Results for 'Gene Forester'

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  1.  13
    Choice Reaction Time As a Function of Stimulus Uncertainty, Response Uncertainty, and Behavioral Hypotheses.Ira H. Bernstein, Donald L. Schurman & Gene Forester - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (4, Pt.1):517-524.
  2.  21
    Adaptive Regeneration Across Scales: Replicators and Interactors From Limbs to Forests.S. Andrew Inkpen & W. Ford Doolittle - 2021 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 13:1-14.
    Here we endorse Hull’s replicator/interactor framework as providing the overarching understanding sought by MacCord and Maienschein. We suggest that difficulties in seeing the regeneration of limbs by salamanders and of forest ecosystems after fires as similar evolutionary processes can be overcome in this framework. In generalizing Dawkins’s “selfish gene” perspective, Hull defined natural selection as “a process in which the differential extinction and proliferation of interactors causes the differential perpetuation of the replicators that produced them”. Although genes and bacteria (...)
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  3.  40
    Integrating Science and Society Through Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research.Christopher B. Anderson, Gene E. Likens, Ricardo Rozzi, Julio R. Gutiérrez & Juan J. Armesto - 2008 - Environmental Ethics 30 (3):295-312.
    Long-term ecological research (LTER), addressing problems that encompass decadal or longer time frames, began as a formal term and program in the United States in 1980. While long-term ecological studies and observation began as early as the 1400s and 1800s in Asia and Europe, respectively, the long-term approach was not formalized until the establishment of the U.S. long-term ecological research programs. These programs permitted ecosystem-level experiments and cross-site comparisons that led to insights into the biosphere’s structure and function. The holistic (...)
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  4.  7
    Integrating Science and Society Through Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research.Christopher B. Anderson, Gene E. Likens, Ricardo Rozzi, Julio R. Gutiérrez, Juan J. Armesto & Alexandria Poole - 2008 - Environmental Ethics 30 (3):295-312.
    Long-term ecological research, addressing problems that encompass decadal or longer time frames, began as a formal term and program in the United States in 1980. While long-term ecological studies and observation began as early as the 1400s and 1800s in Asia and Europe, respectively, the long-term approach was not formalized until the establishment of the U.S. long-term ecological research programs. These programs permitted ecosystem-level experiments and cross-site comparisons that led to insights into the biosphere’s structure and function. The holistic ecosystem (...)
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  5.  25
    Moral Origins. [REVIEW]Nicolas Delon - 2012 - Metapsychology Online Reviews 16 (36).
    In this fascinating, accessible book, anthropologist Christopher Boehm, Professor at the University of Southern California and author of Hierarchy in the Forest (Harvard University Press, 1999) makes an important contribution to the growing body of scientific literature on the evolution of morality. Attempting to answer one of Darwin's chief problems -- i.e. an account, consistent with natural selection, of how altruistic genes were selected -- Boehm paints a Darwinistic yet historically and ethnographically informed picture of how we became the moral (...)
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  6.  75
    Human Brain Evolution and the "Neuroevolutionary Time-Depth Principle:" Implications for the Reclassification of Fear-Circuitry-Related Traits in Dsm-V and for Studying Resilience to Warzone-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.Dr H. Stefan Bracha - 2006 - Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 30:827-853.
    The DSM-III, DSM-IV, DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 have judiciously minimized discussion of etiologies to distance clinical psychiatry from Freudian psychoanalysis. With this goal mostly achieved, discussion of etiological factors should be reintroduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A research agenda for the DSM-V advocated the "development of a pathophysiologically based classification system". The author critically reviews the neuroevolutionary literature on stress-induced and fear circuitry disorders and related amygdala-driven, species-atypical fear behaviors of clinical severity in adult (...)
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  7.  14
    Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in Staphylococcus aureus.Leukocidin Genes - 2003 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 9:978-84.
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  8.  84
    Genes, Organisms, Populations: Controversies Over the Units of Selection.Robert N. Brandon & Richard M. Burian (eds.) - 1984 - Bradford.
