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Profile: Gabriel Sandu (University of Helsinki)
  1.  11
    Equilibrium Semantics of Languages of Imperfect Information.Merlijn Sevenster & Gabriel Sandu - 2010 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 161 (5):618-631.
    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to independent quantifiers, as originally introduced in Informational independence as a semantic phenomenon by Hintikka and Sandu [9] under the header of independence-friendly languages. Unlike other approaches, which rely heavily on compositional methods, we shall analyze independent quantifiers via equilibriums in strategic games. In this approach, coined equilibrium semantics, the value of an IF sentence on a particular structure is determined by the expected utility of the existential player in any of the (...)
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  2.  32
    On the Logic of Informational Independence and its Applications.Gabriel Sandu - 1993 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (1):29 - 60.
    We shall introduce in this paper a language whose formulas will be interpreted by games of imperfect information. Such games will be defined in the same way as the games for first-order formulas except that the players do not have complete information of the earlier course of the game. Some simple logical properties of these games will be stated together with the relation of such games of imperfect information to higher-order logic. Finally, a set of applications will be outlined.
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  3. The Fallacies of the New Theory of Reference.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1995 - Synthese 104 (2):245 - 283.
    The so-called New Theory of Reference (Marcus, Kripke etc.) is inspired by the insight that in modal and intensional contexts quantifiers presuppose nondescriptive unanalyzable identity criteria which do not reduce to any descriptive conditions. From this valid insight the New Theorists fallaciously move to the idea that free singular terms can exhibit a built-in direct reference and that there is even a special class of singular terms (proper names) necessarily exhibiting direct reference. This fallacious move has been encouraged by a (...)
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  4.  65
    Aspects of Compositionality.Gabriel Sandu & Jaakko Hintikka - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (1):49-61.
    We introduce several senses of the principle ofcompositionality. We illustrate the difference between them with thehelp of some recent results obtained by Cameron and Hodges oncompositional semantics for languages of imperfect information.
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  5.  11
    Stenius on Logical Constants.Markku Keinänen & Gabriel Sandu - 1996 - In Logica Yearbook '96. Praha: pp. 93-106.
  6. Fitch's Paradox and Ceteris Paribus Modalities.Carlo Proietti & Gabriel Sandu - 2010 - Synthese 173 (1):75 - 87.
    The paper attempts to give a solution to the Fitch’s paradox though the strategy of the reformulation of the paradox in temporal logic, and a notion of knowledge which is a kind of ceteris paribus modality. An analogous solution has been offered in a different context to solve the problem of metaphysical determinism.
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  7.  11
    Equilibrium Semantics.Gabriel Sandu & Merlijn Sevenster - forthcoming - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic.
  8.  19
    Independendly-Friendly Logic: Dependence and Independence of Quantifiers in Logic.Gabriel Sandu - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (10):691-711.
    Independence‐Friendly logic introduced by Hintikka and Sandu studies patterns of dependence and independence of quantifiers which exceed those found in ordinary first‐order logic. The present survey focuses on the game‐theoretical interpretation of IF‐logic, including connections to solution concepts in classical game theory, but we shall also present its compositional interpretation together with its connections to notions of dependence and dependence between terms.
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  9.  56
    Joint Action and Group Action Made Precise.Gabriel Sandu & Raimo Tuomela - 1995 - Synthese 105 (3):319 - 345.
    The paper argues that there are two main kinds of joint action, direct joint bringing about (or performing) something (expressed in terms of a DO-operator) and jointly seeing to it that something is the case (expressed in terms of a Stit-operator). The former kind of joint action contains conjunctive, disjunctive and sequential action and its central subkinds. While joint seeing to it that something is the case is argued to be necessarily intentional, direct joint performance can also be nonintentional. Actions (...)
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  10.  37
    Deflationism and Arithmetical Truth.Tapani Hyttinen & Gabriel Sandu - 2004 - Dialectica 58 (3):413–426.
  11.  37
    On the Theory of Anaphora: Dynamic Predicate Logic Vs. Game-Theoretical Semantics. [REVIEW]Gabriel Sandu - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (2):147-174.
