The standard model of precedential constraint holds that a court is equally free to modify a precedent of its own and a precedent of a superior court—overruling aside, it does not differentiate horizontal and vertical precedents. This paper shows that no model can capture the U.S. doctrine of precedent without making that distinction. A precise model is then developed that does just that. This requires situating precedent cases in a formal representation of a hierarchical legal structure, and adjusting the constraint (...) that a precedent imposes based on the relationship of the precedent court and the instant court. The paper closes with suggestions for further improvements of the model. (shrink)
This paper proposes an aestheticreading of Milan Kundera's L'idenüté. The reconstruction and solidification of the inner dynamics of this work is done from the stand point of existential philosophy, such as it is imprinted and defended by Jean-Paul Sartre's first philosophical book L'etre et le néant and his novel La nausée. It is thus a reading of L'idenüté based upon Sartre's l'etre·pour-autrui, modality that flows from the Czech novelist's own text and -based upon the characters' dialectics- is nailed within the (...) Eirifühlung of a loving relationship marked by the loak. In this context. the A. examines whether the 'Kunderian' characters have paid the cost imposedon them by the (greatest) French existentialist in order to protect their "identity".In other words. whether they have chosen to tum provisionally into that immobile and exterior objectivity into which liberiy, defining them as jor-themselves. has become past and foreign. (shrink)
The Historical Dictionary of Philosophy, the _Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie,_ is distinguished by its particular presentation of philosophical terms, ideas and concepts. Rather than providing mere defintions or descriptive and analytical explanantions the _HWPh_ strictly applies the critical method of history of concepts developed by the eminent German scholar and philosopher Joachim Ritter. By means of precise and detailed references it documents the origin, first occurrence, the historical evolution and the changes of meaning of each concept, from Ancient Greek to (...) contemporary philosophy. For the reader this presentation is of unique value: it makes traceable the importance of terms and concepts at certain periods or for a particular philosopher, as well as its changes and development of meaning. (shrink)
Public acceptance of genetic modification technologies may be essential to their continued development, yet few studies have investigated the manner in which demographic and educational factors predict support for GM research. The current study examined attitudes toward animal research and GM in ~400 university undergraduates enrolled in introductory or upper-level psychology courses with material on animal experimentation. Results revealed that men were more accepting of animal and GM research than were women. Enrollment in upper-level psychology classes that addressed specific topics (...) in animal research did not directly predict support for GM research, but such enrollment was associated with increased endorsement of the validity of animal research, which then contributed to acceptance of GM scenarios. The current findings highlight the impact of educational variables on support for animal research, which may then influence attitudes toward GM research. (shrink)
Kasm does not offer any concept of proof which is regulative for all metaphysics, for he is convinced that each metaphysical approach requires its own proper logic and methodology. Within this pluralistic framework he seeks to discern the structure of formal truth as expressed in the concept of proof inherent in various metaphysical approaches.--L. S. F.
Hans-Georg GADAMER, Hermeneutische Entwürfe. Vorträge und Aufsätze ; Pascal MICHON, Poétique d’une anti-anthropologie: l’herméneutique deGadamer ; Robert J. DOSTAL, The Cambridge Companion to Gadamer ; Denis SERON, Le problème de la métaphysique. Recherches sur l’interprétation heideggerienne de Platon et d’Aristote ; Henry MALDINEY, Ouvrir le rien. L’art nu ; Dominique JANICAUD, Heidegger en France, I. Récit; II. Entretiens ; Maurice MERLEAU-PONTY, Fenomenologia percepţiei ; Trish GLAZEBROOK, Heidegger’s Philosophy of Science ; Richard WOLIN, Heidegger’s Children. Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Hans Jonas (...) and Herbert Marcuse ; Ivo DEGENNARO, Logos – Heidegger liest Heraklit ; O. K. WIEGAND, R. J. DOSTAL, L. EMBREE, J. KOCKELMANS and J. N. MOHANTY, Phenomenology on Kant, German Idealism, Hermeneutics and Logic ; James FAULCONER and Mark WRATHALL, Appropriating Heidegger. (shrink)