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Gabriel Sandu [73]G. Sandu [5]
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Gabriel Sandu
University of Helsinki
  1. The Fallacies of the New Theory of Reference.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1995 - Synthese 104 (2):245 - 283.
    The so-called New Theory of Reference (Marcus, Kripke etc.) is inspired by the insight that in modal and intensional contexts quantifiers presuppose nondescriptive unanalyzable identity criteria which do not reduce to any descriptive conditions. From this valid insight the New Theorists fallaciously move to the idea that free singular terms can exhibit a built-in direct reference and that there is even a special class of singular terms (proper names) necessarily exhibiting direct reference. This fallacious move has been encouraged by a (...)
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  2.  52
    On the Logic of Informational Independence and its Applications.Gabriel Sandu - 1993 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (1):29 - 60.
    We shall introduce in this paper a language whose formulas will be interpreted by games of imperfect information. Such games will be defined in the same way as the games for first-order formulas except that the players do not have complete information of the earlier course of the game. Some simple logical properties of these games will be stated together with the relation of such games of imperfect information to higher-order logic. Finally, a set of applications will be outlined.
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  3. Functions and Generality of Logic.Gabriel Sandu, Marco Panza & Hourya Benis-Sinaceur (eds.) - 2015 - Springer Verlag.
    Part I of Frege’s Grundgesetze is devoted to the “exposition [Darlegung]” of his formal system.
     
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  4. Fitch’s Paradox and Ceteris Paribus Modalities.Carlo Proietti & Gabriel Sandu - 2010 - Synthese 173 (1):75-87.
    The paper attempts to give a solution to the Fitch's paradox though the strategy of the reformulation of the paradox in temporal logic, and a notion of knowledge which is a kind of ceteris paribus modality. An analogous solution has been offered in a different context to solve the problem of metaphysical determinism.
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  5.  84
    Aspects of Compositionality.Gabriel Sandu & Jaakko Hintikka - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (1):49-61.
    We introduce several senses of the principle ofcompositionality. We illustrate the difference between them with thehelp of some recent results obtained by Cameron and Hodges oncompositional semantics for languages of imperfect information.
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  6.  17
    Equilibrium Semantics of Languages of Imperfect Information.Merlijn Sevenster & Gabriel Sandu - 2010 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 161 (5):618-631.
    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to independent quantifiers, as originally introduced in Informational independence as a semantic phenomenon by Hintikka and Sandu [9] under the header of independence-friendly languages. Unlike other approaches, which rely heavily on compositional methods, we shall analyze independent quantifiers via equilibriums in strategic games. In this approach, coined equilibrium semantics, the value of an IF sentence on a particular structure is determined by the expected utility of the existential player in any of the (...)
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  7. From Lagrange to Frege: Functions and Expressions.Gabriel Sandu, Marco Panza & Hourya Benis-Sinaceur - 2015 - In Gabriel Sandu, Marco Panza & Hourya Benis-Sinaceur (eds.), Functions and Generality of Logic. Springer Verlag.
    Both Frege's Grundgesetze, and Lagrange's treatises on analytical functions pursue a foundational purpose. Still, the former's program is not only crucially different from the latter's. It also depends on a different idea of what foundation of mathematics should be like . Despite this contrast, the notion of function plays similar roles in their respective programs. The purpose of my paper is emphasising this similarity. In doing it, I hope to contribute to a better understanding of Frege's logicism, especially in relation (...)
     
