Central to many issues surrounding reduction in science is the relation between a physical system and its components. In this article we examine how thermodynamic theory relates properties of whole systems to properties of their components. In order to keep the analysis general, we focus our study on universal properties like volume, heat capacity, energy and temperature. In the cases examined we find that scientific explanation requires appeal to properties of components that are spatially as extensive as the whole system. (...) We discuss some implications of our study for the purported paradigmatic reductions of heat and temperature to molecular motion. We conclude that while macro systems reduce ontologically to micro components, epistemologically the reduction of theoretical concepts in general fails. (shrink)
Two different models for chemical bond were developed almost simultaneously after the Schrödinger formulation of quantum theory. These are known as the valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital (MO) theories. Initially chemists preferred the VB theory and ignored the MO theory. Now the VB theory is almost dropped out of currency. The context of discovery and Linus Pauling’s overpowering influence gave the VB theory its initial advantage. The current universal acceptance of the MO theory is due to its ability to (...) provide direct interpretation of many different types of experiments now being pursued. In current research both localized bonds and delocalized charge distributions play important roles and the MO theory has been successful in giving a good account of both. (shrink)
The main aim of this paper is to discuss a recently discovered manuscript of Vāsudēvappāṭṭu and to comment on the characteristic features of the text: its devotional content, language and philosophy. Vāsudēvappāṭṭu is a bhakti song written in the Tamil-Maṇipravāḷa language and attributed to Pūntānam, one of the prominent devotional poets of Kerala, who is often praised as a talented and prolific writer and an ardent devotee of Kṛṣṇa. The first section of the paper investigates the linguistic features of the (...) work, the writing style, and the characteristics of the manuscript itself. The second part focuses on the content of the poem: its style, tone, and religious motives. Furthermore, the article suggests that Vāsudēvappāṭṭu belongs to the South-Indian pāṭṭu genre and discusses the work in the context of the pāṭṭu literature of Kerala. Moreover, to highlight the performative aspects of pāṭṭu, the authors have recorded a traditional recitation of Vāsudēvappāṭṭu, which can be found attached to this paper. The paper also considers the features of the manuscript and therefore contributes to current research on Keralan Bhakti literature and participates in ongoing debates on the production of pre-modern Indian texts and manuscriptology. (shrink)
Daya Krishna(Photo courtesy of Jay Garfield)Govind Chandra Pande(Photo courtesy of his daughter amita sharma)Daya Krishna was the public face of Indian philosophy in the first half-century after Indian independence. Nobody on the Indian scene in that period came close to him in influence or in contribution to the profession. Nobody else in the world thought as hard or as fruitfully about the relation of Indian philosophy to that of the rest of the world, and nobody else dared to (...) think as creatively and even as heretically about the history of Indian philosophy itself. To be sure, the Indian philosophical scene during this period was always a vibrant and creative matrix of thought, and many contributed to that .. (shrink)
Drilling and reaching to deeper target zones through an overpressured overburden formation in a structurally complex geological setting requires robust geological and geomechanical analysis to mitigate risk and control operational cost. These types of geological conditions are present in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, where a series of horst and grabens defined by deep seated faults, and persistent high sedimentation rates through geologic time, result in the development of challenging conditions for exploratory drilling. In this study, we discuss possible overpressure mechanisms (...) across the central part of the Krishna-Godavari Basin and its interplay through fault related lateral pressure transfer. The basin sits over a horst, which is one of the many NE-SW trending en-echelon horst and graben structures comprising sediments from the lower Cretaceous to Holocene. In the study area, Paleocene formations in the horst are overpressured. Three wells were drilled through this formation and reached the target without any drilling issues in the central and eastern part. However, the same formation in the western part of the horst has higher overpressure of about 14 ppg, which complicate the drilling operations as it required an additional intermediate casing to reach the target reservoir safely. A detailed analysis of the overpressure mechanisms across the horst area to the adjacent deep graben revealed that the disequilibrium compaction signatures are related to the burial history and overburden thickness. The major difference between horst and graben area is the magnitude of overpressure, with an average of 16ppg across the graben area. The larger overpressures experienced towards the western part of the horst indicates a secondary source of pressure from the adjacent deep graben. The fault stress analysis in this region presents a feasible lateral pressure transfer through critically stressed faults/fractures from the deep graben to the western part of the horst structure. (shrink)
