Results for 'Genetic engineering'

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  1. Genetic Engineering and the Integrity of Animals.Rob De Vries - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (5):469-493.
    Genetic engineering evokes a number of objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. The concept of animal integrity is often invoked to articulate these kind of objections. Moreover, in reaction to the advent of genetic engineering, the concept has been extended from the level of the individual animal to the level of the genome and of the species. However, the concept of (...)
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  2. Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes, Zika and Other Arboviruses, Community Engagement, Costs, and Patents: Ethical Issues.Zahra Meghani & Christophe Boete - 2018 - PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7 (12).
    Genetically engineered (GE) insects, such as the GE OX513A Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, have been designed to suppress their wild-type populations so as to reduce the transmission of vector-borne diseases in humans. Apart from the ecological and epidemiological uncertainties associated with this approach, such biotechnological approaches may be used by individual governments or the global community of nations to avoid addressing the underlying structural, systemic causes of those infections... We discuss here key ethical questions raised by the use of GE mosquitoes, (...)
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  3.  22
    Genetically Engineered Animals, Drugs, and Neoliberalism: The Need for a New Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Framework.Zahra Meghani - 2017 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30 (6):715-743.
    Genetically engineered animals that are meant for release in the wild could significantly impact ecosystems given the interwoven or entangled existence of species. Therefore, among other things, it is all too important that regulatory agencies conduct entity appropriate, rigorous risk assessments that can be used for informed decision-making at the local, national and global levels about the release of those animals in the wild. In the United States, certain GE animals that are intended for release in the wild may be (...)
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  4. Evolution, Genetic Engineering, and Human Enhancement.Russell Powell, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu - 2012 - Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):439-458.
    There are many ways that biological theory can inform ethical discussions of genetic engineering and biomedical enhancement. In this essay, we highlight some of these potential contributions, and along the way provide a synthetic overview of the papers that comprise this special issue. We begin by comparing and contrasting genetic engineering with programs of selective breeding that led to the domestication of plants and animals, and we consider how genetic engineering differs from other contemporary (...)
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  5.  30
    Genetic Engineering and the Dignity of Creatures.Robert Heeger - 2000 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 (1):43-51.
    The Swiss expert report suggests thatthe inherent dignity of a living being be identifiedwith its inherent value. But the phrase ``inherentvalue of a living being'' seems to connote two conceptsof inherent value. One has a morally obligatingcharacter but is counterintuitive because of itsegalitarianism. The other is one of non-moral value.It is more compatible with considered intuitions butinsufficient for substantiating the expert report'sclaim that human beings have moral duties towardsanimals and plants. The paper discusses theseconcepts. Consideration is then given to the (...)
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  6.  83
    Enhancing the Species: Genetic Engineering Technologies and Human Persistence.Chris Gyngell - 2012 - Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):495-512.
    Many of the existing ethical analyses of genetic engineering technologies (GET) focus on how they can be used to enhance individuals—to improve individual well-being, health and cognition. There is a gap in the current literature about the specific ways enhancement technologies could be used to improve our populations and species, viewed as a whole. In this paper, I explore how GET may be used to enhance the species through improvements in the gene pool. I argue one aspect of (...)
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  7.  78
    Genetic Engineering and the Moral Status of Non-Human Species.Anders Melin - 2004 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (6):479-495.
    Genetic modification leads to several important moral issues. Up until now they have mainly been discussed from the viewpoint that only individual living beings, above all animals, are morally considerable. The standpoint that also collective entities such as species belong to the moral sphere have seldom been taken into account in a more thorough way, although it is advocated by several important environmental ethicists. The main purpose of this article is to analyze in more detail than often has been (...)
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  8.  10
    Food, Genetic Engineering and Philosophy of Technology: Magic Bullets, Technological Fixes and Responsibility to the Future.N. Dane Scott - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    This book describes specific, well-know controversies in the genetic modification debate and connects them to deeper philosophical issues in philosophy of technology. It contributes to the current, far-reaching deliberations about the future of food, agriculture and society. Controversies over so-called Genetically Modified Organisms regularly appear in the press. The biotechnology debate has settled into a long-term philosophical dispute. The discussion goes much deeper than the initial empirical questions about whether or not GM food and crops are safe for human (...)
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  9.  22
    Anti-Genetic Engineering Activism and Scientized Politics in the Case of “Contaminated” Mexican Maize.Abby J. Kinchy - 2010 - Agriculture and Human Values 27 (4):505-517.
