Nietzsche’s encounter with Socrates is examined in all of the relevant passages in the former’s writings. Dannhauser depicts this encounter as a quarrel between a modern and an ancient that runs through all the stages of Nietzsche’s intellectual development. The ambiguous, not to say ambivalent, nature of Nietzsche’s "view" of Socrates as a man and thinker is carefully shown even though it does not appear that any depth interpretation of this issue actually emerges. It is pointed out that, for the (...) most part, Nietzsche sees Socrates as a turning-point in Western history, as the arch-rationalist, the dialectician who advocates the supremacy of morality over all else, a decadent personality, and the enemy of instinctive life. (shrink)
The appearance of this anonymous translation of Hans-Georg Gadamer’s major work, Wahrheit und Methode finally makes available to English readers the single most important study of the origin, development, and nature of the concept and meaning of "hermeneutical consciousness" extant.
In the midst of a recrudescence of serious interest in the philosophy of Hegel, Lauer’s scholarly, detailed and careful "reading" of Hegel’s most difficult work is a highly valuable and useful contribution to the literature. Aside from conscientious, reasonably impartial accounts of the central themes of the Phenomenology, key elements in the interpretations and commentaries of the major writers who have tackled Hegel’s profound description of the forms of consciousness and the processes of knowing are artfully interwoven in Lauer’s exposition. (...) Lauer is faithful to the text of the Phenomenology and has no particular metaphysical ax to grind. (shrink)
Since its publication in 1946 this astonishing interpretation and commentary on Hegel’s notoriously difficult Phenomenology has been the French font at which many continental philosophers and scholars have quenched their thirst for insights into a work that has stimulated philosophers from Marx to Sartre and Habermas and has startled as many thinkers as it has puzzled.
This readable essay is a lucid interpretation of Hegel’s much abused Die Vernunft in der Geschichte which discusses the reconstruction of Reason in History and seeks to defend Hegel’s conception of philosophical world history. Throughout the work the claims about the nature of history are related to The Phenomenology of Mind in such a way as to defend Hegel’s view that history has an inner principle which yields a pattern in historical change which is progressive. Emphasis is placed upon the (...) importance of individuals in historical development. A brief comparison between Hempel’s account of historical explanation in terms of laws is made which indicates that Hegel would see such an idea of history as inappropriate to historical understanding. The role of objective and subjective reason in the synthesis of an a priori and an empirical interpretation of history is presented in an illuminating way and the Aristotelian basis of Hegel’s categories of historical understanding is shown. Despite the rather conventional presentation of the role of world-historical individuals in Hegel’s philosophy of history and a questionable interpretation of the idea of necessity in history, this work would serve as a useful introduction to Hegel’s idea of history and would be an excellent companion piece for a reading of Reason in History. The brief, but insightful, discussions of the concept of emergent self-consciousness, the role of individual passion as a motivating factor in history, the relation between the master/slave conflict and history, the aim of history as the spiritual self-consciousness of freedom, and the sympathetic approach to Hegel’s thought sets this commentary a cut above typical brief accounts of Hegel’s "speculative" theory of history.—G.J.S. (shrink)
In this lucid, concise, internal analysis of the preface and introduction to the Phenomenology of Spirit an attempt is made to provide an immanent interpretation of these important essays. After briefly sketching the derivation of the idea of a history of consciousness from Schelling and Fichte and the central role that Kant’s notion of transcendental apperception plays in Hegel’s phenomenology, Werner Marx places Hegel in the "Logos tradition" and presents detailed accounts of the presentation of phenomenal knowledge, natural consciousness, and (...) the progressive development of the "shapes" of consciousness. It is persuasively argued that the Phenomenology is both a science of experience and a science of spirit because it relates the science of spirit to the experience of consciousness. This relatively brief essay is rich in philosophical detail and is a sympathetic account of Hegel’s project. Of special interest is the illuminating treatment of the role of the phenomenologist in the process of displaying the appearance of truth in a totality of moments or "thought-determinations". While admitting that Hegel presents the process of categorical development in a cryptic manner, Marx clarifies the content of Hegel’s preface and introduction and, at the same time, remains faithful to the complexities of Hegel’s phenomenological method. This essay is an excellent companion piece to Hegel’s original prefatory and introductory statements about the intention, method, structure, and aim of the Phenomenology.—G.J.S. (shrink)
In the midst of a recrudescence of interest in the philosophy of Hegel in the United States and England, this polished translation of Hegel’s introduction to his Lectures on the Philosophy of World History is a timely and welcome addition to the English translations of the massive Hegelian corpus. At long last, Johannes Hoffmeister’s superlative edition of this accessible work is available in English twenty years after its publication in Germany. H. B. Nisbet presents Hegel’s lectures in italics and intersperses (...) the reconstructions of students’ notes in Roman type. Including Hegel’s first and second drafts of the first part of the "Introduction," the well-integrated lecture notes, an appendix on "The natural context or the geographical basis of world history," additions from 1826-7, Lasson’s "Notes on the Composition of the Text," and a chronological bibliography of writings dealing with the Lectures, this volume supersedes the previous English translations which were derived from Karl Hegel’s shorter edition. Duncan Forbes’ spritely introduction is a rapid fire counter-attack on a number of Hegel’s critics which charges that Hegel is misunderstood because of an inadequate grasp of the principle of identity in difference and the assumption that, for Hegel, the Absolute "absorbs" the contingencies, contradictions, and tensions in existence. Forbes appropriately stresses the "concrete universal" as the unity of the universal and the particular in history, a unity which preserves the particular as particular, the contingent as contingent. Even though Forbes overreaches himself at times, his defenses of Hegel’s interpretation of meaning in history are provocative and lively. This fine translation of Hoffmeister’s edition of the introduction to the lectures presents Hegel’s vision of history in a lucid, accessible form and captures the nuances of the thought of a philosopher who has been as often misunderstood as maligned.—G.J.S. (shrink)