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Gary Comstock [34]Gary L. Comstock [8]Gary Lynn Comstock [1]
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Gary Comstock
North Carolina State University
  1. What Do We Need to Know to Know That Animals Are Conscious of What They Know?Gary Comstock - 2019 - Animal Behavior and Cognition 6 (4):289-308.
    In this paper I argue for the following six claims: 1) The problem is that some think metacognition and consciousness are dissociable. 2) The solution is not to revive associationist explanations; 3) …nor is the solution to identify metacognition with Carruthers’ gatekeeping mechanism. 4) The solution is to define conscious metacognition; 5) … devise an empirical test for it in humans; and 6) … apply it to animals.
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  2. Truth or Meaning: Ricoeur Versus Frei on Biblical Narrative.Gary Comstock - 1986 - Journal of Religion 66 (2):117-140.
    Of the theologians and philosophers now writing on biblical narrative, Hans Frei and Paul Ricoeur are probably the most prominent. It is significant that their views converge on important issues. Both are uncomfortable with hermeneutic theories that convert the text into an abstract philosophical system, an ideal typological structure, or a mere occasion for existential decision. Frei and Ricoeur seem knit together in a common enterprise; they appear to be building a single narrative theology. I argue that the appearance of (...)
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  3. Concerning Cattle: Behavioral and Neuroscientific Evidence for Pain, Desire, and Self-Consciousness.Gary Comstock - 2017 - In Anne Barnhill, Mark Budolfson & Tyler Doggett (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 139-169.
    Should people include beef in their diet? This chapter argues that the answer is “no” by reviewing what is known and not known about the presence in cattle of three psychological traits: pain, desire, and self-consciousness. On the basis of behavioral and neuroanatomical evidence, the chapter argues that cattle are sentient beings who have things they want to do in the proximal future, but they are not self-conscious. The piece rebuts three important objections: that cattle have injury information but not (...)
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  4. Ethics and Genetically Modified Foods.Gary Comstock - 2001 - In David M. Kaplan (ed.), The Philosophy of Food. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 122-139.
    Gary Comstock considers whether it is ethically justified to pursue genetically modified (GM) crops and foods. He first considers intrinsic objections to GM crops that allege that the process of making GMOs is objectionable in itself. He argues that there is no justifiable basis for the objections — i.e. GM crops are not intrinsically ethically problematic. He then considers extrinsic objections to GM crops, including objections based on the precautionary principle, which focus on the potential harms that may result from (...)
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  5. The Philosophers' Brief on Chimpanzee Personhood.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, Gillian Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David Pena-Guzman, James Rocha, Bernard Rollin, Jeff Sebo, Adam Shriver & Rebecca Walker - 2018 - Proposed Brief by Amici Curiae Philosophers in Support of the Petitioner-Appelllant Court of Appeals, State of New York,.
    In this brief, we argue that there is a diversity of ways in which humans (Homo sapiens) are ‘persons’ and there are no non-arbitrary conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can include all humans and exclude all nonhuman animals. To do so we describe and assess the four most prominent conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can be found in the rulings concerning Kiko and Tommy, with particular focus on the most recent decision, Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc v Lavery.
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  6.  61
    Bovine Prospection, the Mesocorticolimbic Pathways, and Neuroethics: Is a Cow's Future Like Ours?Gary Comstock - 2020 - In L. Syd M. Johnson, Andrew Fenton & Adam Shriver (eds.), Neuroethics and Nonhuman Animals. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 73-97.
    What can neuroscience tell us, if anything, about the capacities of cows to think about the future? The question is important if having the right to a future requires the ability to think about one’s future. To think about one’s future involves the mental state of prospection, in which we direct our attention to things yet to come. I distinguish several kinds of prospection, identify the behavioral markers of future thinking, and survey what is known about the neuroanatomy of future-directed (...)
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  7. Getting It Together: Psychological Unity and Deflationary Accounts of Animal Metacognition.Gary Comstock & William A. Bauer - 2018 - Acta Analytica 33 (4):431-451.
    Experimenters claim some nonhuman mammals have metacognition. If correct, the results indicate some animal minds are more complex than ordinarily presumed. However, some philosophers argue for a deflationary reading of metacognition experiments, suggesting that the results can be explained in first-order terms. We agree with the deflationary interpretation of the data but we argue that the metacognition research forces the need to recognize a heretofore underappreciated feature in the theory of animal minds, which we call Unity. The disparate mental states (...)
