Results for 'Game Theory, Economics, Social and Behav. Sciences'

991 found
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  1.  11
    Game Theory, Experience, Rationality: Foundations of Social Sciences, Economics and Ethics in honor of John C. Harsanyi.John C. Harsanyi, Werner Leinfellner & Eckehart Köhler - 1998 - Springer Verlag.
    When von Neumann's and Morgenstern's Theory of Games and Economic Behavior appeared in 1944, one thought that a complete theory of strategic social behavior had appeared out of nowhere. However, game theory has, to this very day, remained a fast-growing assemblage of models which have gradually been united in a new social theory - a theory that is far from being completed even after recent advances in game theory, as evidenced by the work of the three (...)
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  2.  16
    Motives and comprehension in a public goods game with induced emotions.Simon Bartke, Steven J. Bosworth, Dennis J. Snower & Gabriele Chierchia - 2019 - Theory and Decision 86 (2):205-238.
    This study analyses the sensitivity of public goods contributions through the lens of psychological motives. We report the results of a public goods experiment in which subjects were induced with the motives of care and anger through autobiographical recall. Subjects’ preferences, beliefs, and perceptions under each motive are compared with those of subjects experiencing a neutral autobiographical recall control condition. We find, but only for those subjects with the highest comprehension of the game, that care elicits significantly higher contributions (...)
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  3. Using game theory in social science A review of Kaushik Basu's Prelude to Political Economy.K. Binmore - 2002 - Journal of Economic Methodology 9 (3):379-383.
    David Hume’s Treatise on Human Nature famously fell `deadborn from the press’ because it was too far ahead of its time. Basu’s book is one of a number published in recent years that suggest we are at last ready to put its precepts into action.1 Modern game theory provides a framework that makes Hume’s insights genuinely applicable, and I totally agree with Basu that this is not only the right way forward, but that it now looks increasingly likely that (...)
     
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  4.  63
    Natural and Artificial Intelligence: A Comparative Analysis of Cognitive Aspects.Francesco Abbate - 2023 - Minds and Machines 33 (4):791-815.
    Moving from a behavioral definition of intelligence, which describes it as the ability to adapt to the surrounding environment and deal effectively with new situations (Anastasi, 1986), this paper explains to what extent the performance obtained by ChatGPT in the linguistic domain can be considered as intelligent behavior and to what extent they cannot. It also explains in what sense the hypothesis of decoupling between cognitive and problem-solving abilities, proposed by Floridi (2017) and Floridi and Chiriatti (2020) should be interpreted. (...)
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  5.  28
    Classification by decomposition: a novel approach to classification of symmetric $$2\times 2$$ games.Mikael Böörs, Tobias Wängberg, Tom Everitt & Marcus Hutter - 2022 - Theory and Decision 93 (3):463-508.
    In this paper, we provide a detailed review of previous classifications of 2 × 2 games and suggest a mathematically simple way to classify the symmetric 2 × 2 games based on a decomposition of the payoff matrix into a cooperative and a zero-sum part. We argue that differences in the interaction between the parts is what makes games interesting in different ways. Our claim is supported by evolutionary computer experiments and findings in previous literature. In addition, we provide a (...)
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  6.  18
    Anthropomorphising Machines and Computerising Minds: The Crosswiring of Languages between Artificial Intelligence and Brain & Cognitive Sciences.Luciano Floridi & Anna C. Nobre - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (1):1-9.
    The article discusses the process of “conceptual borrowing”, according to which, when a new discipline emerges, it develops its technical vocabulary also by appropriating terms from other neighbouring disciplines. The phenomenon is likened to Carl Schmitt’s observation that modern political concepts have theological roots. The authors argue that, through extensive conceptual borrowing, AI has ended up describing computers anthropomorphically, as computational brains with psychological properties, while brain and cognitive sciences have ended up describing brains and minds computationally and informationally, (...)
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  7.  90
    Playing Games with Ais: The Limits of GPT-3 and Similar Large Language Models.Adam Sobieszek & Tadeusz Price - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (2):341-364.
