Results for 'G��nther Witzany'

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  1.  39
    Interpreting Anaphoric Relations During Reading: Inspection Time Evidence.Lorenz Sichelschmidt & Udo Gƞnther - 1990 - Journal of Semantics 7 (4):321-345.
    On-line mechanisms in the processing of anaphora were investigated in two reading experiments. Short German texts were presented incrementally for self-paced reading, and inspection times were recorded for every single word. Each text contained a critical two-clause sentence with an elliptical gap and a personal pronoun. In the first experiment, varying the surface structure of the antecedent clause affected inspection times for the anaphor clause as a whole. In the second experiment, varying the semantic structure of the antecedent affected antecedent (...)
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  2. Book Review:(Quote) Augustanus Opticus: Johann Wiesel(1583–1662) Und 200 in Augsburg (Quote) by Inge Keil. [REVIEW]G. & X. 000 F. C. Nther Oestmann - 2004 - Annals of Science 61 (3):1-1.
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  3. Philosophieren in Einer Bedrohten Welt Vorträge Und Essays Wider Die Technokratische Vernunft.G. Witzany - 1989 - Essen: Die Blaue Eule.
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  4. G. E. Moore: Selected Writings.G. E. Moore - 1993 - Routledge.
    G.E. Moore, more than either Bertrand Russell or Ludwig Wittgenstein, was chiefly responsible for the rise of the analytic method in twentieth-century philosophy. This selection of his writings shows Moore at his very best. The classic essays are crucial to major philosophical debates that still resonate today. Amongst those included are: * A Defense of Common Sense * Certainty * Sense-Data * External and Internal Relations * Hume's Theory Explained * Is Existence a Predicate? * Proof of an External World (...)
     
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  5. Rethinking Quasispecies Theory: From Fittest Type to Cooperative Consortia.Luis Villarreal & Guenther Witzany - 2013 - World Journal of Biological Chemistry 4:79-90.
    Recent investigations surprisingly indicate that single RNA "stem-loops" operate solely by chemical laws that act without selective forces, and in contrast, self-ligated consortia of RNA stem-loops operate by biological selection. To understand consortial RNA selection, the concept of single quasi-species and its mutant spectra as drivers of RNA variation and evolution is rethought here. Instead, we evaluate the current RNA world scenario in which consortia of cooperating RNA stem-loops are the basic players. We thus redefine quasispecies as RNA quasispecies consortia (...)
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  6.  4
    De Günther Anders al transhumanismo: la obsolescencia del ser humano y la mejora moral.Virginia Ballesteros - 2020 - Isegoría 63:289-310.
    This paper critically compares the philosophy of Günther Anders and the contemporary transhumanists, like Julian Savulescu, Ingmar Persson, or Thomas Douglas. The Andersian concepts of moral blindness, promethean gap, and promethean shame will be discussed in order to understand human beings’ outdatedness; parallel to this, we will also expose the transhumanist analysis on the unfitness of human beings in evolutive and cognitive terms. We will show that much of the transhumanist analysis is a reformulation of the Andersian thesis, now under (...)
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  7. The Pareto Argument for Inequality*: G. A. COHEN.G. A. Cohen - 1995 - Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (1):160-185.
    Some ways of defending inequality against the charge that it is unjust require premises that egalitarians find easy to dismiss—statements, for example, about the contrasting deserts and/or entitlements of unequally placed people. But a defense of inequality suggested by John Rawls and elaborated by Brian Barry has often proved irresistible even to people of egalitarian outlook. The persuasive power of this defense of inequality has helped to drive authentic egalitarianism, of an old-fashioned, uncompromising kind, out of contemporary political philosophy. The (...)
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  8. Self-Ownership, World Ownership, and Equality: Part II: G. A. COHEN.G. A. Cohen - 1986 - Social Philosophy and Policy 3 (2):77-96.
    1. The present paper is a continuation of my “Self-Ownership, World Ownership, and Equality,” which began with a description of the political philosophy of Robert Nozick. I contended in that essay that the foundational claim of Nozick's philosophy is the thesis of self-ownership, which says that each person is the morally rightful owner of his own person and powers, and, consequently, that each is free to use those powers as he wishes, provided that he does not deploy them aggressively against (...)
