In vitro fertilisation (IVF) daily practice reveals that couples are willing to take greater risks than doctors if there is a higher chance of pregnancy. Arising from this is a frequently addressed issue regarding the embryo transfer strategy: single or double embryo transfer? The dilemma is faced by patients, as well as physicians, who are caught between the possibility of no pregnancies at all and facing the prospect of iatrogenic twin gestation. How could the couple's preferences concerning how many children (...) they would like be taken into account in determining the number of embryos transferred? How should the physician exercise his medical responsibility towards his patients and the unborn child? An effective approach could be to enhance a couple’s autonomy by advocating a medical beneficence that incorporates patients’ values. This can be achieved through a case-by-case approach in a deliberative process of decision-making which includes real patient-centred communication. (shrink)
ome Remarks on the Crisis of Capitalism What are the causes and consequences of the crisis of capitalism ? What are the plausible scenarios forthe outcome of the crisis ? To what extent is the current crisis comparable to that of 1929, and to whatextent does it differ from the crisis of the 1970s ? To what extent can one speak of a crisis of neoliberalism ? These are some of the questions which the authors of The Crisis of Neoliberalism (...) address here. (shrink)
This paper examines the philosophical substructure to the theoretical conflicts that permeate contemporary mental health care in the UK. Theoretical conflicts are treated here as those that arise among practitioners holding divergent theoretical orientations towards the phenomena being treated. Such conflicts, although steeped in history, have become revitalized by recent attempts at integrating mental health services that have forced diversely trained practitioners to work collaboratively together, often under one roof. Part I of this paper examines how the history of these (...) conflicts can be understood as a tension between, on the one hand, the medical model and its use by the dominant profession of psychiatry, and on the other, those alternative models and practitioners in some way differentiated from the medical model camp. Examples will be given from recent policy and research to highlight the prevalence of this tension in contemporary practice. Part II of this paper explores the deeper commonalities that lay beneath the theoretical conflict outlined in Part I. These commonalities will be shown to be apart of a captivating framework that has continued to grip the conflict since its inception. By exposing this underlying framework--and the motivations inherent therein--the topic of integration appears in wholly different light, allowing a renewed philosophical basis for integration to emerge. (shrink)
Le propos de cet article est de chercher à dégager les raisons de l'exceptionnelle admiration vouée par Hegel à Aristote. La thèse avancée est que ce que Hegel découvre chez le Stagirite, en particulier dans sa Métaphysique, c'est, dans le contexte du commencement grec de la philosophie, l'anticipation géniale de sa propre compréhension de la substance en tant que sujet. Cette thèse est développée en deux temps. Il s'agit tout d'abord de montrer qu'aux yeux de Hegel la philosophie ancienne n'a (...) de façon générale nullement ignoré la notion de subjectivité au sens qu'elle prendra au sein de la modernité, même si elle n'a pu lui conférer son plein déploiement. Ensuite, il s'agit d'établir, en s'attachant plus spécifiquement aux pages que Hegel consacre à Aristote dans ses Leçons sur l'histoire de la philosophie, que c'est chez lui, dans la conception dynamique de la substance comme energeia active et effectuante qu'il développe dans sa Métaphysique, que cette modernité affleure de la façon la plus claire et la plus complète. The purpose of this article is to attempt to elucidate the reasons for Hegel's exceptional admiration for Aristotle. The thesis put forward is that what Hegel discovers in the Stagirite, particularly in his Metaphysics, is, in the context of the Greek origins of philosophy, the brilliant anticipation of his own understanding of substance as subject. This thesis is developed in two stages. In the first place the aim is to show that in Hegel's eyes ancient philosophy in general in no way ignored the notion of subjectivity in the sense it will take on in modern times, even if it was unable to develop it fully. The goal is then, based more specifically on the pages devoted by Hegel to Aristotle in his Lectures on the history of philosophy, to establish that it is in him, in the dynamic conception of substance as active and realising energeia that he develops in his Metaphysics, that modern philosophy emerges in the clearest and most complete way. (shrink)
The nineteenth century English Jesuit poet, Gerard Manley Hopkins struggled throughout his life with desolation over what he saw as a spiritually, intellectually and artistically unproductive life. During these periods, he experienced God’s absence in a particularly intense way. As he wrote in one sonnet, “my lament / Is cries countless, cries like dead letters sent / To dearest him that lives alas! away.” What Hopkins faced was the existential problem of suffering and hiddenness, a problem widely recognized by analytic (...) philosophers to be left relatively untouched by conceptual explanations. In this essay, I argue that Hopkins’ poems themselves fill this gap left by conceptual approaches by articulating the existential crisis faced by those who feel the searing pain of suffering and the numbing, leaden echo of silence. His lyric speaks into existential suffering in ways akin to biblical laments and, as such, creates a space in which those who suffer can meet God, even if only to contend. Understood within Hopkins’ view of the incarnation and passion, these poems also suggest a way to identify with Christ in the experience of hiddenness, thereby making God present even in divine absence. (shrink)
_ Source: _Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 340 - 359 Gerard of Abbeville was a secular master of theology at the University of Paris and a contemporary of Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventure. In the context of reviewing Stephen Metzger’s new two-volume book on Gerard, this paper first adds some new information about Gerard’s early career, notably concerning benefices he claimed in Saint-Omer, Tournai, and Amiens. Afterwards, the salient features of Metzger’s volumes are presented: his placement of Gerard in his institutional (...) context; his characterization of Gerard’s doctrines of wisdom, knowledge, and contemplation in comparison with those of Gerard’s contemporaries; and his editions of texts. In the end, the chronological repercussions of maintaining that Vat. lat. 1015 reflects the original sequence of Gerard’s _Quodlibeta_, Metzger’s future focus, are discussed. (shrink)
Cet article est destiné à montrer qu’antérieurement au développement par Ockham d’une doctrine de l’intuition du non-existant, deux théologiens parisiens avaient déjà construit, chacun à sa manière, une théorie de la connaissance intuitive qui établissait, contre Duns Scot, la possibilité de l’intuition d’une chose non-existante ou absente : Gérard de Bologne et Hervé de Nédellec. L’étude philosophique de ce thème chez ces deux penseurs s’appuie sur l’édition critique de leurs Quodlibeta qu’a réalisée l’auteur de l’article.
The Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence, Italy, possesses an astrolabe with five latitude plates that is now attributed to the Duisburg workshop of Gerard Mercator. Although it is known that Mercator made instruments, this is the first surviving example to be identified. Another latitude plate is shown to come from the workshop of the Florentine, Giovan Battista Giusti. A seventh plate, possibly engraved by Rumold Mercator, provides the only known Mercatorian polar stereographic projection. The role of Egnazio (...) Danti, cosmographer to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the acquisition of the astrolabe in about 1570 is considered. (shrink)
In a paper published in volume 50 of Annals of Science an astrolabe at the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence, was attributed to the hand of Gerard Mercator, c. 1570, when his workshop was in Duisburg. This was the first scientific instrument by Mercator to be identified. Since then two further astrolabes by Mercator have been identified, one of them bearing his monogram: GMR. They belong to the Städtische Kunstsammlungen, Augsburg, and the Moravian Gallery, Brno. All three (...) instruments are described as a group, and reasons for believing that the Brno astrolabe was made earlier than 1550, and therefore in Louvain, are given. (shrink)
In his notes and lectures on anthropology, Kant explicitly refers to Alexander Gerard's 1774 Essay on Genius, and his own position that genius is necessary for art but not for science is clearly a response to Gerard. Kant does not explicitly mention Gerard's 1759 Essay on Taste, but it was probably an influence on his own conception of free play, and in any case a comparison of the two theories of aesthetic response is instructive. Gerard's development of a version of (...) the theory of free play without Kant's assumptions that aesthetic judgments must be independent of concepts and yet always intersubjectively valid allows him to accommodate a variety of facts about aesthetic experience in general and our experience of the fine arts in particular more readily and more fully than Kant can, especially those concerning the affective dimension of our experience of art. (shrink)
In this paper, I shall be arguing for what I hope is a modern version of a very traditional view, which is that God can explain two very basic phenomena: the first is the existence of the universe as we know it: the second is the particular way in which the universe is organised. I shall also, though briefly, try to counter the view that the totally unwelcome features of our universe make it impossible to reconcile the universe as it (...) is with anything like traditional theistic belief. This project, however, is quite a daunting one. So I would wish to make it clear right at the start that, while I would claim that my views are reasonable, and indeed more reasonable than belief in the denial of these views would be, I still do not hold that it is unreasonable for someone to reject each of the conclusions for which I shall argue. For plainly anyone, whether myself or any opponent, can be both reasonable and mistaken. (shrink)
Il faut savoir gré à l'éditeur Gérard Monfort de poursuivre sa politique de traduction d'ouvrages étrangers d'histoire de l'art en publiant le livre de J.F. Hamburger, paru en 1997 aux Presses de l'Université de Californie, sous le titre Nuns as Artits. The Visual Culture of a Medieval Convent. L'objet de ce livre passionnant et novateur, dont il faut souligner également la qualité de la traduction, est un ensemble rare, découvert fortuitement par l'auteur, de dessins coloriés, ..
La Dogmatique de Gérard Siegwalt s’inspire profondément de la théologie de Paul Tillich, tout en demeurant pleinement originale. On le voit tout particulièrement à propos de la méthode de corrélation. Chez Siegwalt, la corrélation s’instaure entre deux types d’approche: l’approche sapientiale et l’approche prophétique . Dans cet article, j’entends montrer chez Siegwalt l’équivalence entre ces deux termes de la corrélation: la dimension transcendante du réel et le Dieu de la foi chrétienne.