    This article contributes to the debate around the abilities of large language models such as GPT-3, dealing with: firstly, evaluating how well GPT does in the Turing Test, secondly the limits of such models, especially their tendency to generate falsehoods, and thirdly the social consequences of the problems these models have with truth-telling. We start by formalising the recently proposed notion of reversible questions, which Floridi & Chiriatti propose allow one to ‘identify the nature of the source of their (...)
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  8. The Rhetoric and Reality of Anthropomorphism in Artificial Intelligence.David Watson - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (3):417-440.
    Artificial intelligence has historically been conceptualized in anthropomorphic terms. Some algorithms deploy biomimetic designs in a deliberate attempt to effect a sort of digital isomorphism of the human brain. Others leverage more general learning strategies that happen to coincide with popular theories of cognitive science and social epistemology. In this paper, I challenge the anthropomorphic credentials of the neural network algorithm, whose similarities to human cognition I argue are vastly overstated and narrowly construed. I submit that three alternative supervised (...)
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  9.  12
    Socially Structured Games.P. Herings, Gerard Laan & Dolf Talman - 2007 - Theory and Decision 62 (1):1-29.
    We generalize the concept of a cooperative non-transferable utility game by introducing a socially structured game. In a socially structured game every coalition of players can organize themselves according to one or more internal organizations to generate payoffs. Each admissible internal organization on a coalition yields a set of payoffs attainable by the members of this coalition. The strengths of the players within an internal organization depend on the structure of the internal organization and are represented by (...)
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  10.  13
    Decision making under uncertainty: the relation between economic preferences and psychological personality traits.David Schröder & Gail Gilboa Freedman - 2020 - Theory and Decision 89 (1):61-83.
    Both economists and psychologists are interested in understanding decision making under uncertainty. Yet, they rely on different concepts to analyse human behaviour: economists use economic preference parameters rooted in utility theory, while psychologists use personality traits to describe responses to uncertain situations. Using a large sample of university students, this study examines and contrasts five economic preference parameters and six psychological personality traits that are commonly used to study individuals’ attitudes towards uncertainty. A novelty of this paper is including both (...)
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  11.  13
    Care and anger motives in social dilemmas.Patrick Ring, Christoph A. Schütt & Dennis J. Snower - 2023 - Theory and Decision 95 (2):273-308.
    This paper provides evidence for the following novel insights: (1) People’s economic decisions depend on their psychological motives, which are shaped predictably by the social context. (2) In particular, the social context influences people’s other-regarding preferences, their beliefs and their perceptions. (3) The influence of the social context on psychological motives can be measured experimentally by priming two antagonistic motives—care and anger—in one player towards another by means of an observance or a violation of a fairness norm. (...)
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  12.  37
    Philosophy of Science in Practice: Nancy Cartwright and the nature of scientific reasoning.Hsiang-Ke Chao & Julian Reiss (eds.) - 2016 - Cham: Springer International Publishing.
    This volume reflects the ‘philosophy of science in practice’ approach and takes a fresh look at traditional philosophical problems in the context of natural, social, and health research. Inspired by the work of Nancy Cartwright that shows how the practices and apparatuses of science help us to understand science and to build theories in the philosophy of science, this volume critically examines the philosophical concepts of evidence, laws, causation, and models and their roles in the process of scientific reasoning. (...)
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  13.  22
    Continuity postulates and solvability axioms in economic theory and in mathematical psychology: a consolidation of the theory of individual choice.Aniruddha Ghosh, M. Ali Khan & Metin Uyanık - 2022 - Theory and Decision 94 (2):189-210.
    This paper presents four theorems that connect continuity postulates in mathematical economics to solvability axioms in mathematical psychology, and ranks them under alternative supplementary assumptions. Theorem 1 connects notions of continuity (full, separate, Wold, weak Wold, Archimedean, mixture) with those of solvability (restricted, unrestricted) under the completeness and transitivity of a binary relation. Theorem 2 uses the primitive notion of a separately continuous function to answer the question when an analogous property on a relation is fully continuous. Theorem 3 provides (...)
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  14. The Ethics of AI Ethics: An Evaluation of Guidelines.Thilo Hagendorff - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (1):99-120.