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  8.  3
    Jaakko Hintikka on Knowledge and Game Theoretical Semantics.Hans van Ditmarsch & Gabriel Sandu (eds.) - 2018 - Springer.
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  9.  13
    Partiality and Games: Propositional Logic.G. Sandu & A. Pietarinen - 2001 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 9 (1):101-121.
    We study partiality in propositional logics containing formulas with either undefined or over-defined truth-values. Undefined values are created by adding a four-place connective W termed transjunction to complete models which, together with the usual Boolean connectives is shown to be functionally complete for all partial functions. Transjunction is seen to be motivated from a game-theoretic perspective, emerging from a two-stage extensive form semantic game of imperfect information between two players. This game-theoretic approach yields an interpretation where partiality is generated as (...)
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  10.  14
    The Skeleton in Frege's Cupboard: The Standard Versus Nonstandard Distinction.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy 89 (6):290.
  11.  76
    The Skeleton in Frege's Cupboard: The Standard Versus Nonstandard Distinction.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy 89 (6):290-315.
  12. Games in Philosophical Logic.Ahti Pietarinen & Gabriel Sandu - 1999 - Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 4:143-174.
  13.  66
    Henkin Quantifiers and the Definability of Truth.Tapani Hyttinen & Gabriel Sandu - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (5):507-527.
    Henkin quantifiers have been introduced in Henkin (1961). Walkoe (1970) studied basic model-theoretical properties of an extension $L_{*}^{1}$ (H) of ordinary first-order languages in which every sentence is a first-order sentence prefixed with a Henkin quantifier. In this paper we consider a generalization of Walkoe's languages: we close $L_{*}^{1}$ (H) with respect to Boolean operations, and obtain the language L¹(H). At the next level, we consider an extension $L_{*}^{2}$ (H) of L¹(H) in which every sentence is an L¹(H)-sentence prefixed with (...)
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  14.  9
    Read on the Liar.Gabriel Sandu - 2011 - Discusiones Filosóficas 12 (19):277 - 290.
  15.  97
    If-Logic and Truth-Definition.Gabriel Sandu - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (2):143-164.
    In this paper we show that first-order languages extended with partially ordered connectives and partially ordered quantifiers define, under a certain interpretation, their own truth-predicate. The interpretation in question is in terms of games of imperfect information. This result is compared with those of Kripke and Feferman.
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  16.  39
    Partially Ordered Connectives.Gabriel Sandu & Jouko Väänänen - 1992 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 38 (1):361-372.
    We show that a coherent theory of partially ordered connectives can be developed along the same line as partially ordered quantification. We estimate the expressive power of various partially ordered connectives and use methods like Ehrenfeucht games and infinitary logic to get various undefinability results.
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  17.  78
    Joint Action and Group Action Made Precise.Gabriel Sandu & Raimo Tuomela - 1995 - Synthese 105 (3):319 - 345.
    The paper argues that there are two main kinds of joint action, direct joint bringing about (or performing) something (expressed in terms of a DO-operator) and jointly seeing to it that something is the case (expressed in terms of a Stit-operator). The former kind of joint action contains conjunctive, disjunctive and sequential action and its central subkinds. While joint seeing to it that something is the case is argued to be necessarily intentional, direct joint performance can also be nonintentional. Actions (...)
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  18.  64
    IF Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics.Gabriel Sandu & Tapani Hyttinen - 2001 - Synthese 126 (1):37-47.
  19.  56
    On the Theory of Anaphora: Dynamic Predicate Logic Vs. Game-Theoretical Semantics. [REVIEW]Gabriel Sandu - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (2):147-174.
  20. A Revolution In Logic?Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1996 - Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 1:169-183.
     
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  21.  46
    Between Proof and Truth.Julien Boyer & Gabriel Sandu - 2012 - Synthese 187 (3):821-832.
    We consider two versions of truth as grounded in verification procedures: Dummett's notion of proof as an effective way to establish the truth of a statement and Hintikka's GTS notion of truth as given by the existence of a winning strategy for the game associated with a statement. Hintikka has argued that the two notions should be effective and that one should thus restrict one's attention to recursive winning strategies. In the context of arithmetic, we show that the two notions (...)
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  22.  39
    Independendly‐Friendly Logic: Dependence and Independence of Quantifiers in Logic.Gabriel Sandu - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (10):691-711.
    Independence‐Friendly logic introduced by Hintikka and Sandu studies patterns of dependence and independence of quantifiers which exceed those found in ordinary first‐order logic. The present survey focuses on the game‐theoretical interpretation of IF‐logic, including connections to solution concepts in classical game theory, but we shall also present its compositional interpretation together with its connections to notions of dependence and dependence between terms.
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  23. What is a Quantifier?Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1994 - Synthese 98 (1):113 - 129.
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  24.  23
    Logic and Linguistics in the Twentieth Century.Alessandro Lenci & Gabriel Sandu - 2008 - In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter begins with a discussion of the three phases of the interaction between logic and linguistics on the nature of universal grammar. It then attempts to reconstruct the dynamics and interactions between these approaches in logic and in linguistic theory, which represent the major landmarks in the quest for the individuation of the universal structure of language.
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  25.  19
    Tarski’s Guilty Secret: Compositionality.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1999 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 6:217-230.
    Tarski has exerted enormous influence not only on the development of mathematical logic, but on twentieth-century philosophy and philosophical analysis. This influence has been twofold, with the two components pulling in a sense in opposite directions. A comparison with the influence of the Vienna Circle provides an instructive vantage point in viewing Tarski’s influence. On the one hand, Tarski has provided powerful tools for logical analysis in philosophy. His first and most important contribution was to show that — and how (...)
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  26. Equilibrium Semantics.Gabriel Sandu & Merlijn Sevenster - forthcoming - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic.
     