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  8. Genetically Modified Foods: Golden Rice.Kristen Hessler, Ross Whetten, Carol Loopstra, Sharon Shriver, Karen Pesaresi Penner, Robert Zeigler, Jacqueline Fletcher, Melanie Torre & Gary Comstock - 2010 - In Gary Comstock (ed.), Life Science Ethics, 2nd. ed. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 387-397.
  9. Harming Some to Enhance Others.Gary Comstock - 2015 - In Simon Bateman, Jean Gayon, Sylvie Allouche, Jerome Goffette & Michela Marzano (eds.), Inquiring into Animal Enhancement. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 49-78.
    Let us call the deliberate modification of an individual’s genome to improve it or its progeny intentional genetic enhancement. Governments are almost certain to require that any proposed intentional genetic enhancement of a human (IGEH) be tested first on (what researchers call) animal “models.” Intentional genetic enhancement of animals (IGEA), then, is an ambiguous concept because it could mean one of two very different things: an enhancement made for the sake of the animal’s own welfare, or an enhancement made for (...)
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  10. Far-Persons.Gary Comstock - 2017 - In Andrew Woodhall & Gabriel Garmendia da Trindade (eds.), Ethical and Political Approaches to Nonhuman Animal Issues. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 39-71.
    I argue for the moral relevance of a category of individuals I characterize as far-persons. Following Gary Varner, I distinguish near-persons, animals with a " robust autonoetic consciousness " but lacking an adult human's " biographical sense of self, " from the merely sentient, those animals living "entirely in the present." I note the possibility of a third class. Far-persons lack a biographical sense of self, possess a weak autonoetic consciousness, and are able to travel mentally through time a distance (...)
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  11. Do Machines Have Prima Facie Duties?Gary Comstock - 2015 - In Machine Medical Ethics. London: Springer. pp. 79-92.
    A properly programmed artificially intelligent agent may eventually have one duty, the duty to satisfice expected welfare. We explain this claim and defend it against objections.
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  12. Chimpanzee Rights: The Philosophers' Brief.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, G. K. D. Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David M. Pena-Guzman & Jeff Sebo - 2018 - London: Routledge.
    In December 2013, the Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP) filed a petition for a common law writ of habeas corpus in the New York State Supreme Court on behalf of Tommy, a chimpanzee living alone in a cage in a shed in rural New York (Barlow, 2017). Under animal welfare laws, Tommy’s owners, the Laverys, were doing nothing illegal by keeping him in those conditions. Nonetheless, the NhRP argued that given the cognitive, social, and emotional capacities of chimpanzees, Tommy’s confinement constituted (...)
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  13.  52
    The Cattle in the Long Cedar Springs Draw.Gary Comstock - 2019 - In Nandita Batra & Mario Wenning (eds.), The Human–Animal Boundary Exploring the Line in Philosophy and Fiction. Lanham: Lexington Books. pp. 97-114.
    The argument for vegetarianism from overlapping species goes like this. Every individual who is the subject of a life has a right to life. Some humans—e.g., the severely congenitally cognitively limited—lack language, rationality, autonomy, and self-consciousness, and yet they are subjects of a life. Severely congenitally cognitively limited humans have a right to life. Some animals—e.g., all mammals—lack language, rationality, autonomy, and self-consciousness, and yet they are subjects of a life. We ought to treat like cases alike. The cases of (...)
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  14. Nonhuman Self-Investment Value.Gary Comstock - manuscript
    Guardians of companion animals killed wrongfully in the U.S. historically receive compensatory judgments reflecting the animal’s economic value. As animals are property in torts law, this value typically is the animal’s fair market value—which is often zero. But this is only the animal’s value, as it were, to a stranger and, in light of the fact that many guardians value their animals at rates far in excess of fair market value, legislatures and courts have begun to recognize a second value, (...)
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  15.  87
    You Should Not Have Let Your Baby Die.Gary Comstock - 2017 July 12 - New York Times.
    Sam, your newborn son, has been suffocating in your arms for the past 15 minutes. You’re as certain as you can be that he is going to die in the next 15.