    Current advances in research, development and application of artificial intelligence systems have yielded a far-reaching discourse on AI ethics. In consequence, a number of ethics guidelines have been released in recent years. These guidelines comprise normative principles and recommendations aimed to harness the “disruptive” potentials of new AI technologies. Designed as a semi-systematic evaluation, this paper analyzes and compares 22 guidelines, highlighting overlaps but also omissions. As a result, I give a detailed overview of the field of AI ethics. Finally, (...)
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  15.  9
    On the predictions of cumulative prospect theory for third and fourth order risk preferences.Ivan Paya, David A. Peel & Konstantinos Georgalos - 2023 - Theory and Decision 95 (2):337-359.
    In this paper, we analyse higher-order risky choices by the representative cumulative prospect theory (CPT) decision maker from three alternative reference points. These are the status quo, average payout and maxmin. The choice tasks we consider in our analysis include binary risks, and are the ones employed in the experimental literature on higher order risk preferences. We demonstrate that the choices made by the representative subject depend on the reference point. If the reference point is the status quo and the (...)
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  16.  19
    On the economic foundations of decision theory.Aldo Montesano - 2022 - Theory and Decision 93 (3):563-583.
    Economics bases the choice theory on the mental experiment that introduces the choice correspondence, which associates to every set of possible actions the subset of preferred actions. If some conditions are satisfied, then the choice correspondence implies a binary preference ordering on actions and an ordinal utility function. This approach applies both to decisions under certainty and decisions under uncertainty. The preference ordering depends on the consequence of actions. Under certainty, there is only one consequence to every action, while, under (...)
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  17.  33
    Anonymity conditions in social choice theory.Donald E. Campbell & Peter C. Fishburn - 1980 - Theory and Decision 12 (1):21-39.
  18.  42
    “Cognition” and Dynamical Cognitive Science.Luis H. Favela & Jonathan Martin - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (2):331-355.
    Several philosophers have expressed concerns with some recent uses of the term ‘cognition’. Underlying a number of these concerns are claims that cognition is only located in the brain and that no compelling case has been made to use ‘cognition’ in any way other than as a cause of behavior that is representational in nature. These concerns center on two primary misapprehensions: First, that some adherents of dynamical cognitive science think DCS implies the thesis of extended cognition and the rejection (...)
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  19. Explainable AI and Causal Understanding: Counterfactual Approaches Considered.Sam Baron - 2023 - Minds and Machines 33 (2):347-377.
    The counterfactual approach to explainable AI (XAI) seeks to provide understanding of AI systems through the provision of counterfactual explanations. In a recent systematic review, Chou et al. (Inform Fus 81:59–83, 2022) argue that the counterfactual approach does not clearly provide causal understanding. They diagnose the problem in terms of the underlying framework within which the counterfactual approach has been developed. To date, the counterfactual approach has not been developed in concert with the approach for specifying causes developed by Pearl (...)
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  20.  15
    Gamification, Side Effects, and Praise and Blame for Outcomes.Sven Nyholm - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (1):1-21.
    Abstract“Gamification” refers to adding game-like elements to non-game activities so as to encourage participation. Gamification is used in various contexts: apps on phones motivating people to exercise, employers trying to encourage their employees to work harder, social media companies trying to stimulate user engagement, and so on and so forth. Here, I focus on gamification with this property: the game-designer (a company or other organization) creates a “game” in order to encourage the players (the users) (...)
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  21.  22
    States of nature and states of mind: a generalized theory of decision-making.Iain P. Embrey - 2020 - Theory and Decision 88 (1):5-35.
    Canonical economic agents act so as to maximize a single, representative, utility function. However, there is accumulating evidence that heterogeneity in thought processes may be an important determinant of individual behavior. This paper investigates the implications of a vector-valued generalization of the Expected Utility paradigm, which permits agents either to deliberate as per Homo economics, or to act impulsively. This generalized decision theory is applied to explain the crowding-out effect, irrational educational investment decisions, persistent social inequalities, the pervasive influence (...)
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  22.  35
    Utility theory and the Bayesian paradigm.Jordan Howard Sobel - 1989 - Theory and Decision 26 (3):263-293.