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  27.  16
    Signalling in Independence-Friendly Logic.F. Barbero & G. Sandu - 2014 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 22 (4):638-664.
  28.  55
    Uses and Misuses of Frege’s Ideas.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1994 - The Monist 77 (3):278-293.
    Frege has one magnificent achievement to his credit, viz. the creation of modern formal logic. As a philosopher and as a theoretical logician, he was nevertheless as parochial as he was, geographically speaking. Hence Frege’s concepts and problems offer singularly unfortunate starting points for constructive work in the foundations of logic and mathematics. Even if he is right in some of his views, they depend on severely restrictive assumptions that have to be noted and eliminated. These restrictive assumptions have not (...)
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  29.  57
    Deflationism and Arithmetical Truth.Tapani Hyttinen & Gabriel Sandu - 2004 - Dialectica 58 (3):413–426.
  30.  9
    Partially Ordered Connectives and Finite Graphs.Lauri Hella & Gabriel Sandu - 1995 - In M. Krynicki, M. Mostowski & L. Szczerba (eds.), Quantifiers: Logics, Models and Computation. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 79--88.
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  31.  12
    Probabilistic IF Logic.Gabriel Sandu - 2013 - In Kamal Lodaya (ed.), Logic and its Applications. Springer. pp. 69--79.
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  32.  10
    Games and Logic.Gabriel Sandu - 2013 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 8 (1).
    The idea behind these games is to obtain an alternative characterization of logical notions cherished by logicians such as truth in a model, or provability. We offer a quick survey of Hintikka's evaluation games, which offer an alternative notion of truth in a model for first-order langauges. These are win-lose, extensive games of perfect information. We then consider a variation of these games, IF games, which are win-lose extensive games of imperfect information. Both games presuppose that the meaning of the (...)
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  33.  58
    Logic and Semantics in the Twentieth Century.Gabriel Sandu & Tuomo Aho - 2008 - In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press. pp. 562.
    This chapter explores logical semantics, that is, the structural meaning of logical expressions like connectives, quantifiers, and modalities. It focuses on truth-theoretical semantics for formalized languages, a tradition emerging from Carnap's and Tarski's work in the first half of the last century that specifies the meaning of these expressions in terms of the truth-conditions of the sentences in which they occur. It considers Tarski-style definitions of the semantics of a given language in a stronger metalanguage, Tarski's impossibility results, and attempts (...)
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  34.  6
    Entre Logique Et Langage.François Rivenc & Gabriel Sandu - 2009 - Vrin.
    Linguistique et philosophie logique du langage : deux traditions de pensée que bien des choses opposent. La première est plutôt mentaliste, et orientée vers l’étude de la syntaxe; la seconde, plus préoccupée de sémantique, cherche volontiers le sens dans les conditions de vérité des phrases. Ce portrait n’est pas faux, mais il est incomplet : entre logique et linguistique, les relations n’ont pas été, ne sont pas que d’opposition.Dans cet ouvrage, les auteurs proposent une sorte d’histoire conceptuelle des interactions fécondes (...)
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  35. Ramsey and the Notion of Arbitrary Function.Gabriel Sandu - 2005 - In Maria J. Frapolli Sanz (ed.), Continuum Studies in British Philosophy. London, Great Brittain: Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 237-256.
    In his article The Foundations of Mathematics (1925) Ramsey was concerned with the nature of the statements of 'pure mathematics' and the way these statements differ from those in empirical sciences. He thought that the answer given to these questions by Hilbert and the formalist school according to which mathematical statements are meaningless formulas, is unsatisfactory for several reasons, which will not be discussed here. He also expressed serious doubts about the intuitionist program developed by Brouwer and Weyl. It is (...)
     