    This anthology collects some of the most important papers on what is believed to be the major force in evolution, natural selection. An issue of great consequence in the philosophy of biology concerns the levels at which, and the units upon which selection acts. In recent years, biologists and philosophers have published a large number of papers bearing on this subject. The papers selected for inclusion in this book are divided into three main sections covering the history of the subject, (...)
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  9. The Best Introduction to the Mountains: Gene Wolfe on Tolkien.Gene Wolfe - 2005 - The Chesterton Review 31 (3/4):283-289.
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  10.  43
    Clones, Genes, and Immortality: Ethics and the Genetic Revolution.John Harris - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
    In this retitled and revised version of Harris's original text Wonderwoman and Superman, the author discusses the ethics of human biotechnology and its implications relative to human evolution and destiny.
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  11.  16
    Number, Form, Content: Hume's Dialogues, Number Nine: Gene Fendt.Gene Fendt - 2009 - Philosophy 84 (3):393-412.
    This paper's aim is threefold. First, I wish to show that there is an analogy in section nine that arises out of the interaction of the interlocutors; this analogy is, or has, a certain comic adequatic to the traditional arguments about proofs for the existence of God. Second, Philo's seemingly inconsequential example of the strange necessity of products of 9 in section nine is a perfected analogy of the broken arguments actually given in that section, destroying Philo's earlier arguments. Finally, (...)
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  12. Individual Difference Variables, Ethical Judgments, and Ethical Behavioral Intentions.Gene Brown - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (2):183-206.
    This study examined the relationship between the individual difference variables of personal moral philosophy, locus of control, Machiavellianism, and just world beliefs and ethical judgments and behavioral intentions. A sample of 602 marketing practitioners participated in the study. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships. The results either fully or partially supported hypothesized direct effects for idealism, relativism, and Machiavellianism. Findings also suggested that Machiavellianism mediated the relationship between individual difference variables and ethical judgments/behavioral intentions.
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  13.  28
    Critical Theory and Public Life.John Forester (ed.) - 1987 - MIT Press.
    Jurgen Habermas's critical communications theory of society has excited widespread interest in recent years. The essays in this book explore the research implications of Habermas's theory for the analysis of modern problems of public life.
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  14. What Genes Can't Do.Lenny Moss - 2002 - MIT Press.
    A historical and critical analysis of the concept of the gene that attempts to provide new perspectives and metaphors for the transformation of biology and its philosophy.
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  15.  9
    Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution.Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd - 2005 - Chicago University Press.
    Acknowledgments 1. Culture Is Essential 2. Culture Exists 3. Culture Evolves 4. Culture Is an Adaptation 5. Culture Is Maladaptive 6. Culture and Genes Coevolve 7. Nothing about Culture Makes Sense except in the Light of Evolution.
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  16. Genes and the Agents of Life: The Individual in the Fragile Sciences Biology.Robert A. Wilson - 2005 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    Genes and the Agents of Life undertakes to rethink the place of the individual in the biological sciences, drawing parallels with the cognitive and social sciences. Genes, organisms, and species are all agents of life but how are each of these conceptualized within genetics, developmental biology, evolutionary biology, and systematics? The 2005 book includes highly accessible discussions of genetic encoding, species and natural kinds, and pluralism above the levels of selection, drawing on work from across the biological sciences. The book (...)
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  17. Genes in the Postgenomic Era.Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (6):499-521.
    We outline three very different concepts of the gene—instrumental, nominal, and postgenomic. The instrumental gene has a critical role in the construction and interpretation of experiments in which the relationship between genotype and phenotype is explored via hybridization between organisms or directly between nucleic acid molecules. It also plays an important theoretical role in the foundations of disciplines such as quantitative genetics and population genetics. The nominal gene is a critical practical tool, allowing stable communication between bioscientists (...)
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  18. Tolstoy and the Critics Literature and Aesthetics [by] Holley Gene Duffield [and] Manuel Bilsky. --.Holley Gene Duffield & Manuel Bilsky - 1965 - Scott, Foresman.
     
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  19.  4
    Smart Forests and Data Practices: From the Internet of Trees to Planetary Governance.Jennifer Gabrys - 2020 - Big Data and Society 7 (1).