    In this paper, a problem for utility theory - that it would have an agent who was compelled to play “Russian Roulette’ with one revolver or another, to pay as much to have a six-shooter with four bullets relieved of one bullet before playing with it, as he would be willing to pay to have a six-shooter with two bullets emptied - is reviewed. A less demanding Bayesian theory is described, that would have an agent maximize expected values of possible (...)
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  23.  6
    Differential marginality, inessential games and convex combinations of values.Zeguang Cui, Erfang Shan & Wenrong Lyu - 2023 - Theory and Decision 96 (3):463-475.
    The principle of differential marginality (Casajus in Theory and Decis 71(2):163-–174) for cooperative games is a very appealing property that requires equal productivity differentials to translate into equal payoff differentials. In this paper we apply this property to axiomatic characterizations of values. We show that differential marginality implies additivity and symmetry under certain conditions. Based on this result, we propose new characterizations of the equal division and the equal surplus division values. Finally, we characterize two classes of convex combinations of (...)
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  24. Rule utilitarianism, rights, obligations and the theory of rational behavior.John C. Harsanyi - 1980 - Theory and Decision 12 (2):115-133.
    The paper first summarizes the author's decision-theoretical model of moral behavior, in order to compare the moral implications of the act-utilitarian and of the rule-utilitarian versions of utilitarian theory. This model is then applied to three voting examples. It is argued that the moral behavior of act-utilitarian individuals will have the nature of a noncooperative game, played in the extensive mode, and involving action-by-action maximization of social utility by each player. In contrast, the moral behavior of rule-utilitarian individuals (...)
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  25.  11
    The better toolbox: experimental methodology in economics and psychology.Daniela Di Cagno, Werner Güth & Giacomo Sillari - 2023 - Mind and Society 22 (1):53-66.
    In experimental economics one can confront a “don’t!”, as in “do not deceive your participants!”, as well as a “do!”, as in “incentivize choice making!”. Neither exists in experimental psychology. Further controversies exist in data collection methods, e.g., play strategy (vector) method in game experiments, and how to guarantee external and internal validity by describing experimental scenarios by field-related vignettes or by abstract, often formal, rules as it is used in decision and game theory. We emphasize that differences (...)
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  26.  23
    On stability of economic networks.Hamid Beladi, Xiao Luo, Reza Oladi & Nicholas S. P. Tay - 2023 - Theory and Decision 94 (4):677-691.
    In the spirit of Von Neumann and Morgenstern (Theory of games and economic behavior, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1944), we introduce a notion of network stability. We study the structure of stable economic networks and their associated stable payoff allocations by analyzing the conditions under which complete networks and star networks (both with desirable property of inclusiveness) are stable. We also address conditions for existence and uniqueness of stable set of networks.
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  27.  28
    Local Explanations via Necessity and Sufficiency: Unifying Theory and Practice.David S. Watson, Limor Gultchin, Ankur Taly & Luciano Floridi - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (1):185-218.
    Necessity and sufficiency are the building blocks of all successful explanations. Yet despite their importance, these notions have been conceptually underdeveloped and inconsistently applied in explainable artificial intelligence, a fast-growing research area that is so far lacking in firm theoretical foundations. In this article, an expanded version of a paper originally presented at the 37th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, we attempt to fill this gap. Building on work in logic, probability, and causality, we establish the central role of (...)
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  28.  20
    Original position arguments and social choice under ignorance.Thijs De Coninck & Frederik Van De Putte - 2022 - Theory and Decision 94 (2):275-298.
    John Rawls famously argued that the Difference Principle would be chosen by any rational agent in the original position. Derek Parfit and Philippe Van Parijs have claimed, contra Rawls, that it is not the Difference Principle which is implied by Rawls’ original position argument, but rather the more refined Lexical Difference Principle. In this paper, we study both principles in the context of social choice under ignorance. First, we present a general format for evaluating original position arguments in this (...)
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  29. Cooperation, psychological game theory, and limitations of rationality in social interaction.Andrew M. Colman - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):139-153.
    Rational choice theory enjoys unprecedented popularity and influence in the behavioral and social sciences, but it generates intractable problems when applied to socially interactive decisions. In individual decisions, instrumental rationality is defined in terms of expected utility maximization. This becomes problematic in interactive decisions, when individuals have only partial control over the outcomes, because expected utility maximization is undefined in the absence of assumptions about how the other participants will behave. Game theory therefore incorporates not only rationality (...)
