Results for 'Gabriele Stotz'

848 found
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  1.  9
    Wirsching, M.: 1996, Psychosomatische Medizin. Konzepte, Krankheitsbilder, Therapien.Gabriele G. Stotz - 1998 - Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (3):301-302.
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  2. Genetics and Philosophy : An Introduction.Paul Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2013 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    In the past century, nearly all of the biological sciences have been directly affected by discoveries and developments in genetics, a fast-evolving subject with important theoretical dimensions. In this rich and accessible book, Paul Griffiths and Karola Stotz show how the concept of the gene has evolved and diversified across the many fields that make up modern biology. By examining the molecular biology of the 'environment', they situate genetics in the developmental biology of whole organisms, and reveal how the (...)
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  3.  20
    Creatures of the World: Richard Menary : The Extended Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010, 424pp, $40 HB. [REVIEW]Karola Stotz - 2012 - Metascience 21 (2):445-448.
    Creatures of the world Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9539-z Authors Karola Stotz, Department of Philosophy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  4.  78
    Measuring Causal Specificity.Paul E. Griffiths, Arnaud Pocheville, Brett Calcott, Karola Stotz, Hyunju Kim & Rob Knight - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (4):529-555.
    Several authors have argued that causes differ in the degree to which they are ‘specific’ to their effects. Woodward has used this idea to enrich his influential interventionist theory of causal explanation. Here we propose a way to measure causal specificity using tools from information theory. We show that the specificity of a causal variable is not well-defined without a probability distribution over the states of that variable. We demonstrate the tractability and interest of our proposed measure by measuring the (...)
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  5. Human Nature and Cognitive–Developmental Niche Construction.Karola Stotz - 2010 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (4):483-501.
    Recent theories in cognitive science have begun to focus on the active role of organisms in shaping their own environment, and the role of these environmental resources for cognition. Approaches such as situated, embedded, ecological, distributed and particularly extended cognition look beyond ‘what is inside your head’ to the old Gibsonian question of ‘what your head is inside of’ and with which it forms a wider whole—its internal and external cognitive niche. Since these views have been treated as a radical (...)
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  6. Genes in the Postgenomic Era.Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (6):499-521.
    We outline three very different concepts of the gene—instrumental, nominal, and postgenomic. The instrumental gene has a critical role in the construction and interpretation of experiments in which the relationship between genotype and phenotype is explored via hybridization between organisms or directly between nucleic acid molecules. It also plays an important theoretical role in the foundations of disciplines such as quantitative genetics and population genetics. The nominal gene is a critical practical tool, allowing stable communication between bioscientists in a wide (...)
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  7. How Biologists Conceptualize Genes: An Empirical Study.Karola Stotz, Paul E. Griffiths & Rob Knight - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 35 (4):647-673.
    Philosophers and historians of biology have argued that genes are conceptualized differently in different fields of biology and that these differences influence both the conduct of research and the interpretation of research by audiences outside the field in which the research was conducted. In this paper we report the results of a questionnaire study of how genes are conceptualized by biological scientists at the University of Sydney, Australia. The results provide tentative support for some hypotheses about conceptual differences between different (...)
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  8.  48
    Genes: Philosophical Analyses Put to the Test.Karola Stotz & Paul Griffiths - 2004 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 26 (1):5-28.
    This paper describes one complete and one ongoing empirical study in which philosophical analyses of the concept of the gene were operationalized and tested against questionnaire data obtained from working biologists to determine whether and when biologists conceive genes in the ways suggested. These studies throw light on how different gene concepts contribute to biological research. Their aim is not to arrive at one or more correct 'definitions' of the gene, but rather to map out the variation in the gene (...)
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  9.  31
    Molecular Epigenesis: Distributed Specificity as a Break in the Central Dogma.Karola Stotz - 2006 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (4):533 - 548.
    The paper argues against the central dogma and its interpretation by C. Kenneth Waters and Alex Rosenberg. I argue that certain phenomena in the regulation of gene expression provide a break with the central dogma, according to which sequence specificity for a gene product must be template derived. My thesis of 'molecular epigenesis' with its three classes of phenomena, sequence 'activation', 'selection', and 'creation', is exemplified by processes such as transcriptional activation, alternative cis- and trans-splicing, and RNA editing. It argues (...)
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  10. With ‘Genes’ Like That, Who Needs an Environment? Postgenomics’s Argument for the ‘Ontogeny of Information’.Karola Stotz - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):905-917.