    Environments are increasingly becoming technologized sites of data production. From smart cities to smart forests, digital networks are analyzing and joining up environmental processes. This commentary focuses on one such understudied smart environment, smart forests, as emerging digital infrastructures that are materializing to manage and mitigate environmental change. How does the digitalization of forests not only change understandings of these environments but also generate different practices and ontologies for addressing environmental change? I first analyze smart forests within the expanding area (...)
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  20.  37
    Gene Editing, Identity and Benefit.Thomas Douglas & Katrien Devolder - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 72 (2):305-325.
    Some suggest that gene editing human embryos to prevent genetic disorders will be in one respect morally preferable to using genetic selection for the same purpose: gene editing will benefit particular future persons, while genetic selection would merely replace them. We first construct the most plausible defence of this suggestion—the benefit argument—and defend it against a possible objection. We then advance another objection: the benefit argument succeeds only when restricted to cases in which the gene-edited child would (...)
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  21.  4
    Certifying Forests and Factories: States, Social Movements, and the Rise of Private Regulation in the Apparel and Forest Products Fields.Tim Bartley - 2003 - Politics and Society 31 (3):433-464.
    Systems of private regulation based on certification have recently emerged to address environmental issues in the forest products industry and labor issues in the apparel industry. To explain why the same regulatory form has emerged across these fields, the author uses a historical and comparative case study approach, closely examining early moments and paying attention to “roads not taken.” Two types of factors led to the initial emergence of private certification: social movement campaigns targeting companies and a neo-liberal institutional context. (...)
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  22. Genes Made Molecular.C. Kenneth Waters - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (2):163-185.
    This paper investigates what molecular biology has done for our understanding of the gene. I base a new account of the gene concept of classical genetics on the classical dogma that gene differences cause phenotypic differences. Although contemporary biologists often think of genes in terms of this concept, molecular biology provides a second way to understand genes. I clarify this second way by articulating a molecular gene concept. This concept unifies our understanding of the molecular basis (...)
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  23. Cohesion, Gene Flow, and the Nature of Species.Matthew J. Barker & Robert A. Wilson - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy 107 (2):59-77.
    A far-reaching and influential view in evolutionary biology claims that species are cohesive units held together by gene flow. Biologists have recognized empirical problems facing this view; after sharpening the expression of the view, we present novel conceptual problems for it. At the heart of these problems is a distinction between two importantly different concepts of cohesion, what we call integrative and response cohesion. Acknowledging the distinction problematizes both the explanandum of species cohesion and the explanans of gene (...)
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  24. Gene-Juggling.Mary Midgley - 1979 - Philosophy 54 (210):439.
    Genes cannot be selfish or unselfish, any more than atoms can be jealous, elephants abstract or biscuits teleological. This should not need mentioning, but Richard Dawkins's book The Selfish Gene has succeeded in confusing a number of people about it, including Mr J. L. Mackie. What Mackie welcomes in Dawkins is a new, biological-looking kind of support for philosophic egoism. If this support came from Dawkins's producing important new facts, or good new interpretations of old facts, about animal life, (...)
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  25.  2
    Gene Therapy and Editing in the Treatment of Hereditary Blood Disorders: Medical and Ethical Aspects.Paula Cano Alburquerque, Lucía Gómez-Tatay & Justo Aznar - 2022 - Clinical Ethics 17 (3):315-325.
    Gene therapy and gene editing are revolutionising the treatment of genetic diseases, most notably haematological disorders. This paper evaluates the use of both techniques in hereditary blood disorders. Many studies have been conducted in this field, especially with gene therapy, with very promising results in diseases such as haemophilia, certain haemoglobinopathies and Fanconi anaemia. The application of these techniques in clinical practice and the foreseeable development of these approaches in the coming years suggest that it might be (...)
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  26.  15
    Genes, Mind and Culture. [REVIEW]Alex Rosenberg - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (5):304-311.
  27.  12
    Prospects for a Common Morality.Gene Outka & John P. Reeder (eds.) - 1992 - Princeton University Press.
