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Gary Varner [19]Gary E. Varner [14]Gary Edward Varner [1]
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Gary Varner
Texas A&M University
  1. Prolegomena to Any Future Artificial Moral Agent.Colin Allen & Gary Varner - 2000 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 12 (3):251--261.
    As arti® cial intelligence moves ever closer to the goal of producing fully autonomous agents, the question of how to design and implement an arti® cial moral agent (AMA) becomes increasingly pressing. Robots possessing autonomous capacities to do things that are useful to humans will also have the capacity to do things that are harmful to humans and other sentient beings. Theoretical challenges to developing arti® cial moral agents result both from controversies among ethicists about moral theory itself, and from (...)
     
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  2. In Nature’s Interests: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics.Gary E. Varner - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
    This book offers a powerful response to what Varner calls the "two dogmas of environmental ethics"--the assumptions that animal rights philosophies and anthropocentric views are each antithetical to sound environmental policy. Allowing that every living organism has interests which ought, other things being equal, to be protected, Varner contends that some interests take priority over others. He defends both a sentientist principle giving priority to the lives of organisms with conscious desires and an anthropocentric principle giving priority to certain very (...)
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  3.  39
    Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two Level Utilitarianism.Gary E. Varner - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    Drawing heavily on recent empirical research to update R.M. Hare's two-level utilitarianism and expand Hare's treatment of "intuitive level rules," Gary Varner considers in detail the theory's application to animals while arguing that Hare should have recognized a hierarchy of persons, near-persons, & the merely sentient.
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  4.  11
    An Overview of Engineering Approaches to Improving Agricultural Animal Welfare.Candace Croney, William Muir, Ji-Qin Ni, Nicole Olynk Widmar & Gary Varner - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):143-159.
    In this essay, we provide an overview of how production systems can be re-engineered to improve the welfare of the animals involved. At least three potential options exist: engineering their environments to better fit the animals, engineering the animals themselves to better fit their environments, and eliminating the animals from the system by growing meat in vitro rather than on farms. The morality of consuming animal products and the conditions under which agricultural animals are maintained remain highly contentious, and when (...)
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  5.  66
    In Defense of the Vegan Ideal: Rhetoric and Bias in the Nutrition Literature. [REVIEW]Gary E. Varner - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):29-40.
    Much of the scientific literature on vegetarian nutrition leaves one with the impression that vegan diets are significantly more risky than omnivorous ones, especially for individuals with high metabolic demands (such as pregnant or lactating women and children). But nutrition researchers have tended to skew their study populations toward new vegetarians, members of religious sects with especially restrictive diets and tendencies to eschew fortified foods and medical care, and these are arguably the last people we would expect to thrive on (...)
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  6.  38
    No Holism Without Pluralism.Gary E. Varner - 1991 - Environmental Ethics 13 (2):175-179.
    In his recent essay on moral pluralism in environmental ethics, J. Baird Callicott exaggerates the advantages of monism, ignoring the environmentally unsound implications of Leopold’s holism. In addition, he fails to see that Leopold’s view requires the same kind of intellectual schitzophrenia for which he criticizes the version of moral pluralism advocated by Christopher D. Stone in Earth and Other Ethics. If itis plausible to say that holistic entities like ecosystems are directly morally considerable-and that is a very big if-it (...)
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  7.  60
    Utilitarianism and the Evolution of Ecological Ethics.Gary Varner - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):551-573.
    R.M. Hare’s two-level utilitarianism provides a useful framework for understanding the evolution of codes of professional ethics. From a Harean perspective, the codes reflect both the fact that members of various professions face special kinds of ethically charged situations in the normal course of their work, and the need for people in special roles to acquire various habits of thought and action. This highlights the role of virtue in professional ethics and provides guidance to professional societies when considering modifications to (...)
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  8.  84
    Biological Functions and Biological Interests.Gary E. Varner - 1990 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (2):251-270.
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  9.  22
    The Prospects for Consensus and Convergence in the Animal Rights Debate.Gary E. Varner - 1994 - Hastings Center Report 24 (1):24-28.
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  10. Rejoinder to Kathryn Paxton George.Gary E. Varner - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):83-86.
    In Use and Abuse Revisited: Response to Pluhar and Varner, Kathryn Paxton George misunderstands the point of my essay, In Defense of the Vegan Ideal: Rhetoric and Bias in the Nutrition Literature. I did not claim that the nutrition literature unambiguously confirms that vegans are not at significantly greater risk of deficiencies than omnivores. Rather than settling any empirical controversy, my aim was to show how the literature can give the casual reader a skewed impression of what is known about (...)
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  11.  11
    Precis of defending biodiversity.Stefan Linquist, Gary Varner & Jonathan E. Newman - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-4.
    Why should governments or individuals invest time and resources in conserving biodiversity? A popular answer is that biodiversity has both instrumental value for humans and intrinsic value in its own right. Defending Biodiversity critically evaluates familiar arguments for these claims and finds that, at best, they provide good reasons for conserving particular species or regions. However, they fail to provide a strong justification for conserving biodiversity per se. Hence, either environmentalists must develop more compelling arguments for conserving biodiversity or else (...)
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  12. What's Wrong with Animalby-Products?Gary E. Varner - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):7-17.
    Without looking beyond the conditions under which laying hens typically live in the contemporary U.S. egg industry, we can understand why the production and consumption of factory farmed eggs could be judged immoral. However, the question, What (if anything) is wrong with animal by-products? cannot always be adequately answered by looking at the conditions under which animals live out their productive lives. For the dairy industry looks benign in those terms, but if we look beyond the conditions under which milk (...)
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  13.  84
    Do Fish Feel Pain?Gary Varner - 2011 - Environmental Ethics 33 (2):219-222.
  14.  55
    Speciesism and Reverse Speciesism.Gary Varner - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (2):171 - 173.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 171-173, June 2011.
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  15.  31
    Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management.Gary Varner - 2007 - Environmental Ethics 29 (3):307-312.
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  16. Personhood, Memory, and Elephant Management.Gary Varner - 2008 - In Christen M. Wemmer & Catherine A. Christen (eds.), Elephants and Ethics: Toward a Morality of Coexistence. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  17.  17
    Congress, Consistency, and Environmental Law.John Lemons, Donald A. Brown & Gary E. Varner - 1990 - Environmental Ethics 12 (4):311-327.
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  18.  2
    Response to Millstein.Gary Varner - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-8.
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  19. Persons, Near-Persons, and the Merely Sentient: An Empirically Grounded Approach to Animal Welfare Ethics.Gary Varner - manuscript
     