    The linear sequence specification of a gene product is not provided by the target DNA sequence alone but by the mechanisms of gene expressions. The main actors of these mechanisms, proteins and functional RNAs, relay environmental information to the genome with important consequences to sequence selection and processing. This `postgenomic' reality has implications for our understandings of development not as predetermined by genes but as an epigenetic process. Critics of genetic determinism have long argued that the activity of `genes' and (...)
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  11. Gene.Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2005 - In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    The historian Raphael Falk has described the gene as a ‘concept in tension’ (Falk 2000) – an idea pulled this way and that by the differing demands of different kinds of biological work. Several authors have suggested that in the light of contemporary molecular biology ‘gene’ is no more than a handy term which acquires a specific meaning only in a specific scientific context in which it occurs. Hence the best way to answer the question ‘what is a gene’, and (...)
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  12.  22
    How Biologists Conceptualize Genes: An Empirical Study.Karola Stotz, Paul E. Griffiths & Rob Knight - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 35 (4):647-673.
    Philosophers and historians of biology have argued that genes are conceptualized differently in different fields of biology and that these differences influence both the conduct of research and the interpretation of research by audiences outside the field in which the research was conducted. In this paper we report the results of a questionnaire study of how genes are conceptualized by biological scientists at the University of Sydney, Australia. The results provide tentative support for some hypotheses about conceptual differences between different (...)
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  13. Biological Information, Causality and Specificity - an Intimate Relationship.Karola Stotz & Paul E. Griffiths - 2017 - In Sara Imari Walker, Paul Davies & George Ellis (eds.), From Matter to Life: Information and Causality. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 366-390.
    In this chapter we examine the relationship between biological information, the key biological concept of specificity, and recent philosophical work on causation. We begin by showing how talk of information in the molecular biosciences grew out of efforts to understand the sources of biological specificity. We then introduce the idea of ‘causal specificity’ from recent work on causation in philosophy, and our own, information theoretic measure of causal specificity. Biological specificity, we argue, is simple the causal specificity of certain biological (...)
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  14. Giuseppe todde E lo statuto.Nicola Gabriele - forthcoming - Annali Della Facoltà di Lettere E Filosofia.
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  15. Experimental Philosophy of Science.Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (3):507–521.
    Experimental philosophy of science gathers empirical data on how key scientific concepts are understood by particular scientific communities. In this paper we briefly describe two recent studies in experimental philosophy of biology, one investigating the concept of the gene, the other the concept of innateness. The use of experimental methods reveals facts about these concepts that would not be accessible using the traditional method of intuitions about possible cases. It also contributes to the study of conceptual change in science, which (...)
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  16. Developmental Systems Theory as a Process Theory.Paul Edmund Griffiths & Karola Stotz - forthcoming - In Daniel J. Nicholson & John Dupre (eds.), Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 00-00.
    Griffiths and Russell D. Gray (1994, 1997, 2001) have argued that the fundamental unit of analysis in developmental systems theory should be a process – the life cycle – and not a set of developmental resources and interactions between those resources. The key concepts of developmental systems theory, epigenesis and developmental dynamics, both also suggest a process view of the units of development. This chapter explores in more depth the features of developmental systems theory that favour treating processes as fundamental (...)
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  17. Genetic, Epigenetic and Exogenetic Information.Karola Stotz & Paul Edmund Griffiths - 2017 - In Richard Joyce (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Evolution and Philosophy. London & New York: Routledge.
    We describe an approach to measuring biological information where ‘information’ is understood in the sense found in Francis Crick’s foundational contributions to molecular biology. Genes contain information in this sense, but so do epigenetic factors, as many biologists have recognized. The term ‘epigenetic’ is ambiguous, and we introduce a distinction between epigenetic and exogenetic inheritance to clarify one aspect of this ambiguity. These three heredity systems play complementary roles in supplying information for development. -/- We then consider the evolutionary significance (...)
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  18.  17
    Extended Evolutionary Psychology: The Importance of Transgenerational Developmental Plasticity.Karola Stotz - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    What kind mechanisms one deems central for the evolutionary process deeply influences one's understanding of the nature of organisms, including cognition. Reversely, adopting a certain approach to the nature of life and cognition and the relationship between them or between the organism and its environment should affect one's view of evolutionary theory. This paper explores this reciprocal relationship in more detail. In particular it argues that the view of living and cognitive systems, especially humans, as deeply integrated beings embedded in (...)