    This volume centers on debates about how far moral judgments bind across traditions and epochs. Nowadays such debates appear especially volatile, both in popular culture and intellectual discourse: although there is increasing agreement that the moral and political criteria invoked in human rights documents possess cross-cultural force, many modern and postmodern developments erode confidence in moral appeals that go beyond a local consensus or apply outside a particular community. Often the point of departure for discussion is the Enlightenment paradigm of (...)
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  28. Gene Mobility and the Concept of Relatedness.Jonathan Birch - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):445-476.
    Cooperation is rife in the microbial world, yet our best current theories of the evolution of cooperation were developed with multicellular animals in mind. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness is an important case in point: applying the theory in a microbial setting is far from straightforward, as social evolution in microbes has a number of distinctive features that the theory was never intended to capture. In this article, I focus on the conceptual challenges posed by the project of extending Hamilton’s (...)
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  29.  96
    Germline Gene Editing and the Precautionary Principle.Julian J. Koplin, Christopher Gyngell & Julian Savulescu - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (1):49-59.
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  30.  58
    Viral Information.Forest Rohwer & Katie Barott - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):283-297.
    Viruses are major drivers of global biogeochemistry and the etiological agents of many diseases. They are also the winners in the game of life: there are more viruses on the planet than cellular organisms and they encode most of the genetic diversity on the planet. In fact, it is reasonable to view life as a viral incubator. Nevertheless, most ecological and evolutionary theories were developed, and continue to be developed, without considering the virosphere. This means these theories need to be (...)
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  31.  5
    Agape an Ethical Analysis.Gene H. Outka - 1972 - Yale University Press.
    This study is the most comprehensive account to date of modern treatments of the love commandment. Gene Outka examines the literature on _agape_ from Nygren’s _Agape and Eros_ in 1930. Both Roman Catholic and Protestant writings are considered, including those of D’Arcy, Niebuhr, Ramsey, Tillich, and above all, Karl Barth. The first seven chapters focus on the principal treatments in the theological literature as they relate to major topics in ethical theory. The last chapter explores further the basic normative (...)
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  32.  56
    The Influence of Stated Organizational Concern Upon Ethical Decision Making.Gene R. Laczniak & Edward J. Inderrieden - 1987 - Journal of Business Ethics 6 (4):297 - 307.
    This experimental study evaluated the influence of stated organizational concern for ethical conduct upon managerial behavior. Using an in-basket to house the manipulation, a sample of 113 MBA students with some managerial experience reacted to scenarios suggesting illegal conduct and others suggesting only unethical behavior. Stated organizational concern for ethical conduct was varied from none (control group) to several other situations which included a high treatment consisting of a Code of Ethics, an endorsement letter by the CEO and specific sanctions (...)
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  33. Gene Editing, the Mystic Threat to Human Dignity.Vera Raposo - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (2):249-257.
    Many arguments have been made against gene editing. This paper addresses the commonly invoked argument that gene editing violates human dignity and is ultimately a subversion of human nature. There are several drawbacks to this argument. Above all, the concept of what human dignity means is unclear. It is not possible to condemn a practice that violates human dignity if we do not know exactly what is being violated. The argument’s entire reasoning is thus undermined. Analyses of the (...)
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  34.  62
    Culture–Gene Coevolution, Norm-Psychology and the Emergence of Human Prosociality.Maciej Chudek & Joseph Henrich - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (5):218-226.
  35. What Genes Can’T Do.Lenny Moss - 2003 - Journal of the History of Biology 38 (2):383-384.
     
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  36.  60
    Are Genes Units of Inheritance?Thomas Fogle - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (3):349-371.
    Definitions of the term gene typically superimpose molecular genetics onto Mendelism. What emerges are persistent attempts to regard the gene as a unit of structure and/or function, language that creates multiple meanings for the term and fails to acknowledge the diversity of gene architecture. I argue that coherence at the molecular level requires abandonment of the classical unit concept and recognition that a gene is constructed from an assemblage of domains. Hence, a domain set (1) conforms (...)
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  37. “Forest Medicines,” Kinship Alliances, and Equivocations in the Contemporary Dialogues Between Santo Daime and the Yawanawá.Lígia Duque Platero & Isabel Santana de Rose - forthcoming - Anthropology of Consciousness.
