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Gábor Hofer-Szabó
Research Center For The Humanities, Budapest
  1. Conditioning Using Conditional Expectations: The Borel–Kolmogorov Paradox.Zalán Gyenis, Gabor Hofer-Szabo & Miklós Rédei - 2017 - Synthese 194 (7):2595-2630.
    The Borel–Kolmogorov Paradox is typically taken to highlight a tension between our intuition that certain conditional probabilities with respect to probability zero conditioning events are well defined and the mathematical definition of conditional probability by Bayes’ formula, which loses its meaning when the conditioning event has probability zero. We argue in this paper that the theory of conditional expectations is the proper mathematical device to conditionalize and that this theory allows conditionalization with respect to probability zero events. The conditional probabilities (...)
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  2.  8
    The Principle of the Common Cause.Miklós Redei, Gabor Hofer-Szabo & Laszlo Szabo - 2013 - Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.
    The common cause principle says that every correlation is either due to a direct causal effect linking the correlated entities or is brought about by a third factor, a so-called common cause. The principle is of central importance in the philosophy of science, especially in causal explanation, causal modeling and in the foundations of quantum physics. Written for philosophers of science, physicists and statisticians, this book contributes to the debate over the validity of the common cause principle, by proving results (...)
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  3.  94
    A Dynamical Systems Approach to Causation.Peter Fazekas, Balázs Gyenis, Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Gergely Kertész - forthcoming - Synthese:1-23.
    Our approach aims at accounting for causal claims in terms of how the physical states of the underlying dynamical system evolve with time. Causal claims assert connections between two sets of physicals states—their truth depends on whether the two sets in question are genuinely connected by time evolution such that physical states from one set evolve with time into the states of the other set. We demonstrate the virtues of our approach by showing how it is able to account for (...)
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  4.  40
    Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Miklos Redei - 2004 - International Journal of Theoretical Physics 43:1819-1826.
    A partition $\{C_i\}_{i\in I}$ of a Boolean algebra $\cS$ in a probability measure space $(\cS,p)$ is called a Reichenbachian common cause system for the correlated pair $A,B$ of events in $\cS$ if any two elements in the partition behave like a Reichenbachian common cause and its complement, the cardinality of the index set $I$ is called the size of the common cause system. It is shown that given any correlation in $(\cS,p)$, and given any finite size $n>2$, the probability space (...)
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  5. Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems of Arbitrary Finite Size Exist.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Miklós Rédei - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (5):745-756.
    A partition $\{C_i\}_{i\in I}$ of a Boolean algebra Ω in a probability measure space (Ω, p) is called a Reichenbachian common cause system for the correlation between a pair A,B of events in Ω if any two elements in the partition behave like a Reichenbachian common cause and its complement; the cardinality of the index set I is called the size of the common cause system. It is shown that given any non-strict correlation in (Ω, p), and given any finite (...)
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  6.  44
    Reichenbach’s Common Cause Principle in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory with Locally Finite Degrees of Freedom.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Péter Vecsernyés - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (2):241-255.
    In the paper it will be shown that Reichenbach’s Weak Common Cause Principle is not valid in algebraic quantum field theory with locally finite degrees of freedom in general. Namely, for any pair of projections A, B supported in spacelike separated double cones ${\mathcal{O}}_{a}$ and ${\mathcal{O}}_{b}$ , respectively, a correlating state can be given for which there is no nontrivial common cause (system) located in the union of the backward light cones of ${\mathcal{O}}_{a}$ and ${\mathcal{O}}_{b}$ and commuting with the both (...)
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  7. Common‐Causes Are Not Common Common‐Causes.Gábor Hofer-Szabó, Miklos Redei & Laszlo E. Szabo - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):623-636.
    A condition is formulated in terms of the probabilities of two pairs of correlated events in a classical probability space which is necessary for the two correlations to have a single (Reichenbachian) common-cause and it is shown that there exists pairs of correlated events probabilities of which violate the necessary condition. It is concluded that different correlations do not in general have a common common-cause. It is also shown that this conclusion remains valid even if one weakens slightly Reichenbach's definition (...)
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  8.  43
    Bell Inequality and Common Causal Explanation in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Péter Vecsernyés - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (4):404-416.
    Bell inequalities, understood as constraints between classical conditional probabilities, can be derived from a set of assumptions representing a common causal explanation of classical correlations. A similar derivation, however, is not known for Bell inequalities in algebraic quantum field theories establishing constraints for the expectation of specific linear combinations of projections in a quantum state. In the paper we address the question as to whether a ‘common causal justification’ of these non-classical Bell inequalities is possible. We will show that although (...)
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  9. Separate- Versus Common -Common-Cause-Type Derivations of the Bell Inequalities.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2008 - Synthese 163 (2):199 - 215.