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  30.  59
    Defining Explanation and Explanatory Depth in XAI.Stefan Buijsman - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (3):563-584.
    Explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) aims to help people understand black box algorithms, particularly of their outputs. But what are these explanations and when is one explanation better than another? The manipulationist definition of explanation from the philosophy of science offers good answers to these questions, holding that an explanation consists of a generalization that shows what happens in counterfactual cases. Furthermore, when it comes to explanatory depth this account holds that a generalization that has more abstract variables, is broader in (...)
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  31.  6
    Epistemology Goes AI: A Study of GPT-3’s Capacity to Generate Consistent and Coherent Ordered Sets of Propositions on a Single-Input-Multiple-Outputs Basis.Marcelo de Araujo, Guilherme de Almeida & José Luiz Nunes - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (1):1-18.
    The more we rely on digital assistants, online search engines, and AI systems to revise our system of beliefs and increase our body of knowledge, the less we are able to resort to some independent criterion, unrelated to further digital tools, in order to asses the epistemic reliability of the outputs delivered by them. This raises some important questions to epistemology in general and pressing questions to applied to epistemology in particular. In this paper, we propose an experimental method for (...)
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  32.  10
    Construal level theory and escalation of commitment.Nick Benschop, Arno L. P. Nuijten, Mark Keil, Kirsten I. M. Rohde, Jong Seok Lee & Harry R. Commandeur - 2020 - Theory and Decision 91 (1):135-151.
    Escalation of commitment causes people to continue a failing course of action. We study the role of construal level in such escalation of commitment. Consistent with the widely held view of construal level as a primed effect, we employed a commonly used prime for manipulating this construct in a laboratory experiment. Our findings revealed that the prime failed to produce statistically significant differences in construal level, which was measured using the Behavior Identification Form. Furthermore, there was no effect of the (...)
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  33.  22
    Free and open source software (FOSS) as a model domain for answering big questions about creativity.Scott Dexter & Aaron Kozbelt - 2013 - Mind and Society 12 (1):113-123.
    In free and open source software (FOSS), computer code is made freely accessible and can be modified by anyone. It is a creative domain with many unique features; the FOSS mode of creativity has also influenced many aspects of contemporary cultural production. In this article we identify a number of fundamental but unresolved general issues in the study of creativity, then examine the potential for the study of FOSS to inform these topics. Archival studies of the genesis of FOSS projects, (...)
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  34.  32
    Using Turn Taking to Mitigate Coordination and Conflict Problems in the Repeated Battle of the Sexes Game.Sau-Him Paul Lau & Vai-Lam Mui - 2008 - Theory and Decision 65 (2):153-183.
    The Battle of the Sexes game, which captures both coordination and conflict problems, has been applied to a wide range of situations. We show that, by reducing distributional conflict and enhancing coordination, turn taking supported by a “turn taking with independent randomizations” strategy allows players to engage in intertemporal sharing of the gain from cooperation. Using this insight, we decompose the benefit from turn taking into conflict-mitigating and coordination-enhancing components. Our analysis suggests that an equilibrium measure of the “degree (...)
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  35.  8
    Coalitional Interval Games for Strategic Games in Which Players Cooperate.Luisa Carpente, Balbina Casas-méndez, Ignacio García-Jurado & Anne Nouweland - 2008 - Theory and Decision 65 (3):253-269.
    We propose a method to associate a coalitional interval game with each strategic game. The method is based on the lower and upper values of finite two-person zero-sum games. Associating with a strategic game a coalitional interval game we avoid having to take either a pessimistic or an optimistic approach to the problem. The paper makes two contributions to the literature: It provides a theoretical foundation for the study of coalitional interval games and it also provides, (...)
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  36.  14
    Towards a Benchmark for Scientific Understanding in Humans and Machines.Kristian Gonzalez Barman, Sascha Caron, Tom Claassen & Henk de Regt - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (1):1-16.