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  38. Fostering Ethical Marketing Decisions.Gene R. Laczniak & Patrick E. Murphy - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (4):259 - 271.
    This paper begins by examining several potentially unethical recent marketing practices. Since most marketing managers face ethical dilemmas during their careers, it is essential to study the moral consequences of these decisions. A typology of ways that managers might confront ethical issues is proposed. The significant organizational, personal and societal costs emanting from unethical behavior are also discussed. Both relatively simple frameworks and more comprehensive models for evaluating ethical decisions in marketing are summarized. Finally, the fact that organizational commitment to (...)
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  39.  47
    Genes, Behavior, and Developmental Emergentism: One Process, Indivisible?Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):209-252.
    The question of the influence of genes on behavior raises difficult philosophical and social issues. In this paper I delineate what I call the Developmentalist Challenge (DC) to assertions of genetic influence on behavior, and then examine the DC through an indepth analysis of the behavioral genetics of the nematode, C. elegans, with some briefer references to work on Drosophila. I argue that eight "rules" relating genes and behavior through environmentally-influenced and tangled neural nets capture the results of developmental and (...)
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  40.  38
    A Forest of Evidence: Third-Party Certification and Multiple Forms of Proof—a Case Study of Oil Palm Plantations in Indonesia. [REVIEW]Laura Silva-Castañeda - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (3):361-370.
    In recent years, new forms of transnational regulation have emerged, filling the void created by the failure of governments and international institutions to effectively regulate transnational corporations. Among the variety of initiatives addressing social and environmental problems, a growing number of certification systems have appeared in various sectors, particularly agrifood. Most initiatives rely on independent third-party certification to verify compliance with a standard, as it is seen as the most credible route for certification. The effects of third-party audits, however, still (...)
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  41. Gene.Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2005 - In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    The historian Raphael Falk has described the gene as a ‘concept in tension’ (Falk 2000) – an idea pulled this way and that by the differing demands of different kinds of biological work. Several authors have suggested that in the light of contemporary molecular biology ‘gene’ is no more than a handy term which acquires a specific meaning only in a specific scientific context in which it occurs. Hence the best way to answer the question ‘what is a (...)
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  42.  65
    Why Genes Are Like Lemons.F. Boem, E. Ratti, M. Andreoletti & G. Boniolo - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 57 (June):88-95.
    In the last few years, the lack of a unitary notion of gene across biological sciences has troubled the philosophy of biology community. However, the debate on this concept has remained largely historical or focused on particular cases presented by the scientific empirical advancements. Moreover, in the literature there are no explicit and reasonable arguments about why a philosophical clarification of the concept of gene is needed. In our paper, we claim that a philosophical clarification of the concept (...)
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  43.  44
    Comic Cure for Delusional Democracy: Plato's Republic.Gene Fendt - 2014 - Lexington Books.
    In this book, author Gene Fendt shows how Plato's Republic provides a liturgical purification for the political and psychic delusions of democratic readers, even as Socrates provides the same for his interlocutors at the festival of Bendis. Each of the several characters is analyzed in accord with Book Eight's 6 geometrically possible kinds of character showing how their answers and failures in the dialogue exhibit the particular kind of movement and blindness predictable for the type.
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  44. Forests Forever: Their Ecology, Restoration, and Preservation.John J. Berger & Charles E. Little - 2008 - Center for American Places.
    Fragile kingdoms of innumerable organisms and rich beauty, forests today are both our most plentiful and our most endangered natural resource. Understanding their workings and how to sustain them is imperative to ensuring the future of humanity. John Berger urges us to learn what can be done to preserve these treasures, and he offers here a compelling guide to the complex issues surrounding forest preservation. An expanded and revised version of Berger’s bestselling Understanding Forests, Forests Forever offers a clear and (...)
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  45.  25
    Forests, Trees, and Aesthetic Attention: A Reply to Nanay.B. Richards - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (11-12):81-98.