    Standard derivations of the Bell inequalities assume a common common cause system that is a common screener-off for all correlations and some additional assumptions concerning locality and no-conspiracy. In a recent paper (Grasshoff et al., 2005) Bell inequalities have been derived via separate common causes assuming perfect correlations between the events. In the paper it will be shown that the assumptions of this separate-common-cause-type derivation of the Bell inequalities in the case of perfect correlations can be reduced to the assumptions (...)
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  10.  13
    Separate- Versus Common-Common-Cause-Type Derivations of the Bell Inequalities.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2008 - Synthese 163 (2):199-215.
    Standard derivations of the Bell inequalities assume a common-commoncause-system that is a common screener-off for all correlations and some additional assumptions concerning locality and no-conspiracy. In a recent paper Graßhoff et al., "The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science", 56, 663–680 ) Bell inequalities have been derived via separate common causes assuming perfect correlations between the events. In the paper it will be shown that the assumptions of this separate-common-cause-type derivation of the Bell inequalities in the case of perfect (...)
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  11.  14
    Modality in Physics.Gábor Hofer-Szabó, Joanna Luc & Tomasz Placek - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (6):515-521.
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  12.  14
    On the Concept of Bell's Local Causality in Local Classical and Quantum Theory.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Péter Vecsernyés - 2015 - Journal of Mathematical Physics 56:032303.
    The aim of this paper is to give a sharp definition of Bell's notion of local causality. To this end, first we unfold a framework, called local physical theory, integrating probabilistic and spatiotemporal concepts. Formulating local causality within this framework and classifying local physical theories by whether they obey local primitive causality---a property rendering the dynamics of the theory causal, we then investigate what is needed for a local physical theory, with or without local primitive causality, to be locally causal. (...)
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  13. Bell(Δ) Inequalities Derived From Separate Common Causal Explanation of Almost Perfect EPR Anticorrelations.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (8):1398-1413.
    It is a well known fact that a common common causal explanation of the EPR scenario which consists in providing a local, non-conspiratorial common common cause system for a set of EPR correlations is excluded by various Bell inequalities. But what if we replace the assumption of a common common cause system by the requirement that each correlation of the set has a local, non-conspiratorial separate common cause system? In the paper we show that this move does not yield a (...)
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  14.  16
    Bell's Local Causality for Philosophers.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Péter Vecsernyés - unknown
    This paper is the philosopher-friendly version of our more technical work. It aims to give a clear-cut definition of Bell's notion of local causality. Having provided a framework, called local physical theory, which integrates probabilistic and spatiotemporal concepts, we formulate the notion of local causality and relate it to other locality and causality concepts. Then we compare Bell's local causality with Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle and relate both to the Bell inequalities. We find a nice parallelism: both local causality and (...)
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  15.  7
    How Macrostates Come About?Marton Gomori, Balazs Gyenis & Gábor Hofer-Szabó - unknown
    This paper is a further consideration of Hemmo and Shenker’s ideas about the proper conceptual characterization of macrostates in statistical mechanics. We provide two formulations of how macrostates come about as elements of certain partitions of the system’s phase space imposed on by the interaction between the system and an observer, and we show that these two formulations are mathematically equivalent. We also reflect on conceptual issues regarding the relationship of macrostates to distinguishability, thermodynamic regularity, observer dependence, and the general (...)
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  16.  68
    Relating Bell’s Local Causality to the Causal Markov Condition.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (9):1110-1136.
    The aim of the paper is to relate Bell’s notion of local causality to the Causal Markov Condition. To this end, first a framework, called local physical theory, will be introduced integrating spatiotemporal and probabilistic entities and the notions of local causality and Markovity will be defined. Then, illustrated in a simple stochastic model, it will be shown how a discrete local physical theory transforms into a Bayesian network and how the Causal Markov Condition arises as a special case of (...)
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  17.  29
    On the Relation Between the Probabilistic Characterization of the Common Cause and Bell׳s Notion of Local Causality.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 49:32-41.
    In the paper the relation between the standard probabilistic characterization of the common cause and Bell's notion of local causality will be investigated. It will be shown that the probabilistic common cause follows from local causality if one accepts, as Bell did, two assumptions concerning the common cause: first, the common cause is localized in the intersection of the past of the correlating events; second, it provides a complete specification of the `beables' of this intersection. However, neither assumptions are a (...)
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  18.  19
    A Generalized Definition of Bell’s Local Causality.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Péter Vecsernyés - 2016 - Synthese 193 (10).
    This paper aims to implement Bell’s notion of local causality into a framework, called local physical theory, which is general enough to integrate both probabilistic and spatiotemporal concepts and also classical and quantum theories. Bell’s original idea of local causality will then arise as the classical case of our definition. First, we investigate what is needed for a local physical theory to be locally causal. Then we compare local causality with Reichenbach’s common cause principle and relate both to the Bell (...)
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  19. Making It Formally Explicit: Probability, Causality and Indeterminism.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Leszek Wroński (eds.) - 2017 - Springer International Publishing.
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  20.  2
    Quantum Theory and Local Causality.Péter Vecsernyés & Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
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