Drilling and reaching to deeper target zones through an overpressured overburden formation in a structurally complex geologic setting requires robust geologic and geomechanical analysis to mitigate risk and control operational costs. These types of geologic conditions are present in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, where a series of horst and grabens defined by deep-seated faults and persistent high sedimentation rates through geologic time, result in the development of challenging conditions for exploratory drilling. We have developed possible overpressure mechanisms across the central (...) part of the Krishna-Godavari Basin and its interplay through fault-related lateral pressure transfer. The basin sits over a horst, which is one of the many northeast–southwest-trending en echelon horst and graben structures comprising sediments from the lower Cretaceous to Holocene. In the study area, Paleocene formations in the horst are overpressured. Three wells were drilled through this formation and reached the target without any drilling issues in the central and eastern part. However, the same formation in the western part of the horst has higher overpressure of approximately 14 ppg, which complicates the drilling operations because it requires an additional intermediate casing to reach the target reservoir safely. A detailed analysis of the overpressure mechanisms across the horst area to the adjacent deep graben revealed that the disequilibrium compaction signatures are related to the burial history and overburden thickness. The major difference between horst and graben area is the magnitude of overpressure, with an average of 16 ppg across the graben area. The larger overpressures experienced toward the western part of the horst indicate a secondary source of pressure from the adjacent deep graben. The fault stress analysis in this region presents a feasible lateral pressure transfer through critically stressed faults/fractures from the deep graben to the western part of the horst structure. The current model accounts the common pore pressure estimation method along with other critical geologic information to predict such overpressure related challenges in the upcoming future wells in a similar geologic setup to plan safe and cost-effective wells. (shrink)
Tripura Upanishad is a minor Shakta or Tantra Upanishad explaining the structure of and meditation on Sri Chakra or Sri Yantra—a diagrammatic representation of the universe through nine interlocking triangles coming out of a central point. To date, there are two English translations of this Upanishad. The first and the earliest, by A G Krishna Warrier done in 1967, is a verse translation and because of the obvious constraints of such translation, fails to explain the intricacies and implied meanings (...) of this cryptic Upanishad. The second translation done many years later, is by Douglas Renfrew Brooks, who has also beautifully translated the commentary on this Upanishad by Bhaskararaya in the book 'The Secret of the Three Cities' published by the University of Chicago Press in 1990. While maintaining a high level of accuracy and bringing out the intricate nuances of this Upanishad, the emphasis of Brooks' translation seems to be more on the geometrical aspects of the Sri Chakra. The present translation emphasises the practice aspect of this Upanishad as derived from Bhaskararaya's commentary. (shrink)
Discovery of temporal association patterns, temporal association rules from temporal databases is extensively studied by academic research community and applied in various industrial applications. Temporal association pattern discovery is extended to similarity based temporal association pattern discovery from time-stamped transaction datasets by researchers Yoo and Sashi Sekhar. They introduced methods for pruning through distance bounds, and have also introduced SEQUENTIAL and SPAMINE algorithms for pattern mining that are based on snapshot data scan and lattice data scan strategies respectively. Our previous (...) research introduced algorithms G-SPAMINE, MASTER, Z-SPAMINE for time profiled association pattern discovery. These algorithms applied distance measures SRIHASS, ASTRA, and KRISHNA SUDARSANA for similarity computations. SEQUENTIAL, SPAMINE, G-SPAMINE, MASTER, Z-SPAMINE approaches are all based on snapshot and lattice database scan strategies and prunes temporal itemsets by making use of lower bound, upper bound support time sequences and upper-lower distance bound, lower bound distance values. The major limitation of all these algorithms is their inevitability to eliminate dataset scanning