    Nanay (2015; 2016) revives manner or attitude accounts of aesthetic experience. While manner-based accounts are promising, Nanay's claim that certain kinds of aesthetic experiences require attention to be focused on one object, but distributed across many properties of that object, that 'aesthetic attention' is necessary for 'Proustian experience', is false. Attention to objects of aesthetic experience frequently involves attention to intra-objects, objects that are proper perceptual parts of the attended objects.
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  46.  54
    Forest Owners' Response to Climate Change : University Education Trumps Value Profile.Kristina Blennow, Johannes Persson, Erik Persson & Marc Hanewinkel - 2016 - PLoS ONE 11 (5).
    Do forest owners’ levels of education or value profiles explain their responses to climate change? The cultural cognition thesis has cast serious doubt on the familiar and often criticized "knowledge deficit" model, which says that laypeople are less concerned about climate change because they lack scientific knowledge. Advocates of CCT maintain that citizens with the highest degrees of scientific literacy and numeracy are not the most concerned about climate change. Rather, this is the group in which cultural polarization is greatest, (...)
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  47. With ‘Genes’ Like That, Who Needs an Environment? Postgenomics’s Argument for the ‘Ontogeny of Information’.Karola Stotz - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):905-917.
    The linear sequence specification of a gene product is not provided by the target DNA sequence alone but by the mechanisms of gene expressions. The main actors of these mechanisms, proteins and functional RNAs, relay environmental information to the genome with important consequences to sequence selection and processing. This `postgenomic' reality has implications for our understandings of development not as predetermined by genes but as an epigenetic process. Critics of genetic determinism have long argued that the activity of (...)
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  48. Genes `For' Phenotypes: A Modern History View.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Massimo Pigliucci - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (2):189--213.
    We attempt to improve the understanding of the notion of agene being `for a phenotypic trait or traits. Considering theimplicit functional ascription of one thing being `for another,we submit a more restrictive version of `gene for talk.Accordingly, genes are only to be thought of as being forphenotypic traits when good evidence is available that thepresence or prevalence of the gene in a population is the resultof natural selection on that particular trait, and that theassociation between that trait and (...)
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  49. Genes.Philip Kitcher - 1982 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (4):337-359.
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  50.  26
    A Gene-Free Formulation of Classical Quantitative Genetics Used to Examine Results and Interpretations Under Three Standard Assumptions.Peter J. Taylor - 2012 - Acta Biotheoretica 60 (4):357-378.
    Quantitative genetics (QG) analyses variation in traits of humans, other animals, or plants in ways that take account of the genealogical relatedness of the individuals whose traits are observed. “Classical” QG, where the analysis of variation does not involve data on measurable genetic or environmental entities or factors, is reformulated in this article using models that are free of hypothetical, idealized versions of such factors, while still allowing for defined degrees of relatedness among kinds of individuals or “varieties.” The (...) - free formulation encompasses situations encountered in human QG as well as in agricultural QG. This formulation is used to describe three standard assumptions involved in classical QG and provide plausible alternatives. Several concerns about the partitioning of trait variation into components and its interpretation, most of which have a long history of debate, are discussed in light of the gene-free formulation and alternative assumptions. That discussion is at a theoretical level, not dependent on empirical data in any particular situation. Additional lines of work to put the gene-free formulation and alternative assumptions into practice and to assess their empirical consequences are noted, but lie beyond the scope of this article. The three standard QG assumptions examined are: (1) partitioning of trait variation into components requires models of hypothetical, idealized genes with simple Mendelian inheritance and direct contributions to the trait; (2) all other things being equal, similarity in traits for relatives is proportional to the fraction shared by the relatives of all the genes that vary in the population (e.g., fraternal or dizygotic twins share half of the variable genes that identical or monozygotic twins share); (3) in analyses of human data, genotype-environment interaction variance (in the classical QG sense) can be discounted. The concerns about the partitioning of trait variation discussed include: the distinction between traits and underlying measurable factors; the possible heterogeneity in factors underlying the development of a trait; the kinds of data needed to estimate key empirical parameters; and interpretations based on contributions of hypothetical genes; as well as, in human studies, the labeling of residual variance as a non-shared environmental effect; and the importance of estimating interaction variance. (shrink)
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