    The struggle over genetically-engineered (GE) maize in Mexico reveals a deep conflict over the criteria used in the governance of agri-food systems. Policy debate on the topic of GE maize has become “scientized,” granting experts a high level of political authority, and narrowing the regulatory domain to matters that can be adjudicated on the basis of scientific information or “managed” by environmental experts. While scientization would seem to narrow opportunities for public participation, this study finds that Mexican activists acting “in (...)
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  10. The Ethics of Genetic Engineering.Roberta M. Berry - 2007 - Routledge.
    Human genetic engineering may soon be possible. The gathering debate about this prospect already threatens to become mired in irresolvable disagreement. After surveying the scientific and technological developments that have brought us to this pass, _The Ethics of Genetic Engineering_ focuses on the ethical and policy debate, noting the deep divide that separates proponents and opponents. The book locates the source of this divide in differing framing assumptions: reductionist pluralist on one side, holist communitarian on the other. (...)
     
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  11.  11
    Genetic Engineering and Human Mental Ecology: Interlocking Effects and Educational Considerations.Ramsey Affifi - 2017 - Biosemiotics 10 (1):75-98.
    This paper describes some likely semiotic consequences of genetic engineering on what Gregory Bateson has called “the mental ecology” of future humans, consequences that are less often raised in discussions surrounding the safety of GMOs. The effects are as follows: an increased 1) habituation to the presence of GMOs in the environment, 2) normalization of empirically false assumptions grounding genetic reductionism, 3) acceptance that humans are capable and entitled to decide what constitutes an evolutionary improvement for a (...)
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  12.  29
    Genetically Engineering Human-Animal Chimeras and Lives Worth Living.Dennis R. Cooley - 2008 - Between the Species 13 (8):1.
    Genetic engineering often generates fear of out of control scientists creating Frankenstein creatures that will terrorize the general populace, especially in the cases of human-animal chimeras. While sometimes an accurate characterization of some researchers, this belief is often the result of repugnance for new technology rather than being rationally justified. To facilitate thoughtful discussion the moral issues raised by human-animal chimeras, ethicists and other stakeholders must develop a rational ethical framework before raw emotion has a chance of becoming (...)
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  13. Genetic Engineering and the Consent of Future Persons.Martin Gunderson - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):86-93.
    The debate over whether germ-line genetic engineering is justified on the basis of the consent or presumed consent of future generations is mired in philosophical confusion. Because of this, the principle of informed consent fails to provide a reason to restrict germ-line genetic engineering. Most recent bioethicists ground the consent requirement on individual autonomy. While conceptually coherent, the notion of individual autonomy also fails to provide a reason for prohibiting germ-line genetic engineering. Moreover, it (...)
     
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  14.  31
    ‘Ethical Concepts Regarding the Genetic Engineering of Laboratory Animals’: A Confrontation with Moral Beliefs From the Practice of Biomedical Research.R. de Vries - 2006 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (2):211-225.
    Intrinsic value and animal integrity are two key concepts in the debate on the ethics of the genetic engineering of laboratory animals. These concepts have, on the one hand, a theoretical origin and are, on the other hand, based on the moral beliefs of people not directly involved in the genetic modification of animals. This ‘external’ origin raises the question whether these concepts need to be adjusted or extended when confronted with the moral experiences and opinions of (...)
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  15.  28
    Genetically Engineered Animals and the Ethics of Food Labeling.Robert Streiffer & Alan Rubel - 2007 - In Paul Weirich (ed.), Labeling Genetically Modified Food: The Philosophical and Legal Debate. Oup Usa. pp. 63--87.
    The current debate about labeling genetically engineered (GE) food focuses on food derived from GE crops, neglecting food derived from GE animals. This is not surprising, as GE animal products have not yet reached the market. Participants in the debate may also be assuming that conclusions about GE crops automatically extend to GE animals. But there are two GE animals - the Enviropig and the AquAdvantage Bred salmon - that are approaching the market, animals raise more ethical issues than plants, (...)
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  16.  42
    Regulation of Genetically Engineered (GE) Mosquitoes as a Public Health Tool: A Public Health Ethics Analysis.Zahra Meghani - 2022 - Globalization and Health 1 (18):1-14.
    In recent years, genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes have been proposed as a public health measure against the high incidence of mosquito-borne diseases among the poor in regions of the global South. While uncertainties as well as risks for humans and ecosystems are entailed by the open-release of GE mosquitoes, a powerful global health governance non-state organization is funding the development of and advocating the use of those bio-technologies as public health tools. In August 2016, the US Food and Drug Agency (...)
