Results for 'Gene Thomas'

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  1.  35
    Gene Editing, Identity and Benefit.Thomas Douglas & Katrien Devolder - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 72 (2):305-325.
    Some suggest that gene editing human embryos to prevent genetic disorders will be in one respect morally preferable to using genetic selection for the same purpose: gene editing will benefit particular future persons, while genetic selection would merely replace them. We first construct the most plausible defence of this suggestion—the benefit argument—and defend it against a possible objection. We then advance another objection: the benefit argument succeeds only when restricted to cases in which the gene-edited child would (...)
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  2.  60
    Are Genes Units of Inheritance?Thomas Fogle - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (3):349-371.
    Definitions of the term gene typically superimpose molecular genetics onto Mendelism. What emerges are persistent attempts to regard the gene as a unit of structure and/or function, language that creates multiple meanings for the term and fails to acknowledge the diversity of gene architecture. I argue that coherence at the molecular level requires abandonment of the classical unit concept and recognition that a gene is constructed from an assemblage of domains. Hence, a domain set (1) conforms (...)
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  3. The Ethics of Germline Gene Editing.Gyngell Christopher, Douglas Thomas & Savulescu Julian - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (4):498-513.
    Germline Gene Editing has enormous potential both as a research tool and a therapeutic intervention. While other types of gene editing are relatively uncontroversial, GGE has been strongly resisted. In this article, we analyse the ethical arguments for and against pursuing GGE by allowing and funding its development. We argue there is a strong case for pursuing GGE for the prevention of disease. We then examine objections that have been raised against pursuing GGE and argue that these fail. (...)
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  4.  57
    Gene Names as Proper Names of Individuals: An Assessment.Thomas A. C. Reydon - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):409-432.
    According to a recent suggestion, the names of gene taxa should be conceived of as referring to individuals with concrete genes as their parts, just as the names of biological species are often understood as denoting individuals with organisms as their parts. Although prima facie this suggestion might advance the debate on gene concepts in a similar way as the species-are-individuals thesis advanced the debate on species concepts, I argue that the principal arguments in support of the (...)-individuality thesis are much less compelling than the parallel arguments in the species case. In addition, I argue that the notion of biological function invoked in the gene-individuality thesis (selected effect) is not the one that biologists actually use when individuating genes. Contra the gene-individuality thesis, I argue that gene names refer to kinds, defined primarily (though not exclusively) by causal-role functions. (shrink)
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  5.  5
    Gene Editing, Identity and Benefit.Thomas Douglas & Katrien Devolder - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 72 (2):305-325.
    Some suggest that gene editing human embryos to prevent genetic disorders will be in one respect morally preferable to using genetic selection for the same purpose: gene editing will benefit particular future persons, while genetic selection would merely replace them. We first construct the most plausible defence of this suggestion—the benefit argument—and defend it against a possible objection. We then advance another objection: the benefit argument succeeds only when restricted to cases in which the gene-edited child would (...)
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  6.  12
    Implications of Caritas in Veritate for Marketing and Business Ethics.Thomas A. Klein & Gene R. Laczniak - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (4):641-651.
    In an effort to assess the latest thinking in the Roman Catholic Church on economic matters, we examine the newest encyclical by Pope Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate (Charity in Truth) for guidance concerning marketing and business strategy. Core ethical values, consistent with historical Catholic Social Teachings (CST), are retained. However, some important nuances are added to previous treatments, and, reflecting the mind of the current Pontiff, certain points of emphasis are shifted to account for recent global developments. Key areas (...)
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  7.  7
    Thomas Hunt Morgan and the invisible gene: the right tool for the job.Giulia Frezza & Mauro Capocci - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (2):31.
    The paper analyzes the early theory building process of Thomas Hunt Morgan from the 1910s to the 1930s and the introduction of the invisible gene as a main explanatory unit of heredity. Morgan’s work marks the transition between two different styles of thought. In the early 1900s, he shifted from an embryological study of the development of the organism to a study of the mechanism of genetic inheritance and gene action. According to his contemporaries as well as (...)
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  8.  20
    Gene Clusters and Polycistronic Transcription in Eukaryotes.Thomas Blumenthal - 1998 - Bioessays 20 (6):480-487.
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  9.  7
    Genes on Chromosomes: The Conversion of Thomas Hunt Morgan.Muriel Lederman - 1989 - Journal of the History of Biology 22 (1):163 - 176.