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  19. How the Mind Grows: A Developmental Perspective on the Biology of Cognition.Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2000 - Synthese 122 (1-2):29-51.
    The 'developmental systems' perspective in biology is intended to replace the idea of a genetic program. This new perspective is strongly convergent with recent work in psychology on situated/embodied cognition and on the role of external 'scaffolding' in cognitive development. Cognitive processes, including those which can be explained in evolutionary terms, are not 'inherited' or produced in accordance with an inherited program. Instead, they are constructed in each generation through the interaction of a range of developmental resources. The attractors which (...)
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  20.  44
    Tracking the Shift to 'Postgenomics'.Karola Stotz, Adam Bostanci & Paul E. Griffiths - 2006 - Community Genetics 9 (3).
    Current knowledge about the variety and complexity of the processes that allow regulated gene expression in living organisms calls for a new understanding of genes. A ‘postgenomic’ understanding of genes as entities constituted during genome expression is outlined and illustrated with specific examples that formed part of a survey research instrument developed by two of the authors for an ongoing empirical study of conceptual change in contemporary biology.
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  21. A Developmental Systems Account of Human Nature.Karola Stotz & Paul Edmund Griffiths - 2018 - In Tim Lewens & Elizabeth Hannon (eds.), Why we disagree about human nature. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 00-00.
    It is now widely accepted that a scientifically credible conception of human nature must reject the folkbiological idea of a fixed, inner essence that makes us human. We argue here that to understand human nature is to understand the plastic process of human development and the diversity it produces. Drawing on the framework of developmental systems theory and the idea of developmental niche construction we argue that human nature is not embodied in only one input to development, such as the (...)
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  22.  81
    The Ingredients for a Postgenomic Synthesis of Nature and Nurture.Karola Stotz - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):359 – 381.
    This paper serves as an introduction to the special issue on “Reconciling Nature and Nurture in Behavior and Cognition Research” and sets its agenda to resolve the 'interactionist' dichotomy of nature as the genetic, and stable, factors of development, and nurture as the environmental, and plastic influences. In contrast to this received view it promotes the idea that all traits, no matter how developmentally fixed or universal they seem, contingently develop out of a single-cell state through the interaction of a (...)
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  23.  27
    Epigenetics: Ambiguities and Implications.Karola Stotz & Paul Griffiths - 2016 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 38 (4).
    Everyone has heard of ‘epigenetics’, but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader ‘exogenetic’ systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development and evolution (...)
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  24.  10
    Exploring the Folkbiological Conception of Human Nature.Stefan Linquist, Edouard Machery, Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2011 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 366 (1563):444--453.
    Integrating the study of human diversity into the human evolutionary sciences requires substantial revision of traditional conceptions of a shared human nature. This process may be made more difficult by entrenched, 'folkbiological' modes of thought. Earlier work by the authors suggests that biologically naive subjects hold an implicit theory according to which some traits are expressions of an animal's inner nature while others are imposed by its environment. In this paper, we report further studies that extend and refine our account (...)
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  25.  46
    Intervention, Integration and Translation in Obesity Research: Genetic, Developmental and Metaorganismal Approaches.Maureen O'Malley & Karola Stotz - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:2.
    Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic (...)
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  26.  62
    From Cell-Surface Receptors to Higher Learning: A Whole World of Experience.Karola Stotz & Colin Allen - 2012 - In Philosophy of Behavioral Biology, eds, Katie Plaisance and Thomas Reydon. Boston: Springer. pp. 85-123.
    In the last decade it has become en vogue for cognitive comparative psychologists to study animal behavior in an ‘integrated’ fashion to account for both the ‘innate’ and the ‘acquired’. We will argue that these studies, instead of really integrating the concepts of ‘nature’ and ‘nurture’, rather cement this old dichotomy. They combine empty nativist interpretation of behavior systems with blatantly environmentalist explanations of learning. We identify the main culprit as the failure to take development seriously. While in some areas (...)
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  27.  17
    Syntactic Constraints and Individual Differences in Native and Non-Native Processing of Wh-Movement.Adrienne Johnson, Robert Fiorentino & Alison Gabriele - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  28.  86
    Experimental Philosophy of Biology: Notes From the Field.Karola Stotz - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):233-237.
    I use a recent ‘experimental philosophy’ study of the concept of the gene conducted by myself and collaborators to discuss the broader epistemological framework within which that research was conducted, and to reflect on the relationship between science, history and philosophy of science, and society.Keywords: Experimental philosophy; Biohumanities; Representing Genes Project; Gene concept; Science criticism; Conceptual ecology.