    Scientific understanding is a fundamental goal of science. However, there is currently no good way to measure the scientific understanding of agents, whether these be humans or Artificial Intelligence systems. Without a clear benchmark, it is challenging to evaluate and compare different levels of scientific understanding. In this paper, we propose a framework to create a benchmark for scientific understanding, utilizing tools from philosophy of science. We adopt a behavioral conception of understanding, according to which genuine understanding should be recognized (...)
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  37.  8
    Philosophy of Science in Practice.Hsiang-Ke Chao & Julian Reiss (eds.) - 2017 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    This volume reflects the ‘philosophy of science in practice’ approach and takes a fresh look at traditional philosophical problems in the context of natural, social, and health research. Inspired by the work of Nancy Cartwright that shows how the practices and apparatuses of science help us to understand science and to build theories in the philosophy of science, this volume critically examines the philosophical concepts of evidence, laws, causation, and models and their roles in the process of scientific reasoning. (...)
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  38.  26
    Accountability as a Warrant for Trust: An Experiment on Sanctions and Justifications in a Trust Game.Kaisa Herne, Olli Lappalainen, Maija Setälä & Juha Ylisalo - 2022 - Theory and Decision 93 (4):615-648.
    Accountability is present in many types of social relations; for example, the accountability of elected representatives to voters is the key characteristic of representative democracy. We distinguish between two institutional mechanisms of accountability, i.e., opportunity to punish and requirement of a justification, and examine the separate and combined effects of these mechanisms on individual behavior. For this purpose, we designed a decision-making experiment where subjects engage in a three-player trust game with two senders and one responder. We ask (...)
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  39.  11
    A Genealogical Approach to Algorithmic Bias.Marta Ziosi, David Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (2):1-17.
    The Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAccT) literature tends to focus on bias as a problem that requires ex post solutions (e.g. fairness metrics), rather than addressing the underlying social and technical conditions that (re)produce it. In this article, we propose a complementary strategy that uses genealogy as a constructive, epistemic critique to explain algorithmic bias in terms of the conditions that enable it. We focus on XAI feature attributions (Shapley values) and counterfactual approaches as potential tools to gauge these (...)
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  40.  7
    Axiomatizations of a Class of Equal Surplus Sharing Solutions for TU-Games.René Brink & Yukihiko Funaki - 2009 - Theory and Decision 67 (3):303-340.
    A situation, in which a finite set of players can obtain certain payoffs by cooperation can be described by a cooperative game with transferable utility, or simply a TU-game. A (point-valued) solution for TU-games assigns a payoff distribution to every TU-game. In this article we discuss a class of equal surplus sharing solutions consisting of all convex combinations of the CIS-value, the ENSC-value and the equal division solution. We provide several characterizations of this class of solutions on (...)
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  41.  7
    Buck-passing dumping in a garbage-dumping game.Takaaki Abe - 2022 - Theory and Decision 93 (3):509-533.
    We study stable strategy profiles in a pure exchange game of bads, where each player dumps his or her bads such as garbage onto someone else. Hirai et al. (Mathematical Social Sciences 51(2):162–170, 2006) show that cycle dumping, in which each player follows an ordering and dumps his or her bads onto the next player, is a strong Nash equilibrium and that self-disposal is $$\alpha $$ -stable for some initial distributions of bads. In this paper, we show (...)
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  42. The Role of A Priori Belief in the Design and Analysis of Fault-Tolerant Distributed Systems.Giorgio Cignarale, Ulrich Schmid, Tuomas Tahko & Roman Kuznets - 2023 - Minds and Machines 33 (2):293-319.
    The debate around the notions of a priori knowledge and a posteriori knowledge has proven crucial for the development of many fields in philosophy, such as metaphysics, epistemology, metametaphysics etc. We advocate that the recent debate on the two notions is also fruitful for man-made distributed computing systems and for the epistemic analysis thereof. Following a recently proposed modal and fallibilistic account of a priori knowledge, we elaborate the corresponding concept of a priori belief: We propose a rich taxonomy of (...)
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  43.  8
    A simple non-parametric method for eliciting prospect theory's value function and measuring loss aversion under risk and ambiguity.Pavlo Blavatskyy - 2021 - Theory and Decision 91 (3):403-416.