process for knowing true supports of itemsets and essential need to have dataset available in memory. To eliminate the requirement of retaining dataset in main memory, algorithms VRKSHA and GANDIVA are two pioneering research contributions that introduced tree structure for time profiled temporal association mining. VRKSHA is based on snapshot tree scan technique while GANDIVA is a lattice tree scan based approach. VRKSHA and GANDIVA both apply Euclidean distance function, but they do not estimate support and distance bounds. This research introduces the pioneering work ULTIMATE that uses a novel tree structure. The tree is generated using similarity measure ASTRA. ULTIMATE uses support bound and distance bound computations for pruning temporal patterns. Experiment results showed that ULTIMATE outperforms SEQUENTIAL, SPAMINE, G-SPAMINE, MASTER, VRKSHA, GANDIVA algorithms. (shrink)
Philosophers, novelists, and intercultural comparisons : Heidegger, Kundera, and Dickens / Richard Rorty Lifeworlds, modernity, and philosophical praxis : race, ethnicity, and critical social theory / Lucius Outlaw Modern China and the postmodern West / David L. Hall From Marxism to post-Marxism / Svetozar Stojanović Incommensurability and otherness revisited / Richard J. Bernstein Incommensurability, truth, and the conversation between Confucians and Aritotelians about the virtues / Alasdair MacIntyre The commensurability of Indian epistemological theories / Karl H. Potter Pluralism, relativism, and (...) interaction between cultures / Bimal K. Matilal The problem of relativism / Jiang Tianji. Between relativism and fundamentalism : hermeneutics as Europe’s mainstream political and moral tradition / Ferenc Feher Conceptual schemes and linguistic relativism in relation to Chinese / A.C. Graham The origins of the question : four traditional Japanese philosophies of language / Thomas P. Kasulis Meaning as imaging : Prolegomena to a Confucian epistemelogy / Roger T. Ames On the dual nature of traditional Chinese thought and its modernization / Li Zhilin A planetary macroethics for humankind : the need, the apparent difficulty, and the eventual possibility / Karl-Otto Apel Reasonable challenges and preconditions of adjudication / Antonio S. Cua The French Revolution and the Holocaust : can ethics be ahistorical? / Hilary Putnam Tradition and moral progress / Joel J. Kupperman The shape of artistic pasts, East and West / Arthur C. Danto. Surrealistic distortion of landscape and the reason of the milieu / Megumi Sakabe Why art changes / Richard Wollheim The transcendental in a comparative context / Frederick J. Streng Reflections on religious pluralism in the Indian context / Margaret Chatterjee Three enduring achievements of Islamic philosophy / Lenn E. Goodman Two dimensions of religion : reflections based on Indian spiritual experience and philosophical traditions / G.C. Pande Between nationalism and nomadism : wondering about the languages of philosophy / Graham Parkes The discourse of cultural authenticity : Islamist revivalism and enlightenment universalism / Aziz Al-Azmeh Traditional political values and ideas : an examination of their relevance to developments in contemporary African political order / Kwame Gyekye On the interpretation of traditional cultures / Maria L. Herrera. The concept of progress and cultural identity / Roop Rekha Verma Moses, Hsüan-tsang, and history / Agnes Heller Secularism : sacred and profane / Daya Krishna Scientific progress and content loss / Larry Laudan A dialectical view of scientific rationality and progress / Marcello Pera Scientific progress reconsidered / Ilkka Niiniluoto Does progress in science lead to truth? / Lorenz Krüger. (shrink)
G.E. Moore, more than either Bertrand Russell or Ludwig Wittgenstein, was chiefly responsible for the rise of the analytic method in twentieth-century philosophy. This selection of his writings shows Moore at his very best. The classic essays are crucial to major philosophical debates that still resonate today. Amongst those included are: * A Defense of Common Sense * Certainty * Sense-Data * External and Internal Relations * Hume's Theory Explained * Is Existence a Predicate? * Proof of an External World (...) In addition, this collection also contains the key early papers in which Moore signals his break with idealism, and three important previously unpublished papers from his later work which illustrate his relationship with Wittgenstein. (shrink)
A scholar of eminence in the field of Indian philosophy, Bimal K. Matilal was one of the leading exponents of Indian logic and epistemology. Painstakingly compiled from Matilal's huge body of work, this collection of essays includes a set of previously unpublished essays and reveals the extraordinary depth of Matilal's philosophical interests.
A scholar of eminence in the field of Indian Philosophy, Bimal K. Matilal was one of the leading exponents of Indian logic and epistemology. Painstakingly compiled from Matilal's huge body of work, this collection of essays includes a set of previously unpublished essays and reveals the extraordinary depth of Matilal's philosophical interests.
