Among the most outstanding discoveries of the last century is one that is not quite as momentous as the theory of relativity or cybernetics. It may even still be enigmatic. It has no one single author, it is not expressed in a single formula, conception, or invention. Nonetheless it is worth all the others combined.
The title of this article will perhaps seem excessively contentious to the reader. What solitude of Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadskii, he might ask, if he has even the slightest familiarity with the scientist's biography?
This is a collection of the key articles written by renowned Wittgenstein scholar, G.P. Baker, on Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, published posthumously. Following Baker’s death in 2002, the volume has been edited by collaborator and partner, Katherine Morris. Contains articles previously only available in other languages, and one previously unpublished paper. Completely distinct from the widely-known work Baker did with P.M.S. Hacker in the Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations.
This chapter contains sections titled: The Tractatus and rules of logical syntax From logical syntax to philosophical grammar Rules and rule‐formulations Philosophy and grammar The scope of grammar Some morals.
In ‘Wittgenstein on Language and Rules’, Professor N. Malcolm took us to task for misinterpreting Wittgenstein's arguments on the relationship between the concept of following a rule and the concept of community agreement on what counts as following a given rule. Not that we denied that there are any grammatical connections between these concepts. On the contrary, we emphasized that a rule and an act in accord with it make contact in language. Moreover we argued that agreement in judgments and (...) in definitions is indeed necessary for a shared language. But we denied that the concept of a language is so tightly interwoven with the concept of a community of speakers as to preclude its applicabilty to someone whose use of signs is not shared by others. Malcolm holds that ‘This is an unwitting reduction of Wittgenstein's originality. That human agreement is necessary for “shared” language is not so striking a thought as that it is essential for language simpliciter.’ Though less striking, we believe that it has the merit of being a true thought. We shall once more try to show both that it is correct, and that it is a correct account of Wittgenstein's arguments. (shrink)
The article deals with the concept of the Russian national type of personality by G. P. Fedotov. The author finds the connection between Fedotov’s views and the theory of moderate social constructivism, according to which the formation of nation by elite can be successful only if it comes in accordance with geographical and historical ‘landscapes‘. Russian type of personality is seen as a unity of two polar characters - ‘the muscovite‘ and ‘the intelligent‘. The author points out that Fedotov considers (...) culture as a main factor in the development of history, which makes the very existence of intelligentsia the most important condition of solving many social problems in Russia. (shrink)
This little book is a collection of essays on the philosophy of mind and serves as a preview of a larger work to come. Writing from the point of view of naturalism, while not defending it, Langer is primarily concerned with the relation of the human mind to feeling, which is the subject of the first essay, "The Process of Feeling." Other contributions include speculations on the origin of speech, a new definition of symbol, the cultural importance of art, the (...) relation of the individual to society. Interesting and provocative.--V. G. P. (shrink)
This small volume is one of the series entitled "Contemporary Perspectives in Philosophy." It contains eight essays which fall into two groups: 1) the first five deal with the Austin-Strawson debate revolving around Austin's modified "correspondence theory," 2) the last three, two of which are by Strawson, and the other by Dummett commenting on Strawson. The editor has provided a useful bibliography.--V. G. P.
A short, not too technical introduction to the existentialist movement. The first half of the book presents five basic themes which existentialists treat in a distinctive way: the problems of knowledge, reality, existence, communication, and transcendence. The second half of the book gathers together five independent lectures on Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Jaspers, Sartre and Marcel. The book is useful for those unacquainted with the men and their ideas.--V. G. P.
The major portion of the book presents the biological facts, while the final chapter raises philosophical questions concerning 1) the antithesis between form and substance, 2) the relation of form to aesthetics, and 3) the origin of mind in the goal-seeking quality of life. The author does not pretend to solve the questions he raises; he merely wishes to draw attention to them "at a time when many people fail to recognize them, and when even some biologists have temporarily lost (...) sight of the fundamental importance of the fact of form for the science of life."--V. G. P. (shrink)
This chapter contains sections titled: Is a language necessarily shared with a community of speakers? Innate knowledge of a language Robinson Crusoe sails again Solitary cavemen and monologuists Private languages and ‘private languages’ Overview.
This textbook of Thomistic metaphysics is based on the author's conviction that metaphysics is founded in sense experience. Fidelity to Aristotle and Aquinas on this point entails, according to the author, certain departures from the more usual presentation of systematized Thomism. This second edition is more readable, adds to the English bibliography, and amends the presentation of the doctrine of analogy, presenting it in a less rigid and over-refined way.--V. G. P.