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  29.  86
    Biohumanities: Rethinking the Relationship Between Biosciences, Philosophy and History of Science, and Society.Karola Stotz & Paul E. Griffiths - 2007 - Quarterly Review of Biology 83 (1):37--45.
    We argue that philosophical and historical research can constitute a ‘Biohumanities’ which deepens our understanding of biology itself; engages in constructive 'science criticism'; helps formulate new 'visions of biology'; and facilitates 'critical science communication'. We illustrate these ideas with two recent 'experimental philosophy' studies of the concept of the gene and of the concept of innateness conducted by ourselves and collaborators.
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  30.  22
    A Niche for the Genome.Karola Stotz & Paul Griffiths - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (1):143-157.
    In their considered reviews both Thomas Pradeu and Lindell Bromham introduce important topics not sufficiently covered in our book. Pradeu asks us to enlarge on the epigenetic and ecological context of genes, particularly in the form of symbioses. We use the relationship between eukaryotes and their symbiotic organisms as a welcome opportunity to clarify our concept of the developmental niche, and its relationship to the developmental system. Bromham’s comments reveal that she is primarily interested in identifying macroevolutionary patterns. From her (...)
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  31.  49
    2001 and All That: A Tale of a Third Science.Karola Stotz - unknown
    The paper describes the change from molecular genetics to postgenomic biology. It focuses on phenomena in the regulation of gene expression that provide a break with the central dogma, according to which sequence specificity for a gene product must be template derived. In its place we find what is called here ‘constitutive molecular epigenesis’. Its three classes of phenomena, which I call sequence ‘activation’, ‘selection’ and ‘creation’, are exemplified by processes such as transcriptional activation, alternative cis- and trans-splicing, and RNA (...)
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  32. Dancing in the Dark: Evolutionary Psychology and the Argument From Design.Karola Stotz & Paul E. Griffiths - 2001 - In Steven Scher & Frederick Rauscher (eds.), Evolutionary Psychology: Alternative Approaches. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 135--160.
    The Narrow Evolutionary Psychology Movement represents itself as a major reorientation of the social/behavioral sciences, a group of sciences previously dominated by something called the ‘Standard Social Science Model’. Narrow Evolutionary Psychology alleges that the SSSM treated the mind, and particularly those aspects of the mind that exhibit cultural variation, as devoid of any marks of its evolutionary history. Adherents of Narrow Evolutionary Psychology often suggest that the SSSM owed more to ideology than to evidence. It was the child of (...)
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  33.  39
    Murder on the Development Express: Who Killed Nature/Nurture?: Evelyn Fox Keller: The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture. Duke University Press, 2010.Karola Stotz - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (6):919-929.
    Keller explains the persistence of the nature/nurture debate by a chronic ambiguity in language derived from classical and behavioral genetics. She suggests that the more precise vocabulary of modern molecular genetics may be used to rephrase the underlying questions and hence provide a way out of this controversy. I show that her proposal fits into a long tradition in which other authors have wrestled with the same problem and come to similar conclusions. - Review of 'The mirage of a space (...)
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  34. Scientists’ Concepts of Innateness: Evolution or Attraction?E. Machery, P. Griffiths, S. Linquist & K. Stotz - 2019 - In Richard Samuels & Daniel Wilkenfeld (eds.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 172-201.
  35.  74
    Philosophy in the Trenches: From Naturalized to Experimental Philosophy (of Science).Karola Stotz - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):225-226.
    Recent years have seen the development of an approach both to general philosophy and philosophy of science often referred to as ‘experimental philosophy’ or just ‘X-Phi’. Philosophers often make or presuppose empirical claims about how people would react to hypothetical cases, but their evidence for claims about what ‘we’ would say is usually very limited indeed. Philosophers of science have largely relied on their more or less intimate knowledge of their field of study to draw hypothetical conclusions about the state (...)
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  36.  49
    Production of Subject-Verb Agreement, Tense, Mood, and Negation in Italian Agrammatic Aphasia.Fyndanis Valantis, Semenza Carlo, Capasso Rita, Gandolfi Marialuisa, De Pellegrin Serena, Arcara Giorgio, Burgio Francesca, Maculan Anna, Smania Nicola & Miceli Gabriele - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  37.  7
    Genes: A Philosophical Inquiry. [REVIEW]Karola Stotz - 2004 - Isis 95:172-173.