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  9. What is Life?Guenther Witzany - 2020 - Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences 7:1-13.
    In searching for life in extraterrestrial space, it is essential to act based on an unequivocal definition of life. In the twentieth century, life was defined as cells that self-replicate, metabolize, and are open for mutations, without which genetic information would remain unchangeable, and evolution would be impossible. Current definitions of life derive from statistical mechanics, physics, and chemistry of the twentieth century in which life is considered to function machine like, ignoring a central role of communication. Recent observations show (...)
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  10.  76
    The DNA Habitat and its RNA Inhabitants.Luis Villarreal & Guenther Witzany - 2013 - Genomics Insights 6:1-12.
  11.  95
    Evolution of Genetic Information Without Error Replication.Guenther Witzany - 2020 - In Theoretical Information Studies. Singapur: pp. 295-319.
    Darwinian evolutionary theory has two key terms, variations and biological selection, which finally lead to survival of the fittest variant. With the rise of molecular genetics, variations were explained as results of error replications out of the genetic master templates. For more than half a century, it has been accepted that new genetic information is mostly derived from random error-based events. But the error replication narrative has problems explaining the sudden emergence of new species, new phenotypic traits, and genome innovations (...)
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  12.  11
    Detection of Mental Imagery and Attempted Movements in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness Using EEG.Petar Horki, Gã¼Nther Bauernfeind, Daniela S. Klobassa, Christoph Pokorny, Gerald Pichler, Walter Schippinger & Gernot R. Mã¼Ller-Putz - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  13.  81
    G. A. Cohen on Self‐Ownership, Property, and Equality.Tom G. Palmer - 1998 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 12 (3):225-251.
    Abstract G.A. Cohen has produced an influential criticism of libertarian?ism that posits joint ownership of everything in the world other than labor, with each joint owner having a veto right over any potential use of the world. According to Cohen, in that world rationality would require that wealth be divided equally, with no differential accorded to talent, ability, or effort. A closer examination shows that Cohen's argument rests on two central errors of reasoning and does not support his egalitarian conclusions, (...)
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  14. Life is Physics and Chemistry and Communication.Gunther Witzany - 2015 - In Guenther Witzany (ed.), DNA Habitats and Their RNA Inhabitants. pp. 1-9.
    Manfred Eigen extended Erwin Schroedinger’s concept of “life is physics and chemistry” through the introduction of information theory and cybernetic systems theory into “life is physics and chemistry and information.” Based on this assumption, Eigen developed the concepts of quasispecies and hypercycles, which have been dominant in molecular biology and virology ever since. He insisted that the genetic code is not just used metaphorically: it represents a real natural language.However, the basics of scientific knowledge changed dramatically within the second half (...)
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  15. Metaphysical and Postmetaphysical Relationships of Humans with Nature and Life.Guenther Witzany - 2010 - In Biocommunication and Natural Genome Editing. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 01-26.
    First, I offer a short overview on the classical occidental philosophy as propounded by the ancient Greeks and the natural philosophies of the last 2000 years until the dawn of the empiricist logic of science in the twentieth century, which wanted to delimitate classical metaphysics from empirical sciences. In contrast to metaphysical concepts which didn’t reflect on the language with which they tried to explain the whole realm of entities empiricist logic of science initiated the end of metaphysical theories by (...)
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  16. Essays in Honor of Carl G. Hempel.Carl G. Hempel, Donald Davidson & Nicholas Rescher (eds.) - 1969 - Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
    Reminiscences of Peter, by P. Oppenheim.--Natural kinds, by W. V. Quine.--Inductive independence and the paradoxes of confirmation, by J. Hintikka.--Partial entailment as a basis for inductive logic, by W. C. Salmon.--Are there non-deductive logics?, by W. Sellars.--Statistical explanation vs. statistical inference, by R. C. Jeffre--Newcomb's problem and two principles of choice, by R. Nozick.--The meaning of time, by A. Grünbaum.--Lawfulness as mind-dependent, by N. Rescher.--Events and their descriptions: some considerations, by J. Kim.--The individuation of events, by D. Davidson.--On properties, by (...)
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  17. Language and Communication as Universal Requirements for Life.Gunther Witzany - 2014 - In Kolb Vera (ed.), Astrobiology: An Evolutionary Approach. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 349-370.