« Qu’est-ce que la nature?» Selon Gérard Siegwalt, cette question ne peut pas être abordée convenablement dans le cadre de l’approche objectiviste et dualiste de la nature qui nous présente celle-ci comme une chose extérieure, séparée de l’être humain et de Dieu. D’ailleurs, le dualisme et l’objectivisme, dont les corollaires principaux sont le matérialisme mécaniciste et le déterminisme, apparaissent de plus en plus problématiques au sein du «nouveau paradigme». Ils appellent une reprise réflexive, philosophique, non seulement en regard de (...) la justesse fonctionnelle des énoncés scientifiques proprement dits, mais aussi de la valeur épistémologique et de la teneur ontologique de ces énoncés. Siegwalt cherche à discerner et à coordonner les niveaux: scientifique, philosophique et mythique. La philosophie de la nature mise de l’avant ici se veut à la fois totalisante et unitaire, religieuse; elle cherche à rassembler les parties et le tout. Cette quête relève de la démarche sapientiale, ascendante, qui part du monde ou de l’immanence pour aller vers l’Être de la révélation universelle. Cette quête est profane. Elle est située à l’entrée du temple où elle prépare à parler de la nature comme Création. (shrink)
Dès ses premiers écrits, la dimension écologique est présente dans l’oeuvre de Gérard Siegwalt. Celui-ci en vient à situer la crise écologique dans toute la profondeur de son enracinement historique, philosophique, culturel et religieux. Elle n’est qu’un symptôme, une manifestation d’une crise plus globale que traverse le monde moderne, la «crise des fondements». Cet ébranlement remet radicalement en question la vision dualiste sous-jacente à notre civilisation et invite à une véritable «conversion» où la reconnaissance des limites et de l’interrelationnalité (...) des choses redéfinit l’ontologie. Une éthique de la sagesse est alors possible, qui rend justice tant à l’humain, à la nature, qu’à Dieu. (shrink)
The poetic joy voiced in this book's title reflects the hope in God of a poet who sacrificed his art not long after his conversion, but then received back the use of his native talents with even deeper inspiration. As a young Jesuit, Gerard Manley Hopkins offered up the use of his creative abilities in frustrating silence as part of his quest to make a complete donation of himself to God. Only years later did a well-attuned alertness to the stirrings (...) of divine grace propel him to poetry once more, but now a poetry chastened of his early infatuation with Victorian sensibilities and enlivened by a consciously Medieval approach to reading the signs of God's presence everywhere. (shrink)
(1972). Contemporary Schools of Metascience. Vol. I: Anglo‐Saxon Schools of Metascience; Vol. II: Continental Schools of Metascience (2nd edition, printed in one volume), Gerard Radnitzky. World Futures: Vol. 11, No. sup1, pp. 13-24.
O autor mostra neste ensaio quais são suas afinidades com a obra de Gérard Lebrun - obra animada por uma interrogação propriamente filosófica sobre a "ilusão como destino do pensamento" - e quais os aspectos em que dela se distancia: o "ponto de controvérsia" pode ser percebido na leitura distinta que ambos fazem da filosofia de Wittgenstein de Merleau-Ponty.
Infatigable, Gérard Siegwalt enrichit sa Dogmatique d’un neuvième volume, intitulé « de la transcendance au Dieu vivant ». Nous voici donc conviés à revisiter le traité De Deo uno et trino sous la conduite d’un guide dont l’orientation et les références sont devenues familières à ses lecteurs. C’est précisément par un exposé méthodologique que l’auteur ouvre son propos (p. 21-96). Le contexte culturel dont il part est notamment marqué par le sécularisme, le pluralisme religieux et l’athéisme ..
This essay concerns the theories of the sublime proposed by Alexander Gerard, Henry Home (Lord Kames), Archibald Alison, and Dugald Stewart. All four thinkers, I argue, aim to provide a philosophical account of the unity of the concept of the sublime, i.e., to respond to the question: what might all objects, art works, etc. that have been identified as sublime (or “grand”) in the philosophical, literary, art-theoretical, and rhetorical tradition have in common? Yet because they find the objects called “sublime” (...) to be so disparate, and because – contra Burke and Kant, the classical philosophical theorists of the sublime, they cannot identify one single feeling that could define the experience of the sublime, they ultimately endorse (what we would call) a “family-resemblance” view of the sublime: certain objects cause in us certain feelings (and so are classed together); other objects are then (for other reasons, i.e., not because they give us similar feelings) associated with some of the previous objects – and therefore we take these objects, and the feelings they may arouse, as sublime as well. Some – notably Gerard and Allison – take our act of appreciation of the sublime to be itself an act of free imaginative association, connecting the perceived object to other objects, memories, feelings, etc. The importance of association in aesthetic appreciation itself might also suggest that the category of the sublime must be a pluralistic and open one: because we may always find new objects sublime, via new associations. As a result, I suggest, these thinkers – by contrast to many other writers on the sublime – allow that art can be as sublime, or even more sublime, than natural objects and indeed can render natural objects sublime. (shrink)
The present paper complements the publications of Gerard L'E. Turner on Mercator's astrolabes by presenting an account of an astrological disc which Mercator published at Louvain in May 1551. This instrument, of which only one copy is known, is described, and a transcription of its instruction sheet, with commentary and English translation, is provided. My preliminary study of the astrological content and context of the instrument indicates that it is connected with John Dee's astrological studies at Louvain from 1548 to (...) 1550. The didactic functions of the instrument are discussed, as well as the relationship between astrological theory and practice in Mercator's work. (shrink)