  38.  40
    The Place of Function in a World of Mechanisms.Peter Godfrey-Smith, Paul E. Griffiths, Huw Price, Werner Callebaut & Karola Stotz - 1997 - Metascience 6 (2):7-31.
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  39.  37
    The Neural Bases of Orthographic Working Memory.Rapp Brenda, Purcell Jeremy, Capasso Rita & Miceli Gabriele - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  40.  52
    More Worry and Less Love?Alan C. Love, Ingo Brigandt, Karola Stotz, Daniel Schweitzer & Alexander Rosenberg - 2008 - Metascience 17 (1):1-26.
    Review symposium of Alexander Rosenberg’s Darwinian Reductionism: Or, How to Stop Worrying and Love Molecular Biology [2006]. -/- Worry carries with it a connotation of false concern, as in ‘your mother is always worried about you’. And yet some worrying, including that of your mother, turns out to be justified. Alexander Rosenberg’s new book is an extended argument intended to assuage false concerns about reductionism and molecular biology while encouraging a loving embrace of the two.
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  41.  40
    Anne A. Latowsky, Emperor of the World: Charlemagne and the Construction of Imperial Authority, 800–1229. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013. Pp. Xiv, 290. $49.95. ISBN: 978-080-145-1485. [REVIEW]Matthew Gabriele - 2014 - Speculum 89 (2):506-507.
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  42.  29
    Charlemagne: The Formation of a European Identity. Rosamond McKitterick.Matthew Gabriele - 2009 - Speculum 84 (3):753-755.
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  43.  27
    White Matter Matters for Grey Areas: A Functional and Structural View of Task Switching Dynamics in Middle-to-Old Age.Baniqued Pauline, Low Kathy, Fletcher Mark, Schneider-Garces Nils, Tan Chin Hong, Zimmerman Benjamin, Gratton Gabriele & Fabiani Monica - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  44. When is a Biological Cause a Source of Information?Karola Stotz & Paul E. Griffiths - manuscript
  45.  36
    Los Informes médico-forenses de Alejandro Korn: Entre crímenes y locuras.Alejandra Gabriele - 2013 - Cuyo 30 (2):00-00.
    El propósito es una lectura de la tercera edición del Facundo como estrategia de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento para la concreción de fines políticos. El estudio se centra en el nuevo escrito que el autor inserta en esta edición: "El Chacho, último caudillo de la montonera de los llanos". Se aborda, desde el campo de la Historia Intelectual, la historicidad del concepto "caudillismo", analizando los usos que hace Sarmiento del término en sus diversos contextos de enunciación. A su vez se propone (...)
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  46.  25
    Tracking Brain Plasticity in Cochlear Implant Patients Using the Event-Related Optical Signal.Tse Chun-Yu, Novak Michael, Tan Chin-Hong, Black Jennifer, Gordon Brian, Maclin Ed, Zimmerman Benjamin, Gratton Gabriele & Fabiani Monica - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  47. Advances in Genomics and Its Conceptual Implications for Development and Evolution-With'Genes' Like That, Who Needs an Environment? Postgenomics's Argument for the'Ontogeny of Information'.Karola Stotz - 2006 - In Borchert (ed.), Philosophy of Science. Macmillan. pp. 73--5.
  48.  24
    A Functional and Structural Network View of Task-Switching Dynamics in Ageing.Baniqued Pauline, Low Kathy, Fletcher Mark, Schneider-Garces Nils, Tan Chin Hong, Zimmerman Benjamin, Gratton Gabriele & Fabiani Monica - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  49.  63
    How (Not) to Be a Reductionist in a Complex Universe.Karola Stotz - unknown
    This paper understands reductionism as a relation between explanations, not theories. It argues that knowledge of the micro-level behavior of the components of systems is necessary, but only combined with a full specification of the contingent context sufficient for a full explanation of systems phenomena. The paper takes seriously fundamental principles independent and transcendent of the laws of quantum mechanics that govern most of real-world phenomena. It will conclude in showing how the recent postgenomic revolution, taking seriously the physical principle (...)
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  50.  11
    Philippe Buc, Holy War, Martyrdom, and Terror: Christianity, Violence, and the West. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015. Pp. Viii, 445. $49.95. ISBN: 978-0-8122-4685-8. [REVIEW]Matthew Gabriele - 2016 - Speculum 91 (4):1077-1078.
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