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  12.  33
    Jaakko Hintikka in Memoriam.Gabriel Sandu - 2015 - Theoria 81 (4):289-292.
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  13.  42
    Henkin Quantifiers and the Definability of Truth.Tapani Hyttinen & Gabriel Sandu - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (5):507-527.
    Henkin quantifiers have been introduced in Henkin (1961). Walkoe (1970) studied basic model-theoretical properties of an extension $L_{*}^{1}$ (H) of ordinary first-order languages in which every sentence is a first-order sentence prefixed with a Henkin quantifier. In this paper we consider a generalization of Walkoe's languages: we close $L_{*}^{1}$ (H) with respect to Boolean operations, and obtain the language L¹(H). At the next level, we consider an extension $L_{*}^{2}$ (H) of L¹(H) in which every sentence is an L¹(H)-sentence prefixed with (...)
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  14.  40
    If-Logic and Truth-Definition.Gabriel Sandu - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (2):143-164.
    In this paper we show that first-order languages extended with partially ordered connectives and partially ordered quantifiers define, under a certain interpretation, their own truth-predicate. The interpretation in question is in terms of games of imperfect information. This result is compared with those of Kripke and Feferman.
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  15. A Revolution In Logic?Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1996 - Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 1:169-183.
     
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  16.  12
    Games in Philosophical Logic.Ahti Pietarinen & Gabriel Sandu - 1999 - Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 4:143-174.
  17.  14
    If Logic, Game-Theoretical Semantics, and the Philosophy of Science.Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Gabriel Sandu - 2004 - In S. Rahman J. Symons (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Kluwer Academic Publisher. pp. 105--138.
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  18.  15
    Partially Ordered Connectives.Gabriel Sandu & Jouko Väänänen - 1992 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 38 (1):361-372.
  19.  5
    Partially Ordered Connectives.Gabriel Sandu & Jouko Väänänen - 1992 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 38 (1):361-372.
    We show that a coherent theory of partially ordered connectives can be developed along the same line as partially ordered quantification. We estimate the expressive power of various partially ordered connectives and use methods like Ehrenfeucht games and infinitary logic to get various undefinability results.
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  20.  48
    IF Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics.Gabriel Sandu & Tapani Hyttinen - 2001 - Synthese 126 (1-2):37 - 47.
  21.  89
    What is a Quantifier?Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1994 - Synthese 98 (1):113 - 129.
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  22.  85
    Some Aspects of Negation in English.Gabriel Sandu - 1994 - Synthese 99 (3):345 - 360.
    I introduce a formal language called the language of informational independence (IL-language, for short) that extends an ordinary first-order language in a natural way. This language is interpreted in terms of semantical games of imperfect information. In this language, one can define two negations: (i) strong or dual negation, and (ii) weak or contradictory negation. The latter negation, unlike the former, can occur only sentence-initially. Then I argue that, to a certain extent, the two negations match the distinction existing in (...)
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  23.  35
    What is Logic?Hintikka Jaakko & Gabriel Sandu - 2006 - In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. North Holland. pp. 13--39.
    It is far from clear what is meant by logic or what should be meant by it. It is nevertheless reasonable to identify logic as the study of inferences and inferential relations. The obvious practical use of logic is in any case to help us to reason well, to draw good inferences. And the typical form the theory of any part of logic seems to be a set of rules of inference. This answer already introduces some structure into a discussion (...)
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  24.  12
    Tarski’s Guilty Secret: Compositionality.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1999 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 6:217-230.
    Tarski has exerted enormous influence not only on the development of mathematical logic, but on twentieth-century philosophy and philosophical analysis. This influence has been twofold, with the two components pulling in a sense in opposite directions. A comparison with the influence of the Vienna Circle provides an instructive vantage point in viewing Tarski’s influence. On the one hand, Tarski has provided powerful tools for logical analysis in philosophy. His first and most important contribution was to show that — and how (...)
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  25.  51
    The Skeleton in Frege's Cupboard: The Standard Versus Nonstandard Distinction.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy 89 (6):290-315.
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  26.  82
    Dependence Logic: A New Approach to Independence Friendly Logic – by Jouko Väänänen.Gabriel Sandu - 2009 - Theoria 75 (1):52-64.