Stone, J. Thoughts on supposed "Death of law".--Krishna Iyer, V. R. Jurisprudence and jurisconscience.--Sharma, G. S. Law and social change in India.--Sharma, S. D. The concept of justice in Manu.--Chand, H. Legal values for a developing country.--Ramarao, T. S. The new international law relating to the rights and duties of States.--Sinha, B. S. Custom and customary law in Indian jurisprudence.--Mazumdar, D. L. Techno-economic structure of our industrial society.--Subrahamanian, N. Law and social change.
In this essay, Hegel attempted to show how Fichte’s Science of Knowledge was an advance from the position of Kant in the Critique of Pure Reason, and how Schelling (and incidentally Hegel himself) had made a further advance from the position of Fichte.
Small and medium-sized firms form 90% of the worldwide population of businesses. However, it has been argued that given their smaller scale of operations, resource access constraints and lower visibility, smaller firms are less likely to participate in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. This article examines the different economic motivations of firms with varying combinations of visibility, resource access and scale of operations. Arguments are presented to propose that in terms of visibility, resource access and operating scale, very small and (...) very large firms are equally motivated to participate in CSR. However, the motivational bases for CSR participation are likely to be different. Medium-sized firms are the least motivated. This suggests a U-shaped relationship between firm size and CSR participation. This study contributes towards resolution of the long-standing debate on the effects of firm size on CSR participation, and highlights the importance of considering configurations of firm characteristics in the study of CSR outcomes. In conclusion, cautions are raised against the broad categorization of firms, without adequate attention to the underlying dimensions of such categorizations. (shrink)
Reminiscences of Peter, by P. Oppenheim.--Natural kinds, by W. V. Quine.--Inductive independence and the paradoxes of confirmation, by J. Hintikka.--Partial entailment as a basis for inductive logic, by W. C. Salmon.--Are there non-deductive logics?, by W. Sellars.--Statistical explanation vs. statistical inference, by R. C. Jeffre--Newcomb's problem and two principles of choice, by R. Nozick.--The meaning of time, by A. Grünbaum.--Lawfulness as mind-dependent, by N. Rescher.--Events and their descriptions: some considerations, by J. Kim.--The individuation of events, by D. Davidson.--On properties, by (...) H. Putnam.--A method for avoiding the Curry paradox, by F. B. Fitch.--Publications (1934-1969) by Carl G. Hempel (p. -270). (shrink)
Kurt Gödel’s Incompleteness theorem is well known in Mathematics/Logic/Philosophy circles. Gödel was able to find a way for any given P (UTM), (read as, “P of UTM” for “Program of Universal Truth Machine”), actually to write down a complicated polynomial that has a solution iff (=if and only if), G is true, where G stands for a Gödel-sentence. So, if G’s truth is a necessary condition for the truth of a given polynomial, then P (UTM) has to answer first that (...) G is true in order to secure the truth of the said polynomial. But, interestingly, P (UTM) could never answer that G was true. This necessarily implies that there is at least one truth a P (UTM), however large it may be, cannot speak out. Daya Krishna and Karl Potter’s controversy regarding the construal of India’s Philosophies dates back to the time of Potter’s publication of “Presuppositions of India’s Philosophies” (1963, Englewood Cliffs Prentice-Hall Inc.) In attacking many of India’s philosophies, Daya Krishna appears to have unwittingly touched a crucial point: how can there be the knowledge of a ‘non-cognitive’ mokṣa? [‘mokṣa’ is the final state of existence of an individual away from Social Contract]—See this author’s Indian Social Contract and its Dissolution (2008) mokṣa does not permit the knowledge of one’s own self in the ordinary way with threefold distinction, i.e., subject–knowledge-object or knower–knowledge–known. But what is important is to demonstrate whether such ‘knowledge’ of non-cognitive mokṣa state can be logically shown, in a language, to be possible to attain, and that there is no contradiction involved in such demonstration, because, no one can possibly express the ‘experience-itself’ in language. Hence, if such ‘knowledge’ can be shown to be logically not impossible in language, then, not only Daya Krishna’s arguments against ‘non-cognitive mokṣa’ get refuted but also it would show the possibility of achieving ‘completeness’ in its truest sense, as opposed to Gödel’s ‘Incompleteness’. In such circumstances, man would himself become a Universal Truth Machine. This is because the final state of mokṣa is construed as the state of complete knowledge in Advaita. This possibility of ‘completeness’ is set in this