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  16.  82
    La Mettrie's Objection: Humans Act Like Animals.Gary Comstock - 2016 - In Gary Comstock & Mylan Engel Jr (eds.), The Moral Rights of Animals. Lanham, MD: Lexington. pp. 175-198.
    A common view of nonhuman animals is that they lack rights because they lack conscious control over themselves. Two thoughts put pressure on this view. First, we recognize the rights of radically cognitively limited humans even though they lack conscious control over themselves. So it would seem mere prejudice to deny rights to nonhuman mammals on the grounds that animals lack autonomy. Tom Regan has been the most eloquent, powerful, and resolute defender of this thought. Second, evidence is growing that (...)
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  17.  34
    Review of Dale Jamieson, "Morality's Progress: Essays on Humans, Other Animals, and the Rest of Nature". [REVIEW]Gary L. Comstock - 2005 - Philosophical Review 114 (3):416-419.
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  18.  97
    The Case Against bGH.Gary Comstock - 1988 - Agriculture and Human Values 5 (3):36-52.
    In the voluminous literature on the subject of bovine growth hormone (bGH) we have yet to find an attempt to frame the issue in specifically moral terms or to address systematically its ethical implications. I argue that there are two moral objections to the technology: its treatment of animals, and its dislocating effects on farmers. There are agricultural biotechnologies that deserve funding and support. bGH is not one of them.
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  19. The Moral Irrelevance of Autonomy.Gary Comstock - 1992 - Between the Species 8 (1):4.
  20.  18
    Review of Gary Varner, Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two-Level Utilitarianism. [REVIEW]Gary Comstock - 2013 - Environmental Values 22 (3):417-420.
    With his 1998 book, In Nature’s Interests? Gary Varner proved to be one of our most original and trenchant of environmental ethicists. Here, in the first of a promised two volume set, he makes his mark on another field, animal ethics, leaving an even deeper imprint. Thoroughly grounded in the relevant philosophical and scientific literatures, Varner is as precise in analysis as he is wide-ranging in scope. His writing is clear and rigorous, and he explains philosophical nuances with extraordinary economy (...)
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  21.  17
    Genetically Engineered Herbicide Resistance, Part One.Gary Comstock - 1989 - Journal of Agricultural Ethics 2 (4):263-306.
  22. Life Science Ethics, 2nd Ed.Gary Comstock (ed.) - 2010 - Dordrecht: Springer.
    This second edition of Life Science Ethics includes four essays not found in the first edition: -/- Richard Haynes on “Animals in Research” Stephen M. Gardiner on “Climate Change” Christopher Kelty on “Nanotechnology” Gary Comstock on “Genetically Modified Foods” -/- and a revised and expanded version of the chapter on “Farms” in which Stephen Carpenter joins Charles Taliaferro as author. -/- In addition, Part III has been thoroughly revised with the goal of focusing attention on salient examples. Three new case (...)
     
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  23.  48
    Pigs and Piety: A Theocentric Perspective on Food Animals.Gary Comstock - 1992 - Between the Species 8 (3):3.
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  24.  38
    Introduction.Gary Comstock - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):1-6.
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  25.  23
    Intuitive Level System Rules: Commentary on “Utilitarianism and the Evolution of Ecological Ethics”.Gary Comstock - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):575-579.
  26.  30
    Should We Genetically Engineer Hogs?Gary Comstock - 1992 - Between the Species 8 (4):5.
    The paper argues that we should not genetically engineer hogs to suit the preferences of farmers and consumers.
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  27.  20
    Genetically Engineered Herbicide Resistance, Part Two.Gary Comstock - 1990 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 3 (2):114-146.
    Should we continue to support publicly funded research on genetically engineered herbicide resistant crops? In Part One, I discussed the difference between science and ethics, presented a brief history of weed control, and explained three moral principles undergirding my environmentalist perspective. I then argued that unqualified endorsement (E) of the research is unjustified, as is unqualified opposition (O). In Part Two, I argue against qualified endorsement (QE), and for qualified opposition (QO).
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  28.  26
    Ethical and Environmental Considerations in the Release of Herbicide Resistant Crops.Jack Dekker & Gary Comstock - 1992 - Agriculture and Human Values 9 (3):31-43.