  10.  24
    Alzheimer Testing at Silver Years.A. Mathew Thomas, Gene Cohen, Robert M. Cook-Deegan, Joan O'sullivan, Stephen G. Post, Allen D. Roses, Kenneth F. Schaffner & Ronald M. Green - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):294-307.
    Early last year, the GenEthics Consortium (GEC) of the Washington Metropolitan Area convened at George Washington University to consider a complex case about genetic testing for Alzheimer disease (AD). The GEC consists of scientists, bioethicists, lawyers, genetic counselors, and consumers from a variety of institutions and affiliations. Four of the 8 co-authors of this paper delivered presentations on the case. Supplemented by additional ethical and legal observations, these presentations form the basis for the following discussion.
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  11. The Moral Imperative to Continue Gene Editing Research on Human Embryos.Julian Savulescu, Jonathan Pugh, Thomas Douglas & Chris Gyngell - 2015 - Protein Cell 6 (7):476–479.
    The publication of the first study to use gene editing techniques in human embryos (Liang et al., 2015) has drawn outrage from many in the scientific community. The prestigious scientific journals Nature and Science have published commentaries which call for this research to be strongly discouraged or halted all together (Lanphier et al., 2015; Baltimore et al., 2015). We believe this should be questioned. There is a moral imperative to continue this research.
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  12.  87
    Say No to GMOs! (Genetically Modified Organisms).Gene Thomas & Chris Picone - unknown
    Time was when you could bite a tomato and not ingest fish genes. Time was when you could eat french fries and just worry about the fat and salt, not the bacterial genes that produce insecticides in the potato. Those times are over, thanks to corporate control over both genetic engineering and the lack of food-labeling. Unless you are a “hard core” consumer of organic foods, you eat genetically engineered foods everyday. While 80-90% of US consumers believe genetically engineered foods (...)
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  13.  22
    Book Reviews Section 3.Thomas D. Moore, Royal T. Fruehling, Joanne R. Nurss, Edgar B. Gumbert, Gerry Mcgrath, Godfrey Sullivan, Sandra Gaddell, John Gaddell, Donald M. Medley, William F. Pinar, Barbara Bateman, Leslie D. Mclean, Charles E. Kozoli, Faustine C. Jones, H. George Bonekemper, Gene P. Agre & Ramon Sanchez - 1972 - Educational Studies 3 (3):163-174.
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  14. Toolbox Murders: Putting Genes in Their Epigenetic and Ecological Contexts: P. Griffiths and K. Stotz: Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Thomas Pradeu - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (1):125-142.
    Griffiths and Stotz’s Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction offers a very good overview of scientific and philosophical issues raised by present-day genetics. Examining, in particular, the questions of how a “gene” should be defined and what a gene does from a causal point of view, the authors explore the different domains of the life sciences in which genetics has come to play a decisive role, from Mendelian genetics to molecular genetics, behavioural genetics, and evolution. In this review, I (...)
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  15.  10
    Megista genê und Weisen der Gemeinschaft in Platons Sophistes.Thomas Buchheim - 2013 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 67 (4).
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  16.  10
    Placebo Effects in Psychotherapy Outcome Research.Gene V. Glass, Mary Lee Smith & Thomas I. Miller - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):293-294.
  17.  7
    Scharle Thomas W.. A Diagram of the Functors of the Two-Valued Propositional Calculus. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, Vol. 3 , Pp. 243–255. [REVIEW]Gene F. Rose - 1963 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 28 (2):175-175.
  18.  14
    Genes, Mind, and Culture; A Turning Point.Thomas Rhys Williams - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (1):29-30.
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  19.  51
    Why the (Gene) Counting Argument Fails in the Massive Modularity Debate: The Need for Understanding Gene Concepts and Genotype-Phenotype Relationships.Kathryn S. Plaisance, Thomas A. C. Reydon & Mehmet Elgin - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (6):873-892.
    A number of debates in philosophy of biology and psychology, as well as in their respective sciences, hinge on particular views about the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes. One such view is that the genotype-phenotype relationship is relatively straightforward, in the sense that a genome contains the ?genes for? the various traits that an organism exhibits. This leads to the assumption that if a particular set of traits is posited to be present in an organism, there must be a corresponding (...)
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  20.  36
    Multiscale Modeling of Gene–Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development.Michael S. C. Thomas, Neil A. Forrester & Angelica Ronald - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (1):51-99.
    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such associations can be detected despite the remoteness of these levels of description, and the fact that behavior is the outcome of an extended developmental process involving interaction of the whole organism with a variable environment. (...)
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  21.  9
    Gene Transfer and Expression in Plants: Implications and Potential.Terry L. Thomas & Timothy C. Hall - 1985 - Bioessays 3 (4):149-153.