paper in the backdrop of Śrī Śaṅkarācārya’s Advaitic (Non-dualistic) claim involved in the mahāvākyas (extra-ordinary propositions). (Mahāvākyas that Śaṅkara refers to are basically taken from different Upaniṣads. For example, “Aham Brahmāsmi” is from Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, and “Tattvamasi” is from Chāndogya Upaniṣad. Śrī Śaṅkarācārya has written extensively. His main works include his Commentary on Brahma-Sūtras, on major Upaniṣads, and on ŚrīmadBhagavadGītā, called Bhāṣyas of them, respectively. Almost all these works are available in English translation published by Advaita Ashrama, 5 Dehi Entally Road, Calcutta, 700014.) On the other hand, the ‘Incompleteness’ of Gödel is due to the intervening G-sentence, which has an adverse self-referential element. Gödel’s incompleteness theorem in its mathematical form with an elaborate introduction by R.W. Braithwaite can be found in Meltzer (Kurt Gödel: on formally undecidable propositions of principia mathematica and related systems. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 1962). The present author believes first that semantic content cannot be substituted by any amount of arithmoquining, (Arithmoquining or arithmatization means, as Braithwaite says,—“Gödel’s novel metamathematical method is that of attaching numbers to the signs, to the series of signs (formulae) and to the series of series of signs (“proof-schemata”) which occur in his formal system…Gödel invented what might be called co-ordinate metamathematics…”) Meltzer (1962 p. 7). In Antone (2006) it is said “The problem is that he (Gödel) tries to replace an abstract version of the number (which can exist) with the concept of a real number version of that abstract notion. We can state the abstraction of what the number needs to be, [the arithmoquining of a number cannot be a proof-pair and an arithmoquine] but that is a concept that cannot be turned into a specific number, because by definition no such number can exist.”.), especially so where first-hand personal experience is called for. Therefore, what ultimately rules is the semanticity as in a first-hand experience. Similar points are voiced, albeit implicitly, in Antone (Who understands Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, 2006). (“…it is so important to understand that Gödel’s theorem only is true with respect to formal systems—which is the exact opposite of the analogous UTM (Antone (2006) webpage 2. And galatomic says in the same discussion chain that “saying” that it ((is)) only true for formal systems is more significant… We only know the world through “formal” categories of understanding… If the world as it is in itself has no incompleteness problem, which I am sure is true, it does not mean much, because that is not the world of time and space that we experience. So it is more significant that formal systems are incomplete than the inexperiencable ‘World in Itself’ has no such problem.—galatomic”) Antone (2006) webpage 2. Nevertheless galatomic certainly, but unwittingly succeeds in highlighting the possibility of experiencing the ‘completeness’ Second, even if any formal system including the system of Advaita of Śaṅkara is to be subsumed or interpreted under Gödel’s theorem, or Tarski’s semantic unprovability theses, the ultimate appeal would lie to the point of human involvement in realizing completeness since any formal system is ‘Incomplete’ always by its very nature as ‘objectual’, and fails to comprehend the ‘subject’ within its fold. (shrink)
Editor James Fetzer presents an analytical and historical introduction and a comprehensive bibliography together with selections of many of Carl G. Hempel's most important studies to give students and scholars an ideal opportunity to appreciate the enduring contributions of one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century.
In The Varieties of Reference, Gareth Evans argues that the content of perceptual experience is nonconceptual, in a sense I shall explain momentarily. More recently, in his book Mind and World, John McDowell has argued that the reasons Evans gives for this claim are not compelling and, moreover, that Evans’s view is a version of “the Myth of the Given”: More precisely, Evans’s view is alleged to suffer from the same sorts of problems that plague sense-datum theories of perception. In (...) particular, McDowell argues that perceptual experience must be within “the space of reasons,” that perception must be able to give us reasons for, that is, to justify, our beliefs about the world: And, according to him, no state that does not have conceptual content can be a reason for a belief. Now, there are many ways in which Evans’s basic idea, that perceptual content is nonconceptual, might be developed; some of these, I shall argue, would be vulnerable to the objections McDowell brings against him. But I shall also argue that there is a way of developing it that is not vulnerable to these objections. (shrink)