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  20.  32
    The Animal Rights/Environmental Ethics Debate: The Environmental Perspective.Gary E. Varner - 1993 - Environmental Ethics 15 (3):279-282.
  21.  27
    A Wolf in the Garden: The Land Rights Movement and the New Environmental Debate.Gary E. Varner - 1998 - Environmental Ethics 20 (4):441-443.
  22.  27
    Life’s Intrinsic Value.Gary Varner - 2003 - Environmental Ethics 25 (4):413-416.
  23. John O'Neill, Ecology, Policy and Politics: Human Well-Being and the Natural World Reviewed By.Gary Varner - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15 (4):271-273.
     
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  24.  11
    Overtapped Oasis.Gary E. Varner - 1992 - Environmental Ethics 14 (1):93-94.
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  25.  4
    Introduction to the Special Edition on Engineering and Animal Ethics.Clare Palmer & Gary Varner - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):137-142.
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  26.  5
    Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management. [REVIEW]Gary Varner - 2007 - Environmental Ethics 29 (3):307-312.
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  27.  7
    Overtapped Oasis: Reform or Revolution for Western Water.Gary E. Varner - 1992 - Environmental Ethics 14 (1):93-94.
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  28.  6
    "Species, Individuals, and Domestication: A Commentary on Jane Duran's" Domesticated and Then Some".Gary E. Varner - 1990 - Between the Species 6 (4):9.
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  29.  8
    Review of Jean Kazez, Animalkind: What We Owe to Animals[REVIEW]Gary Varner - 2010 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (10).
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  30.  3
    Life’s Intrinsic Value. [REVIEW]Gary Varner - 2003 - Environmental Ethics 25 (4):413-416.
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  31. Varner, Gary E. "Do Species Have Standing?" Environmental Ethics 9 (1987): Pp. 57-72.Gary Varner - manuscript
    In his recent article Should Trees Have Standing? Revisited" Christopher D. Stone has effectively withdrawn his proposal that natural objects be granted legal rights, in response to criticism from the Feinberg/McCloskey camp. Stone now favors a weaker proposal that natural objects be granted what he calls legal "considerateness". I argue that Stone's retreat is both unnecessary and undesirable. I develop the notion of a "de facto" legal right and argue that species already have de facto legal rights as statutory beneficiaries (...)
     
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  32. Environmental Ethics for Environmentalists.Gary Varner & Jonathan Newman - manuscript
     
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  33. Teaching Environmental Ethics as a Method of Conflict Management.Gary Varner, S. J. Gilbertz & Tarla Rai Peterson - 1996 - In Andrew Light & Eric Katz (eds.), Environmental Pragmatism. Routledge.
     
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