  27.  41
    Uses and Misuses of Frege's Ideas.Gabriel Sandu - 1994 - The Monist 77 (3):278-293.
    Frege's achievement as the creator of contemporary logic should not blind us to the limitations of his approach to logic, language and mathematics. Frege accepted the universality of language and its corollaries, the ineffability of semantics, the one-world view of meaning, and the hypostatization of meanings into meaning entities (Sinne). He assumed compositionality and hence overlooked informationally independent quantifiers. His thesis of the ambiguity of words like "is" is unacceptable in the semantics of natural languages. In higher-order logic, he assumed (...)
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  28.  32
    From Lagrange to Frege: Functions and Expressions.Gabriel Sandu, Marco Panza & Hourya Benis-Sinaceur - 2015 - In Gabriel Sandu, Marco Panza & Hourya Benis-Sinaceur (eds.), Functions and Generality of Logic. Springer Verlag.
    Both Frege's Grundgesetze, and Lagrange's treatises on analytical functions pursue a foundational purpose. Still, the former's program is not only crucially different from the latter's. It also depends on a different idea of what foundation of mathematics should be like . Despite this contrast, the notion of function plays similar roles in their respective programs. The purpose of my paper is emphasising this similarity. In doing it, I hope to contribute to a better understanding of Frege's logicism, especially in relation (...)
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  29.  17
    Review Essay.Gabriel Sandu & Jan Woleński - 1994 - Synthese 101 (1):121-127.
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  30.  36
    Between Proof and Truth.Julien Boyer & Gabriel Sandu - 2012 - Synthese 187 (3):821-832.
    We consider two versions of truth as grounded in verification procedures: Dummett's notion of proof as an effective way to establish the truth of a statement and Hintikka's GTS notion of truth as given by the existence of a winning strategy for the game associated with a statement. Hintikka has argued that the two notions should be effective and that one should thus restrict one's attention to recursive winning strategies. In the context of arithmetic, we show that the two notions (...)
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  31.  38
    Minimalism and the Definability of Truth.Gabriel Sandu - 2000 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2000:143-153.
    In this paper I am going to inquire to what extent the main requirements of a minimalist theory of truth and falsity (as formulated, for example, by Horwich and Field) can be consistently implemented in a formal theory. I will discuss several of the existing logical theories of truth, including Tarski-type (un)definability results, Kripke’s partial interpretation of truth and falsity, Barwise and Moss’ theory based upon non-well-founded sets, McGee’s treatment of truth as a vague predicate, and Hintikka’s languages of imperfect (...)
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  32.  32
    Erratum To: Between Proof and Truth.Julien Boyer & Gabriel Sandu - 2012 - Synthese 187 (3):973-974.
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  33.  13
    History of Logic.Juliette Kennedy & Gabriel Sandu - 2003 - Synthese 137:459-460.
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  34.  9
    Fitch’s Paradox and Ceteris Paribus Modalities.Carlo Proietti & Gabriel Sandu - 2010 - Synthese 173 (1):75-87.
    The paper attempts to give a solution to the Fitch's paradox though the strategy of the reformulation of the paradox in temporal logic, and a notion of knowledge which is a kind of ceteris paribus modality. An analogous solution has been offered in a different context to solve the problem of metaphysical determinism.
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  35.  4
    Partially Ordered Connectives and Finite Graphs.Lauri Hella & Gabriel Sandu - 1995 - In M. Krynicki, M. Mostowski & L. Szczerba (eds.), Quantifiers: Logics, Models and Computation. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 79--88.
  36.  1
    The Skeleton in Frege's Cupboard: The Standard Versus Nonstandard Distinction.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy 89 (6):290.
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  37.  28
    Numerical Quantifiers in Game-Theoretical Semantics.Gyula Klima & Gabriel Sandu - 1990 - Theoria 56 (3):173-192.
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  38.  9
    Logic and Semantics in the Twentieth Century.Gabriel Sandu & Tuomo Aho - 2008 - In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press. pp. 562.