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  17. Genetic Engineering to Avoid Genetic Neglect: From Chance to Responsibility.Jessica Hammond - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (4):160-169.
    Currently our assessment of whether someone is a good parent depends on the environmental inputs (or lack of such inputs) they give their children. But new genetic intervention technologies, to which we may soon have access, mean that how good a parent is will depend also on the genetic inputs they give their children. Each new piece of available technology threatens to open up another way that we can neglect our children. Our obligations to our children and our (...)
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  18.  64
    Genetic Engineering and Social Justice: A Rawlsian Approach.David B. Resnik - 1997 - Social Theory and Practice 23 (3):427-448.
  19. Genetic Engineering and The Non-Identity Problem.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2008 - Diametros 16:63-79.
    In my essay I consider the imaginary case of a future mother who refuses to undergo genetic alteration on her germline although she knows that her, as yet unconceived, child will have a serious genetic disorder. I analyze the good and bad points of two branches of arguments directed against her decision, consequentialist and rights-based. Then I discuss whether accepting one line of these arguments or the other makes a difference in moral assessment. I conclude that, although from (...)
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  20.  10
    Genetic Engineering and the Integrity of Animals.Rob Vries - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (5):469-493.
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  21.  93
    Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions From Humans.Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Geoffrey David Commons - 2008 - World Futures 64 (5):436-443.
    (2008). Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions from Humans. World Futures: Vol. 64, Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity, pp. 436-443.
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  22.  11
    Genetic Engineering and the Risk of Harm.Matti Häyry & Tuija Takala - 1998 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 1 (1):61-64.
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  23. Is Genetic Engineering Wrong, Per Se?J. A. Burgess & Adrian Walsh - 1998 - Journal of Value Inquiry 32 (3):393-406.
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  24.  95
    Genetic Engineering and Autonomous Agency.Linda Barclay - 2003 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (3):223–236.
  25.  27
    Genetic Engineering and Environmental Ethics.Andrew Dobson - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (2):205-.
    When God gave humankind dominion over the earth he may not have known exactly what we would be able to do with it. The technical capacities to which the production and reproduction of our everyday life have given rise have grown at an astonishing and, it seems, ever-increasing rate. The instruments that we use to do work on the world have become sharper and more refined, and the implications of human interventions in the nonhuman environment are much more far-reaching than (...)
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  26.  18
    Genetically Engineered Herbicide Resistance, Part One.Gary Comstock - 1989 - Journal of Agricultural Ethics 2 (4):263-306.
  27.  21
    The Hard Sell of Genetically Engineered (GE) Mosquitoes with Gene Drives as the Solution to Malaria: Ethical, Political, Epistemic, and Epidemiological Issues in Global Health Governance.Zahra Meghani - 2020 - In Sharon Crasnow & Kristen Intemann (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Feminist Philosophy of Science. Routledge. pp. 435-457.
    This chapter analyzes the ‘hard sell’ of genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes with gene drives as the solution to mosquito-borne diseases. A defining characteristic of the aggressive sell of the bio-technology is the ‘biologization’ of the significant prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases in certain socio-economically marginalized regions of the global South. Specifically, hard sell narratives either minimize or ignore the structural, systemic factors that are partially responsible for the public health problem that the GE mosquitoes are intended to bio-solve. The biologization of (...)
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  28.  38
    Genetic Engineering in Agriculture: Who Stands to Benefit? [REVIEW]Christian J. Peters - 2000 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 (3-4):313-327.
    The use of genetic engineering inagriculture has been the source of much debate. Todate, arguments have focused most strongly on thepotential human health risks, the flow of geneticmaterial to related species, and ecologicalconsequences. Little attention appears to have beengiven to a more fundamental concern, namely, who willbe the beneficiaries of this technology?Given the prevalence of chronic hunger and thestark economics of farming, it is arguable thatfarmers and the hungry should be the mainbeneficiaries of agricultural research. However, theapplication of (...)
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  29.  83
    The Hermeneutic Challenge of Genetic Engineering: Habermas and the Transhumanists.Andrew Edgar - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (2):157-167.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that developments in transhumanist technologies may have upon human cultures, and to do so by exploring a potential debate between Habermas and the transhumanists. Transhumanists, such as Nick Bostrom, typically see the potential in genetic and other technologies for positively expanding and transcending human nature. In contrast, Habermas is a representative of those who are fearful of this technology, suggesting that it will compound the deleterious effects of the colonisation (...)