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  18. The Philosophy of Carl G. Hempel: Studies in Science, Explanation, and Rationality.Carl G. Hempel (ed.) - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Editor James Fetzer presents an analytical and historical introduction and a comprehensive bibliography together with selections of many of Carl G. Hempel's most important studies to give students and scholars an ideal opportunity to appreciate the enduring contributions of one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century.
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  19. Life: The Communicative Structure.Günther Witzany - 2000 - Norderstedt: Libri Books on Demand.
  20. That is Life: Communicating RNA Networks From Viruses and Cells in Continuous Interaction.Guenther Witzany - 2019 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:1-16.
    All the conserved detailed results of evolution stored in DNA must be read, transcribed, and translated via an RNAmediated process. This is required for the development and growth of each individual cell. Thus, all known living organisms fundamentally depend on these RNA-mediated processes. In most cases, they are interconnected with other RNAs and their associated protein complexes and function in a strictly coordinated hierarchy of temporal and spatial steps (i.e., an RNA network). Clearly, all cellular life as we know it (...)
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  21.  29
    From Molecular Entities to Competent Agents: Viral Infection-Derived Consortia Act as Natural Genetic Engineers.Günther Witzany - 2012 - In Witzany (ed.), Viruses: Essential Agents of Life. Springer. pp. 407--419.
  22.  74
    The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's System of Philosophy: An English Translation of G. W. F. Hegel's Differenz des Fichte'schen Und Schelling'schen Systems der Philosophie. [REVIEW]G. W. F. Hegel - 1977 - State University of New York Press.
    In this essay, Hegel attempted to show how Fichte’s Science of Knowledge was an advance from the position of Kant in the Critique of Pure Reason, and how Schelling (and incidentally Hegel himself) had made a further advance from the position of Fichte.
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  23.  77
    From the "'Logic of Molecular Syntax' to Molecular Pragmatism. Explanatory Deficits in Manfred Eigen's Concept of Language and Communication.Guenther Witzany - 1995 - Evolution and Cognition 2 (1):148-168.
    Manfred Eigen employs the terms language and communication to explain key recombination processes of DNA as well as to explain the self-organization of human language and communication: Life processes as well as language and communication processes are governed by the logic of a molecular syntax, which is the exact depiction of a principally formalizable reality. The author of the present contribution demonstrates that this view of Manfred Eigen’s cannot be sufficiently substantiated and that it must be supplemented by an approach (...)
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  24.  6
    Viruses: Essential Agents of Life.Witzany Guenther (ed.) - 2012 - Dordrecht: Springer.
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  25. Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Mind: The Collected Philosophical Papers of G. E. M. Anscombe Volume Two.G. E. M. Anscombe - 1981 - Blackwell.
  26. Introduction: Key Levels of Biocommunication of Bacteria.Guenther Witzany - 2011 - In Witzany (ed.), Biocommunication in Soil Microorganisms. Springer. pp. 1--34.
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  27. Historiography and Enlightenment: A View of Their History: J. G. A. Pocock.J. G. A. Pocock - 2008 - Modern Intellectual History 5 (1):83-96.
    This essay is written on the following premises and argues for them. “Enlightenment” is a word or signifier, and not a single or unifiable phenomenon which it consistently signifies. There is no single or unifiable phenomenon describable as “the Enlightenment,” but it is the definite article rather than the noun which is to be avoided. In studying the intellectual history of the late seventeenth century and the eighteenth, we encounter a variety of statements made, and assumptions proposed, to which the (...)
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  28.  38
    Malcolm on Language and Rules: G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker.G. P. Baker - 1990 - Philosophy 65 (252):167-179.
    In ‘Wittgenstein on Language and Rules’, Professor N. Malcolm took us to task for misinterpreting Wittgenstein's arguments on the relationship between the concept of following a rule and the concept of community agreement on what counts as following a given rule. Not that we denied that there are any grammatical connections between these concepts. On the contrary, we emphasized that a rule and an act in accord with it make contact in language. Moreover we argued that agreement in judgments and (...)
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  29.  92
    The Collected Philosophical Papers of G.E.M. Anscombe.G. E. M. Anscombe - 1900 - Blackwell.
    -- v. 2. Metaphysics and the philosophy of mind.