    This chapter explores logical semantics, that is, the structural meaning of logical expressions like connectives, quantifiers, and modalities. It focuses on truth-theoretical semantics for formalized languages, a tradition emerging from Carnap's and Tarski's work in the first half of the last century that specifies the meaning of these expressions in terms of the truth-conditions of the sentences in which they occur. It considers Tarski-style definitions of the semantics of a given language in a stronger metalanguage, Tarski's impossibility results, and attempts (...)
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  39.  27
    Signalling in Languages with Imperfect Information.Gabriel Sandu - 2001 - Synthese 127 (1-2):21 - 34.
    This paper is a short survey of different languageswith imperfect information introduced in (Hintikka and Sandu 1989).The imperfect information concerns both quantifiers and connectives.At the end, I will sketch a connection between these languages and linearlogic.
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  40.  7
    Logic in Games, by van Benthem, Johan.Gabriel Sandu - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (3):620-624.
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  41.  24
    Logic and Semantics in the Twentieth Century.Gabriel Sandu - 2009 - In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press. pp. 562.
    A crucial aspect of the revolution that affected logic at the beginning of the twentieth century concerns the severance of its traditional dependence on the form and structure of natural language. Such a breakdown has had enormous consequences not only for the development of formal logic, but also for the opening of new perspectives in the study of language. This peculiar relationship between mathematical logic and language inquiry is best illustrated by Willard V. O. Quine (1961: 1): Mathematicians expedite their (...)
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  42.  7
    Metaphor and the Varieties of Lexical Meaning.Jaakko Hintikka & Gabriel Sandu - 1990 - Dialectica 44 (1‐2):55-78.
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  43. Games of Imperfect Information and and Modal Logic.Gabriel Sandu - unknown
    numbers as in the following example ♦1,1♦1,2 2,3 5,4p We denote the set of formulas of this modal language by M L(k). For each modality type i, there will be an accessibility relation Ri. That is, an k-ary modal structure for the modal propositional language L will have the form..
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  44.  8
    Probabilistic IF Logic.Gabriel Sandu - 2013 - In Kamal Lodaya (ed.), Logic and its Applications. Springer. pp. 69--79.
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  45.  2
    On a Combination of Truth and Probability: Probabilistic Independence-Friendly Logic.Gabriel Sandu - 2015 - In Iulian D. Toader, Gabriel Sandu & Ilie Pȃrvu (eds.), Romanian Studies in Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag.
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  46.  19
    Partially Interpreted Relations and Partially Interpreted Quantifiers.Gabriel Sandu - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):587-601.
    Logics in which a relation R is semantically incomplete in a particular universe E, i.e. the union of the extension of R with its anti-extension does not exhaust the whole universe E, have been studied quite extensively in the last years. (Cf. van Benthem (1985), Blamey (1986), and Langholm (1988), for partial predicate logic; Muskens (1996), for the applications of partial predicates to formal semantics, and Doherty (1996) for applications to modal logic.) This is not so with semantically incomplete generalized (...)
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  47.  3
    Signalling In Languages With Imperfect Information.Gabriel Sandu - 2001 - Synthese 127 (1):21-34.
    This paper is a short survey of different languages with imperfect information introduced in. The imperfect information concerns both quantifiers and connectives. At the end, I will sketch a connection between these languages and linear logic.
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  48.  3
    IF Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics.Gabriel Sandu & Tapani Hyttinen - 2001 - Synthese 126 (1):37-47.
  49. Truth, Deflationism and Correspondence.Gabriel Sandu - unknown
    entities in mathematics There is a line of argument which keeps ontological commitments to the minimum by making use of conservativity results. The argument goes back to Hilbert who set its general frame. Hilbert’s concern was with certain abstract (ideal) entities in mathematics but the argument has been applied without discrimination to avoid ontological commitment to mathematical entities in physics (Field) or to avoid an ontological commitment to substantial properties in the case of truth (Horwich, Field, Williams).
     
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  50. Deflationism and Truth.Gabriel Sandu - unknown
    There is a line of argument which aims to show that certain ontological claims are harmless by making use of conservativity results. The argument goes back to Hilbert who set its general frame. Hilbert’s concern was with certain abstract (ideal) entities in mathematics but the argument has been applied without discrimination to avoid ontological commitment to abstract entities in physics (Field) or to avoid ontological commitment to semantical properties like truth (Shapiro).
     
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