    Recent advances in molecular genetics, plant physiology, and biochemistry have opened up the new biotechnology of herbicide resistant crops (HRCs). Herbicide resistant crops have been characterized as the solution for many environmental problems associated with modern crop production, being described as powerful tools for farmers that may increase production options. We are concerned that these releases are occurring in the absence of forethought about their impact on agroecosystems, the broader landscape, and the rural and urban economies and cultures. Many of (...)
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  29.  12
    Introduction.Gary L. Comstock - 1995 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8 (2):95-97.
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  30.  12
    Introduction.Gary Comstock - 1991 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4 (2):101-107.
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  31.  36
    Is Postmodern Religious Dialogue Possible?Gary L. Comstock - 1989 - Faith and Philosophy 6 (2):189-197.
    Not long ago, interreligious conversations were regulated by the ideals of truth, goodness, and beauty. We are suspicious of these noble sounding ideals today. In a world of liberation theology, feminist criticism, and the hermeneutics of suspicion, can there be any new, “postmodern,” rules to govern our religious dialogues? Not able to consult any general theory, or “metanarrative,” in order to provide the answer, I simply tell the story of the only postmodern Catholic I have ever known. On the basis (...)
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  32.  20
    Do Agriculturalists Need a New, an Ecocentric, Ethic? 1994 Presidential Address to the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society.Gary L. Comstock - 1995 - Agriculture and Human Values 12 (1):2-16.
    In 1973, Richard Sylvan began his seminal essay, "Do We Need a New, an Environmental Ethic?" with these words: "It is increasingly said that ... Western civilization ... stands in need of a new ethic ... setting out people's relations to the natural environment." In the intervening years, it has increasingly been said that Western civilization is in need of ecocentrism, an ethic according to which a thing's value is derived from its contribution to the integrity, stability, and beauty of (...)
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  33.  27
    The Costs and Benefits of bGH May Not Be Distributed Fairly.Gary Comstock - 1991 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4 (2):121-130.
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  34.  28
    The Truth of Religious Narratives.Gary L. Comstock - 1993 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 34 (3):131 - 150.
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  35.  3
    Truth or Meaning: Ricoeur Versus Frei on Biblical Narrative.Gary L. Comstock - 1989 - Hts Theological Studies 45 (4).
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  36.  4
    Response to Lynch.Gary Comstock - 2002 - Between the Species 13 (2):5.
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  37.  4
    Response: The Rights of Animals and Family Farmers.Gary Comstock - 1991 - Between the Species 7 (3):10.
  38.  2
    Everything Depends on the Type of the Concepts That the Interpretation is Made to Convey: Max Kadushin Among the Narrative Theologians.Gary L. Comstock - 1989 - Modern Theology 5 (3):215-237.
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  39. An Extensionist Environmental Ethic.Gary Comstock - 1995 - Biodiversity and Conservation 4 (8):827-837.
    Environmental ethics consists of a set of competing theories about whether human actions and attitudes to nature are morally right or wrong. Ecocentrists are holists whose theory locates the primary site of value in biological communities or ecosystems and who tend to regard actions interfering with the progress of an ecosystem toward its mature equilibrium state as prima facie wrong. I suggest that this form of ecocentrism may be built on a questionable scientific foundation, organismic ecology, and that a better (...)
     
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  40. Ethics and Agricultural Biotechnology: More Opposing Viewpoints, Introduction.Gary L. Comstock - 1995 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8 (2):95-97.
     
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  41. Machine Medical Ethics.Gary Comstock - 2015 - Springer.
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  42.  1
    Religious Autobiographies.Gary Comstock (ed.) - 1994, 2003 - Boston: Cengage.
  43. The Moral Rights of Animals.Mylan Engel & Gary Lynn Comstock (eds.) - 2016 - Lanham, MD: Lexington.
    This volume brings together essays by seminal figures and rising stars in the fields of animal ethics and moral theory to analyze and evaluate the moral status of non-human animals, with a special focus on the question of whether or not animals have moral rights. Though wide-ranging in many ways, these fourteen original essays and one reprinted essay direct significant attention to both the main arguments for animal rights and the biggest challenges to animal rights. This volume explores the question (...)
     
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