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  30.  24
    Genetic Engineering and the Risk of Harm.Matti Häyry - 1998 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 1 (1):61-64.
  31.  21
    Genetically Engineered Herbicide Resistance, Part Two.Gary Comstock - 1990 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 3 (2):114-146.
    Should we continue to support publicly funded research on genetically engineered herbicide resistant crops? In Part One, I discussed the difference between science and ethics, presented a brief history of weed control, and explained three moral principles undergirding my environmentalist perspective. I then argued that unqualified endorsement (E) of the research is unjustified, as is unqualified opposition (O). In Part Two, I argue against qualified endorsement (QE), and for qualified opposition (QO).
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  32.  7
    Genetic Engineering.Kevin Wilger - 2019 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 19 (4):601-615.
    Genetic engineering is a rapidly evolving field of research with potentially powerful therapeutic applications. The technology CRISPR-Cas9 not only has improved the accuracy and overall feasbility of genome editing but also has increased access to users by lowering cost and increasing usability and speed. The potential benefits of genetic engineering may come with an increased risk of off-target events or carcinogenic growth. Germ-line cell therapy may also pose risks to potential progeny and thus have an additional (...)
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  33.  6
    Genetically Engineered Oil Seed Crops and Novel Terrestrial Nutrients: Ethical Considerations.Chris MacDonald, Stefanie Colombo & Michael T. Arts - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5):1485-1497.
    Genetically engineered organisms have been at the center of ethical debates among the public and regulators over their potential risks and benefits to the environment and society. Unlike the currently commercial GE crops that express resistance or tolerance to pesticides or herbicides, a new GE crop produces two bioactive nutrients and docosahexaenoic acid ) that heretofore have largely been produced only in aquatic environments. This represents a novel category of risk to ecosystem functioning. The present paper describes why growing oilseed (...)
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  34.  81
    Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions From Humans.Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Geoffrey David Commons - 2008 - World Futures 64 (5-7):436 – 443.
    Using ideas from evolution and postformal stages of hierarchical complexity, a hypothetical scenario, premised on genetic engineering advances, portrays the development of a new humanoid species, Superions. How would Superions impact and treat current humans? If the Superion scenario came to pass, it would be the ultimate genocidal terrorism of eliminating an entire species, Homo Sapiens. We speculate about defenses Homo Sapiens might mount. The tasks to relate two species (systems) constitutes a postformal, Metasystematic task. Developing a system (...)
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  35.  38
    Genetic Engineering and What is Natural.Mary Warnock - 2002 - Think 1 (1):21-27.
    Some argue that genetic engineering and other scientific practices are morally wrong because they are ‘unnatural’. Prince Charles took this line in his 2000 Reith Lecture. But as Mary Warnock here points out, attempts to justify the moral condemnation of a practice on the grounds that it is ‘contrary to nature’ are notoriously difficult to sustain.
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  36.  18
    Playing God? Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate.John Berkman, Stanley Hauerwas, Jeffrey Stout, Gilbert Meilaender, James F. Childress & John H. Evans - 2004 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 24 (1):183-217.
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  37.  28
    Playing God: Genetic Engineering and the Manipulation of Life.June Goodfield - 1977 - Sphere Books.
  38.  28
    Genetic Engineering and the Autonomous Individual.Shyli Karin-Frank - 1987 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 22:213-229.
    The aim of this paper is to expose the unique muddle in which moral philosophy finds itself with regard to genetic engineering. The latter can be essentially defined as the correcting of nature's mistakes at their source, the DNA acid molecule of the gene. I shall discuss the moral nature of genetic engineering with respect to a single issue: the potential harm it may inflict upon the autonomous individual. I shall also consider the distinctions between (...) engineering and other activities affecting human existence, in order to establish that the moral issues presented by genetic engineering are unique to it. (shrink)
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  39.  15
    Genetic Engineering and the Risk of Harm.Matti Häyry & Tuija Lehto - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 4:51-55.
    There are many risks involved in genetic engineering. The release of genetically altered organisms in the environment can increase human suffering, decrease animal welfare, and lead to ecological disasters. The containment of biotechnological material in laboratories and industrial plants contributes to the risk of accidental release, especially if the handling and storage are inadequate. The purely political dangers include intensified economic inequality, the possibility of large-scale eugenic programs, and totalitarian control over human lives. How should the acceptability of (...)
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  40.  51
    Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.Pamela L. Sankar & Mildred K. Cho - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (12):18-24.
    Recent experiments have been used to “edit” genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a “gene drive” that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant (...)