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  22.  10
    On Genes, Environment, and Experience.Matt McGue, Thomas J. Bouchard, David T. Lykken & Deborah Finkel - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):400-401.
  23.  3
    Genes: How to Use Them in Industry. Biotechnology: A New Industrial Revolution. By STEVEPRENTIS. Orbis, 1984. 192 Pp. £9.99. [REVIEW]David Thomas - 1985 - Bioessays 2 (3):141-141.
  24.  25
    Species as Gene Flow Communities: Werner Kunz: Do Species Exist? Principles of Taxonomic Classification.Thomas A. C. Reydon - 2013 - Acta Biotheoretica 61 (4):525-534.
  25.  4
    Research Note: Genes on Chromosomes: The Conversion of Thomas Hunt Morgan. [REVIEW]Muriel Lederman - 1989 - Journal of the History of Biology 22 (1):163-176.
    In the first decade of the twentieth century, the foundation for the science of genetics was set. In 1900, the data of Gregor Mendel were rediscovered. By 1915, a community of scientists accepted that there were entities on chromosomes that controlled the development of observable traits. During the intervening period, Thomas Hunt Morgan was one of the major skeptics regarding the chromosomal location of the genes. His acceptance may have been the turning point for the flowering of American genetics. (...)
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  26. Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Rea L—Time Quantitative PCR a Nd the 2 一 Ct Method.J. Kenneth & Thomas D. Livak - 2001 - Method 25:4O2 - 408.
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  27.  4
    The Tubulin and Histone Genes ofPhysarum Polycephalum: Models for Cell Cycle-Regulated Gene Expression.Thomas G. Laffler & John J. Carrino - 1986 - Bioessays 5 (2):62-65.
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  28.  9
    The History and Future of the Gene.Thomas McDonald - 2019 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 62 (2):366-378.
    There is nothing like a little controversy to generate publicity for your new book. In May of 2016, two weeks before the release of The Gene: An Intimate History, author and physician Siddhartha Mukherjee published a New Yorker article that generated a firestorm of criticism. His subject was epigenetics, a newly popular subdiscipline of genetics that seeks to explain how an organism’s traits can be affected by factors other than its genes. The conventional view within biology is that an (...)
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  29.  4
    It's the Genes! EST Access to Human Genome Content.David Gerhold & C. Thomas Caskey - 1996 - Bioessays 18 (12):973-981.
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  30.  9
    We Need a Team of Gene-Mappers, Not Principle-Provers.Thomas Roeper - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):630-631.
  31.  7
    Compagen, a Comparative Genomics Platform for Early Branching Metazoan Animals, Reveals Early Origins of Genes Regulating Stem‐Cell Differentiation.Georg Hemmrich & Thomas C. G. Bosch - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (10):1010-1018.
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  32.  10
    The Agotrons: Gene Regulators or Argonaute Protectors?Lotte V. W. Stagsted, Iben Daugaard & Thomas B. Hansen - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (4):1600239.
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  33.  34
    Book Reviews Section 1.Cyrus Lee, Sheldon Stoff, Thomas R. Berg, John Georgeoff, David A. Shiman, Gene D. Alsup, Wayne G. Bragg, Librado K. Vasquez, Katherine Sun, Phyllis I. Danielson, Sherry L. Willis, Felix F. Billingsley, Robert Hoppock, Richard G. Durnin, Spencer J. Maxcy, Roger J. Fitzgerald, Robert D. Brown, William Duffy & J. F. Townley - 1973 - Educational Studies 4 (1):8-21.
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  34.  21
    Memoirs of Fellows and Corresponding Fellows of the Medieval Academy of America.James Brodman, J. N. Hillgarth, James F. Powers, Thomas N. Bisson, William M. Bowsky, Nancy Partner, Gene Brucker, Karl F. Morrison, Nancy van Deusen, Paul W. Knoll, Maureen Boulton, Malcolm B. Parkes, Margaret Switten, David Nicholas, Walter Prevenier & Bryce Lyon - 2003 - Speculum 78 (3):1044-1055.
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  35.  14
    Zagzebski Linda Ed. Rational Faith: Responses to Reformed Expistemology. Pp. 290.(Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993.) $32.95. Stump Eleanore & Thomas P. Flint Eds. Hermes and Athena: Biblical Exegesis and Philosophical Theology. Pp. Xxvii+ 325.(Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993). Simo Knuuttila. Modalities in Medieval Philosophy. Pp. 236.(London: Routledge, 1993).£ 35.00. Outka Gene & John P. Reeder Eds. Prospects for a Common Morality. Pp. 302.(Princeton ... [REVIEW]Peter Byrne - 1994 - Religious Studies 30 (1):131-133.