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  30. Editorial: Genome Invading RNA Networks.L. P. Villarreal & Guenther Witzany - 2018 - Frontiers in Microbiology 9:1-3.
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  31.  35
    Nonconceptua1 Content and the" Space of Reasons," RICHARD G.Richard G. Heck Jr - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (4):483-523.
    In The Varieties of Reference, Gareth Evans argues that the content of perceptual experience is nonconceptual, in a sense I shall explain momentarily. More recently, in his book Mind and World, John McDowell has argued that the reasons Evans gives for this claim are not compelling and, moreover, that Evans’s view is a version of “the Myth of the Given”: More precisely, Evans’s view is alleged to suffer from the same sorts of problems that plague sense-datum theories of perception. In (...)
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  32.  65
    The Viral Origins of Telomeres and Telomerases and Their Important Role in Eukaryogenesis and Genome Maintenance.Guenther Witzany - 2008 - Biosemiotics 1 (2):191-206.
    Whereas telomeres protect terminal ends of linear chromosomes, telomerases identify natural chromosome ends, which differ from broken DNA and replicate telomeres. Although telomeres play a crucial role in the linear chromosome organization of eukaryotic cells, their molecular syntax most probably descended from an ancient retroviral competence. This indicates an early retroviral colonization of large double-stranded DNA viruses, which are putative ancestors of the eukaryotic nucleus. This contribution demonstrates an advantage of the biosemiotic approach towards our evolutionary understanding of telomeres, telomerases, (...)
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  33.  51
    DNA Habitats and Their RNA Inhabitants.Guenther Witzany (ed.) - 2015
    Most molecular biological concepts derive from physical chemical assumptions about the genetic code that are basically more than 40 years old. Additionally, systems biology, another quantitative approach, investigates the sum of interrelations to obtain a more holistic picture of nucleotide sequence order. Recent empirical data on genetic code compositions and rearrangements by mobile genetic elements and non-coding RNAs, together with results of virus research and their role in evolution, does not really fit into these concepts and compel a re-examination. In (...)
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  34.  19
    G. E. Moore: A Critical Exposition.G. J. Warnock - 1959 - Philosophical Review 68 (3):382.
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  35. Can Mathematics Explain the Evolution of Human Language?Guenther Witzany - 2011 - Communicative and Integrative Biology 4 (5):516-520.
    Investigation into the sequence structure of the genetic code by means of an informatic approach is a real success story. The features of human language are also the object of investigation within the realm of formal language theories. They focus on the common rules of a universal grammar that lies behind all languages and determine generation of syntactic structures. This universal grammar is a depiction of material reality, i.e., the hidden logical order of things and its relations determined by natural (...)
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  36.  7
    Heymans, G. Einführung in die Metaphysik auf Gründlage der Erfahrung.G. Heymans - 1905 - Kant-Studien 10 (1-3).
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  37.  99
    Setting Things Before the Mind: M.G.F. Martin.M. G. F. Martin - 1998 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 43:157-179.
    Listening to someone from some distance in a crowded room you may experience the following phenomenon: when looking at them speak, you may both hear and see where the source of the sounds is; but when your eyes are turned elsewhere, you may no longer be able to detect exactly where the voice must be coming from. With your eyes again fixed on the speaker, and the movement of her lips a clear sense of the source of the sound will (...)
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  38.  3
    J. G. Herder on Social and Political Culture.J. G. Herder & F. M. Barnard - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    The texts collected in this volume, which was originally published in 1969, contain Herder's most original and stimulating ideas on politics, history and language. They had for the most part not been previously available in English. In his introduction, Professor Barnard analyses the basic premises of Herder's political thought against the background of the Enlightenment. He examines Herder's concepts of language, community and culture, his theory of historical interaction, and his approach to the problem of change and progress. Finally, he (...)
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  39. Key Levels of Biocommunication.Guenther Witzany - 2016 - In R. Seckbach & J. Gordon (eds.), Biocommunication: Sign-mediated interactions between cells and organisms. Singapore: World Scientific. pp. 37-61.