    Prospect theory emerged as one of the leading descriptive decision theories that can rationalize a large body of behavioral regularities. The methods for eliciting prospect theory parameters, such as its value function and probability weighting, are invaluable tools in decision analysis. This paper presents a new simple method for eliciting prospect theory’s value function without any auxiliary/simplifying parametric assumptions. The method is applicable both to choice under ambiguity (Knightian uncertainty) and risk (when events are characterized by objective probabilities). Our new (...)
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  44.  16
    Contentless Representationalism? A Neglected Option Between Radical Enactivist and Predictive Processing Accounts of Representation.Dionysis Christias - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (1):1-21.
  45.  24
    The Non-theory-driven Character of Computer Simulations and Their Role as Exploratory Strategies.Juan M. Durán - 2023 - Minds and Machines 33 (3):487-505.
    In this article, I focus on the role of computer simulations as exploratory strategies. I begin by establishing the non-theory-driven nature of simulations. This refers to their ability to characterize phenomena without relying on a predefined conceptual framework that is provided by an implemented mathematical model. Drawing on Steinle’s notion of exploratory experimentation and Gelfert’s work on exploratory models, I present three exploratory strategies for computer simulations: (1) starting points and continuation of scientific inquiry, (2) varying the parameters, and (3) (...)
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  46.  10
    Evolutionary Games in Natural, Social, and Virtual Worlds.Daniel Friedman & Barry Sinervo - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Over the last 25 years, evolutionary game theory has grown with theoretical contributions from the disciplines of mathematics, economics, computer science and biology. It is now ripe for applications. In this book, Daniel Friedman---an economist trained in mathematics---and Barry Sinervo---a biologist trained in mathematics---offer the first unified account of evolutionary game theory aimed at applied researchers. They show how to use a single set of tools to build useful models for three different worlds: the natural world studied by (...)
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  47.  25
    On the characterization of weighted simple games.Josep Freixas, Marc Freixas & Sascha Kurz - 2017 - Theory and Decision 83 (4):469-498.
    This paper has a twofold scope. The first one is to clarify and put in evidence the isomorphic character of two theories developed in quite different fields: on one side, threshold logic, on the other side, simple games. One of the main purposes in both theories is to determine when a simple game is representable as a weighted game, which allows a very compact and easily comprehensible representation. Deep results were found in threshold logic in the sixties and (...)
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  48.  9
    Punishing the weakest link - Voluntary sanctions and efficient coordination in the minimum effort game.Fabrice Le Lec, Astrid Matthey & Ondřej Rydval - 2023 - Theory and Decision 95 (3):429-456.
    Using a laboratory experiment, we examine whether voluntary sanctions induce subjects to coordinate more efficiently in a repeated minimum-effort game. While most groups first experience Pareto inferior coordination in a baseline treatment, the level of effort increases substantially once ex post sanctioning opportunities are introduced, that is, when one can assign costly punishment points to other group members to reduce their payoffs. We compare the effect of this voluntary punishment possibility with the effect of ex post costless communication, which (...)
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  49.  51
    Achievable Hierarchies In Voting Games.Jane Friedman, Lynn Mcgrath & Cameron Parker - 2006 - Theory and Decision 61 (4):305-318.
    Previous work by Diffo Lambo and Moulen [Theory and Decision 53, 313–325 (2002)] and Felsenthal and Machover [The Measurement of Voting Power, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited (1998)], shows that all swap preserving measures of voting power are ordinally equivalent on any swap robust simple voting game. Swap preserving measures include the Banzhaf, the Shapley–Shubik and other commonly used measures of a priori voting power. In this paper, we completely characterize the achievable hierarchies for any such measure on a swap (...)
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  50.  9
    Social evaluation functionals with an arbitrary set of alternatives.Juan C. Candeal - 2023 - Theory and Decision 95 (2):255-271.
    This paper explores the concept of a social evaluation functional in the case of an arbitrary set of alternatives. In the first part, a characterization of projective social evaluations functionals is shown whenever the common restricted domain is the set of all bounded utility functions equipped with the supremum norm topology. The result makes a crucial use, among others, of a continuity axiom. In the second part, a comparison meaningful property is introduced for a social evaluation functional (...)
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