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  41. Genetic Engineering: A Major Threat to Vegetarians.Ron Epstein - manuscript
    Imagine a world in which as part of their basic substances tomatoes contain fish and tobacco, potatoes contain chicken, moths and other insects, and corn contains fireflies. Is this science-fiction? No, these plant-animal hybrids already exist today and may soon be on your supermarket shelves without any special labeling to warn you. Furthermore, in a few years the types of these genetically engineered "vegetables" are sure to increase and may very possibly also include human genes. If you are a vegetarian, (...)
     
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  42.  35
    Biocentrism and Genetic Engineering.Andrew Dobson - 1995 - Environmental Values 4 (3):227-239.
    I consider the contribution that a biocentric perspective might make to the ethical debate concerning the practice of genetic engineering. I claim that genetic engineering itself raises novel ethical questions, and particularly so when confronted with biocentric sensibilities. I outline the nature of these questions and describe the biocentric basis for them. I suggest that fundamentalist opposition to projects of genetic engineering is unhelpful, but that biocentric claims should now be a feature of ethical (...)
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  43. Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future.Matteo Mameli - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (2):87-93.
    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to (...)
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  44. Latina Feminist Metaphysics and Genetically Engineered Foods.Lisa A. Bergin - 2009 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (3):257--271.
    In this paper I critique two popular, non-scientific attitudes toward genetically engineered foods. In doing so, I will be employing the concepts of ambiguity, purity/impurity, control/resistance, and unity/diversity as developed by Latina feminist metaphysicians. I begin by casting a critical eye toward a specific anti-biotech account of transgenic food crops, an account that I will argue relies on an anti-feminist metaphysics. I then cast that same critical eye toward a specific pro-biotech account, arguing that it also relies on such an (...)
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  45. Should Parents Genetically Engineer Their Children?Walter Veit - 2019 - Psychology Today.
    Imagine a world where everyone is healthy, intelligent, long living and happy. Intuitively this seems wonderful, albeit unrealistic. However, recent scientific developments in genetic engineering, namely CRISPR/Cas bring the question into public discourse, how the genetic enhancement of humans should be evaluated morally.
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  46. The Ethics of Using Genetic Engineering for Sex Selection.S. Matthew Liao - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (2):116-118.
    It is quite likely that parents will soon be able to use genetic engineering to select the sex of their child by directly manipulating the sex of an embryo. Some might think that this method would be a more ethical method of sex selection than present technologies such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) because, unlike PGD, it does not need to create and destroy “wrong gendered” embryos. This paper argues that those who object to present technologies on (...)
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  47.  6
    Genetically Engineered Nonhuman Animals: A Global Overview and Research Agenda.Oliver Keane - 2019 - Society and Animals 29 (2):173-202.
    This paper suggests studies on genetically engineering nonhuman animal genes have globalized over the last 30 years. The results unveil maps that give a global overview of universities’ studies into engineering animal genes, by purpose and by species, at a state scale. A network map also shows how studies on engineering animal genes are co-constituted internationally, at a state scale. Some of the more notable map findings are developed using a novel ontological approach. This ontology relates the (...)
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  48.  14
    Genetic Engineering: Less Than Fully Adequate Arguments.Paul Ramsey - 1979 - Hastings Center Report 9 (6):46-47.
  49.  15
    Genetically-Engineered Crops and Their Effects on Varietal Diversity: A Case of Bt Eggplant in India.Deepthi Elizabeth Kolady & William Lesser - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (1):3-15.
    Building on the evidence from the impact of hybrid technology on varietal diversity loss, this paper explores ex ante the possible effects of introduction of Bt eggplant on on-farm varietal diversity of eggplant. The public–private partnership involved in the development and introduction of Bt eggplant provides a great opportunity to develop locally-adapted Bt open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) instead of having a limited number of generic hybrid varieties. The study shows that introduction of multiple Bt OPVs by public institutions will reduce the (...)
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  50.  76
    Property Rights and Genetic Engineering: Developing Nations at Risk.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):137-149.
    Eighty percent of (commercial) genetically engineered seeds (GES) are designed only to resist herbicides. Letting farmers use more chemicals, they cut labor costs. But developing nations say GES cause food shortages, unemployment, resistant weeds, and extinction of native cultivars when “volunteers” drift nearby. While GES patents are reasonable, this paper argues many patent policies are not. The paper surveys GE technology, outlines John Locke’s classic account of property rights, and argues that current patent policies must be revised to take account (...)
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