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  36.  11
    Zagzebski Linda Ed. Rational Faith: Responses to Reformed Expistemology. Pp. 290. $32.95.Stump Eleanore & Thomas P. Flint Eds. Hermes and Athena: Biblical Exegesis and Philosophical Theology. Pp. Xxvii + 325. .Simo Knuuttila. Modalities in Medieval Philosophy. Pp. 236. . £35.00.Outka Gene & John P. Reeder Eds. Prospects for a Common Morality. Pp. 302. . $47.50 Hb, $16.95 Pb.G. R. Evans. Philosophy and Theology in the Middle Ages. Pp. 139. . £30.00 Hb, £8.99 Pb. [REVIEW]Peter Byrne - 1994 - Religious Studies 30 (1):131.
  37.  2
    Animals and Business Ethics.Natalie Thomas (ed.) - 2022 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This book engages with some of the most pressing ethical issues that arise from the use of animals in various business practices, providing interdisciplinary approaches to improving the nonhuman and human lives in animal-related industries. The chapters in this volume provide conceptual, theoretical and practical analyses of these issues that will shape the future direction of business ethics to more fully reflect the impacts and implications of animal-based businesses on society, its members, and nature. The authors in this volume engage (...)
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  38. Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor.Thomas Weber - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Thomas Weber's book comprises a series of biographical reflections about people who influenced Gandhi, and those who were, in turn, influenced by him. Whilst previous literature tended to focus on Gandhi's political legacy, Weber's book explores the spiritual, social and philosophical resonances of these relationships, and it is with these aspects of the Mahatma's life in mind, that the author selects his central protagonists. These include friends such as Henry Polak and Hermann Kallenbach, who are not as well known (...)
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  39. Towards a Theory of Development.Alessandro Minelli & Thomas Pradeu (eds.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Is it possible to explain and predict the development of living things? What is development? Articulate answers to these seemingly innocuous questions are far from straightforward. To date, no systematic, targeted effort has been made to construct a unifying theory of development. This novel work offers a unique exploration of the foundations of ontogeny by asking how the development of living things should be understood. It explores the key concepts of developmental biology, asks whether general principles of development can be (...)
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  40. Stocking the Genetic Supermarket: Reproductive Genetic Technologies and Collective Action Problems.Chris Gyngell & Thomas Douglas - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (4):241-250.
    Reproductive genetic technologies allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the ‘genetic supermarket’. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one (...)
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  41.  3
    Made in Whose Image?: Genetic Engineering and Christian Ethics.Thomas Anthony Shannon - 1997 - Humanities Press.
    The ability of medical science to clone and perhaps even predetermine characteristics of certain species conflicts dramatically with many claims of the religious establishment. Opening with a description of various developments in plant, animal, and human genetics, Made in Whose Image? highlights the progress genetic research has achieved, its future promise, and its social impact. The developments are analyzed from the perspective of Christian ethics, as expounded by Roman Catholic and Protestant theorists, to give an overview of crucial ethical issues. (...)
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  42.  40
    Philosophical Medical Ethics: More Necessary Than Ever.Julian Savulescu, Thomas Douglas & Dominic Wilkinson - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):434-435.
    When we applied for the editorship of the JME 7 years ago, we said that we considered the JME to be the most important journal in medicine. The most profound questions that health professionals face are not scientific or technical, but ethical. Our enormous scientific and medical progress already outstrips our capability to provide treatment. Life can be prolonged at enormous cost, sometimes far beyond the point that the individual appears to be gaining a net benefit from that life. Science (...)
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  43. Video Ergo Sum: Manipulating Bodily Self-Consciousness.Bigna Lenggenhager, Tej Tadi, Thomas Metzinger & Olaf Blanke - 2007 - Science 317 (5841):1096-1099.
    Genes adjacent to species-specific loci are 6.2% older than genes adjacent to other dynamic loci (P < 10−2 by randomization; gray bars in Fig. 3); thus, species-specific genes are not randomly distributed but are found preferentially in the older regions, indicating that the incipient Escherichia and Salmonella lineages continued to participate in recombination at loci unlinked to lineage-specific genes.