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  36.  83
    Signalling In Languages With Imperfect Information.Gabriel Sandu - 2001 - Synthese 127 (1):21-34.
    This paper is a short survey of different languages with imperfect information introduced in. The imperfect information concerns both quantifiers and connectives. At the end, I will sketch a connection between these languages and linear logic.
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  37.  28
    If Logic, Game-Theoretical Semantics, and the Philosophy of Science.Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Gabriel Sandu - 2004 - In S. Rahman J. Symons (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Kluwer Academic Publisher. pp. 105--138.
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  38. Some Aspects of Negation in English.Gabriel Sandu - 1994 - Synthese 99 (3):345 - 360.
    I introduce a formal language called the language of informational independence (IL-language, for short) that extends an ordinary first-order language in a natural way. This language is interpreted in terms of semantical games of imperfect information. In this language, one can define two negations: (i) strong or dual negation, and (ii) weak or contradictory negation. The latter negation, unlike the former, can occur only sentence-initially. Then I argue that, to a certain extent, the two negations match the distinction existing in (...)
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  39.  38
    Numerical Quantifiers in Game-Theoretical Semantics.Gyula Klima & Gabriel Sandu - 1990 - Theoria 56 (3):173-192.
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  40.  5
    The Logic of Informational Independence and Finite Models.G. Sandu - 1997 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 5 (1):79-95.
    In this paper we relax the assumption that the logical constants of ordinary first-order logic be linearly ordered. As a consequence, we shall have formulas involving not only partially ordered quantifiers, but also partially ordered connectives. The resulting language, called the language of informational independence will be given an interpretation in terms of games of imperfect information. The II-logic will be seen to have some interesting properties: It is very natural to define in this logic two negations, weak negation as (...)
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  41.  8
    Team Semantics for Interventionist Counterfactuals: Observations vs. Interventions.Fausto Barbero & Gabriel Sandu - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-51.
    Team semantics is a highly general framework for logics which describe dependencies and independencies among variables. Typically, the dependencies considered in this context are properties of sets of configurations or data records. We show how team semantics can be further generalized to support languages for the discussion of interventionist counterfactuals and causal dependencies, such as those that arise in manipulationist theories of causation. We show that the “causal teams” we introduce in the present paper can be used for modelling some (...)
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  42.  45
    Erratum To: Between Proof and Truth.Julien Boyer & Gabriel Sandu - 2012 - Synthese 187 (3):973-974.
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  43. Game-Theoretic Semantics.Jk Gts Hintikka & G. Sandu - 1997 - In Benthem & Meulen (eds.), Handbook of Logic and Language. MIT Press.
  44.  21
    Metaphor and the Varieties of Lexical Meaning.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1990 - Dialectica 44 (1‐2):55-78.
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  45.  19
    Truth and Definite Truth.Tapani Hyttinen & Gabriel Sandu - 2004 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 126 (1-3):49-55.
    In this paper we consider truth as a vague predicate and inquire into the relation between truth and definite truth. We use some tools from modal logic to clarify this distinction, as done in McGee . Finally, we consider the question whether some of the results given by McGee can be transferred to the case in which the underlying logic is stronger than first-order logic. The result will be seen to be negative.
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  46.  13
    Romanian Studies in Philosophy of Science.Ilie Pȃrvu, Gabriel Sandu & Iulian D. Toader (eds.) - 2015 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, vol. 313: Springer.
    This is a collection of studies by contemporary Romanian philosophers of science. As it happens, it ruffled a lot of feathers, to the extent that the book is largely ignored in Romania, although it does quite well internationally, with some really good citations. Check it out!
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  47. What is Logic?Hintikka Jaakko & Gabriel Sandu - 2006 - In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. North Holland. pp. 13--39.
    It is far from clear what is meant by logic or what should be meant by it. It is nevertheless reasonable to identify logic as the study of inferences and inferential relations. The obvious practical use of logic is in any case to help us to reason well, to draw good inferences. And the typical form the theory of any part of logic seems to be a set of rules of inference. This answer already introduces some structure into a discussion (...)
     
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  48.  1
    Functional Anaphora.Justine Jacot & Gabriel Sandu - 2008 - In Cédric Dégremont, Laurent Keiff & Helge Rückert (eds.), Dialogues, Logics and Other Strange Things, Essays in Honour of Shahid Rahman.
    Our aim in this paper is to provide a referential account of functional anaphora within a Skolem functions framework. We will give an interpretation of indefinite NPs as Skolem terms in order to show that the referential link established between an anaphoric pronoun and its antecedent is a descriptive one. Then we will argue that functional anaphora can be understood as a particular kind of E-type pronouns, in the sense that, for a large corpus, the pronoun can be replaced by (...)
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  49.  76
    Stenius on Logical Constants.Markku Keinänen & Gabriel Sandu - 1996 - In Logica Yearbook '96. Praha: pp. 93-106.
    The article presents Erik Stenius' conception of logical constants and compares it with the standard approach.
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  50. History of Logic.Juliette Kennedy & Gabriel Sandu - 2003 - Synthese 137:459-460.
     
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