    Organisms actively compete for environmental resources. They assess their surroundings, estimate how much energy they need for particular goals, and then realize the optimum variant. They take measures to control certain environmental resources. They perceive themselves and can distinguish between “self” and “non-self.” Current empirical data on all domains of life indicate that unicellular organisms such as bacteria, archaea, giant viruses, and protozoa as well as multicellular organisms such as animals, fungi, and plants coordinate and organize their essential life functions (...)
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  40.  20
    Introduction: Keylevels of Biocommunication in Fungi.Guenther Witzany - 2012 - In Witzany (ed.), Biocommunication of Fungi. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 1--18.
  41.  31
    The Christian Wager: R. G. SWINBURNE.R. G. Swinburne - 1969 - Religious Studies 4 (2):217-228.
    On what grounds will the rational man become a Christian? It is often assumed by many, especially non-Christians, that he will become a Christian if and only if he judges that the evidence available to him shows that it is more likely than not that the Christian theological system is true, that, in mathematical terms, on the evidence available to him, the probability of its truth is greater than half. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate whether or (...)
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  42.  16
    The Neurophilosophy of Pain: G. R. Gillett.G. R. Gillett - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (256):191-206.
    The ability to feel pain is a property of human beings that seems to be based entirely in our biological natures and to place us squarely within the animal kingdom. Yet the experience of pain is often used as an example of a mental attribute with qualitative properties that defeat attempts to identify mental events with physiological mechanisms. I will argue that neurophysiology and psychology help to explain the interwoven biological and subjective features of pain and recommend a view of (...)
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  43.  72
    II—M.G.F. Martin.M. G. F. Martin - 1997 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 71 (1):75-98.
  44.  13
    Disembodied Persons: G. R. Gillett.G. R. Gillett - 1986 - Philosophy 61 (237):377-386.
    In discussing Disembodied Persons we need to confront two problems: A. Under what conditions would we consider that a person was present in the absence of the normal bodily cues? B. Could such circumstances arise? The first question may be regarded as epistemic and the second as metaphysical.
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  45.  20
    An Assessment of R. G. Collingwood's.G. Buchdahl - 1948 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 26 (2):94 – 113.
  46. The Biosemiotics of Plant Communication.Günther Witzany - 2008 - American Journal of Semiotics 24 (1/3):39-56.
    This contribution demonstrates that the development and growth of plants depends on the success of complex communication processes. These communication processes are primarily sign-mediated interactions and are not simply an mechanical exchange of ‘information’, as that term has come to be understood in science. Rather, such interactions as I will be describing here involve the active coordination and organisation of a great variety of different behavioural patterns — all of which must be mediated by signs. Thus proposed, a biosemiotics of (...)
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  47.  5
    Günther Witzany: Life: The Communicative Structure - a New Philosophy of Biology, Libri Books on Demand, Hamburg 2000.Claus Emmeche - 2002 - SATS 3 (1):155-162.
  48.  40
    The Collected Works of C. G. JUNG.C. G. H. G. Jung - 1953-54 - In Selected Letters of C.G. Jung, 1909-1961. Princeton University Press. pp. 201-210.
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  49.  28
    Serial Endosymbiotic Theory (Set): The Biosemiotic Update.Günther Witzany - 2006 - Acta Biotheoretica 54 (2):103-117.
    The Serial Endosymbiotic Theory explains the origin of nucleated eukaryotic cells by a merging of archaebacterial and eubacterial cells. The paradigmatic change is that the driving force behind evolution is not ramification but merging. Lynn Margulis describes the symbiogenetic processes in the language of mechanistic biology in such terms as “merging”, “fusion”, and “incorporation”. Biosemiotics argues that all cell-cell interactions are (rule-governed) sign-mediated interactions, i.e., communication processes. As the description of plant communication demonstrates, the biosemiotic approach is not limited to (...)
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  50.  33
    Full Reflection at a Measurable Cardinal.Thomas Jech & Jiří Witzany - 1994 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (2):615-630.
    A stationary subset S of a regular uncountable cardinal κ reflects fully at regular cardinals if for every stationary set $T \subseteq \kappa$ of higher order consisting of regular cardinals there exists an α ∈ T such that S ∩ α is a stationary subset of α. Full Reflection states that every stationary set reflects fully at regular cardinals. We will prove that under a slightly weaker assumption than κ having the Mitchell order κ++ it is consistent that Full Reflection (...)
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