     
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  44.  51
    Ernst Mayr (1904–2005) and the New Philosophy of Biology.Thomas Junker - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):1-17.
    p. 13: But if Mayr himself was an unconscious 'physicalist', why did he argue so forcefully against the machine theory of life? In part his dissatisfaction with this approach can be explained as a residue of earlier experiences. When he started to argue for the autonomy of biology in the early 1960s, the unique, emergent characteristics of organisms were ignored by the philosophy of science which was dominated by physics (Greene 1994; Hull 1994). In this situation Mayr not only criticised (...)
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  45.  4
    Beyond Genetic Discrimination. Problems and Perspectives of a Contested Notion.Thomas Lemke - 2005 - Genomics, Society and Policy 1 (3):22-40.
    In the recent past a number of empirical studies provided evidence that increasing genetic knowledge leads to new forms of exclusion, disadvantage and stigmatisation. As a consequence, many states have inaugurated special legislation to fight “genetic discrimination”. This article focuses on some theoretical, normative and practical problems in the scientific and political debate on genetic discrimination. It puts forward the thesis that the existing antidiscrimination approach is based on the implicit idea that genes are the essence of life. Since genes (...)
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  46.  18
    Medizinethische Implikationen Zukünftiger Pharmakogenomischer BehandlungsstrategienBioethical Implications of Pharmacogenomic Treatment Strategies.Thomas Meyer, Uwe Vinkemeier & Ulrich Meyer - 2002 - Ethik in der Medizin 14 (1):3-10.
    Definition of the problem: Recent progress in the pharmacological sciences provides a first glimpse of the development of an individual, genotype-based drug therapy in order to improve the efficiency of drug utilization. Genotyping of genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in drug response promises to optimize drug therapy fundamentally by identifying patients for whom a pharmaceutical agent may be effective and safe or contraindicated because of expected adverse drug reactions. Arguments: The new pharmacogenomic treatment strategies raise complex bioethical issues, because genetic (...)
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  47. Philosophical Theory, Scientific Practice, And Public Policy.Thomas Nenon & S. Stevens Jr - 1999 - Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 7.
    In diesem Aufsatz wird der jeweils mögliche Beitrag verschiedener Experten, insbesondere von Fachphilosophen und Naturwissenschaftlern, zu einer allgemeinen Diskussion derjenigen ethischen und rechtlichen Fragen erörtert, die sich in Verbindung mit dem Genomprojekt stellen. Wir kommen zu dem Ergebnis, daß man die tatsächlich schon betriebene Forschung keinesfalls wird aufhalten können, sondern allenfalls bestimmte für bedenklich gehaltene Anwendungen der neuen Techniken verzögern oder verhindern kann. Wir stellen verschiedene Probleme vor, die die Wirksamkeit der philosophischen Reflexion in solchen Fragen zweifelhaft erscheinen läßt, die (...)
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  48. From Metagenomics to the Metagenome: Conceptual Change and the Rhetoric of Translational Genomic Research.Eric Thomas Juengst & John Edward Huss - 2009 - Genomics, Society, and Policy 5 (3):1-19.
    As the international genomic research community moves from the tool-making efforts of the Human Genome Project into biomedical applications of those tools, new metaphors are being suggested as useful to understanding how our genes work – and for understanding who we are as biological organisms. In this essay we focus on the Human Microbiome Project as one such translational initiative. The HMP is a new ‘metagenomic’ research effort to sequence the genomes of human microbiological flora, in order to pursue the (...)
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  49.  7
    Genetics and Just Health Care: A Genome Task Force Report.Thomas H. Murray - 1993 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 3 (3):327-331.
    The Human Genome Project is expected to increase dramatically our ability to predict the likelihood of genetic disease in an individual. It is important to reject the myth of genetic determinism—i.e., the simple-minded belief that such complex outcomes as heart disease, cancer, or autoimmune diseases are caused exclusively by particular genes. But it is equally important to acknowledge that genes may play a role in making a person more or less susceptible to such diseases. The ever-increasing prospect of genetic prediction, (...)
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  50.  28
    Biomarkers for the Rich and Dangerous: Why We Ought to Extend Bioprediction and Bioprevention to White-Collar Crime.Hazem Zohny, Thomas Douglas & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 13 (3):479-497.
    There is a burgeoning scientific and ethical literature on the use of biomarkers—such as genes or brain scan results—and biological interventions to predict and prevent crime. This literature on biopredicting and biopreventing crime focuses almost exclusively on crimes that are physical, violent, and/or sexual in nature—often called blue-collar crimes—while giving little attention to less conventional crimes such as economic and environmental offences, also known as white-collar crimes. We argue here that this skewed focus is unjustified: white-collar crime is likely far (...)
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