placing bets in sports, or making library searches. We then show that heuristics can lead to judgments that are as accurate as or even more accurate than strategies that use (...)
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  45.  26
    How Forgetting Aids Heuristic Inference.Lael J. Schooler & Ralph Hertwig - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (3):610-628.
    Some theorists, ranging from W. James to contemporary psychologists, have argued that forgetting is the key to proper functioning of memory. The authors elaborate on the notion of beneficial forgetting by proposing that loss of information aids inference heuristics that exploit mnemonic information. To this end, the authors bring together 2 research programs that take an ecological approach to studying cognition. Specifically, they implement fast and frugal heuristics within the ACT-R cognitive architecture. Simulations of the recognition heuristic, (...)
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  46. The Structural Evolution of Morality.J. McKenzie Alexander - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    It is certainly the case that morality governs the interactions that take place between individuals. But what if morality exists because of these interactions? This book, first published in 2007, argues for the claim that much of the behaviour we view as 'moral' exists because acting in that way benefits each of us to the greatest extent possible, given the socially structured nature of society. Drawing upon aspects of evolutionary game theory, the theory of bounded rationality, and computational models of (...)
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  47.  26
    Moral Psychology: The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity.Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.) - 2007 - Bradford.
    For much of the twentieth century, philosophy and science went their separate ways. In moral philosophy, fear of the so-called naturalistic fallacy kept moral philosophers from incorporating developments in biology and psychology. Since the 1990s, however, many philosophers have drawn on recent advances in cognitive psychology, brain science, and evolutionary psychology to inform their work. This collaborative trend is especially strong in moral philosophy, and these three volumes bring together some of the most innovative work by both philosophers and psychologists (...)
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  48.  32
    Intuition, Analysis and Reflection in Business Ethics.Chris Provis - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (1):5-15.
    The paper aim draws together two ideas that have figured in different strands of discussion in business ethics: the ideas of intuition and of reflection. They are considered in company with the third, complementary, idea of analysis. It is argued that the interplay amongst these is very important in business ethics. The relationship amongst the three ideas can be understood by reference to parts of modern cognitive psychology, including dual-process theory and the Social Intuitionist Model. Intuition can be misleading when (...)
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  49.  3
    Cognición situada y racionalidad. Hacia una ecología interactiva del razonamiento.Ana Laura Fonseca Patrón - 2019 - Dianoia 64 (83):103-131.
    Resumen La racionalidad ecológica que propone el grupo de investigación ABC destaca en su proyecto normativo la relación entre las heurísticas rápidas y frugales y el ambiente; por ello, considera que se trata de una racionalidad situada. El primer objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar que, si bien la racionalidad ecológica puede entenderse como una forma de situar la racionalidad, ello no implica situar el razonamiento. En particular, se muestra que la manera de entender la ecología del razonamiento es estática, (...)
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  50.  18
    Against an Uncritical Sense of Adaptiveness.Steve Fuller - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):750-751.
    The “adaptive toolbox” model of the mind is much too uncritical, even as a model of bounded rationality. There is no place for a “meta-rationality” that questions the shape of the decision-making environments themselves. Thus, using the ABC Group's “fast and frugal heuristics,” one could justify all sorts of conformist behavior as rational. Telling in this regard is their appeal to the philosophical distinction between coherence and correspondence theories of truth.
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