The paper presents a family of propositional epistemic logics such that languages of these logics are extended by quantification over modal operators or over agents of knowledge and extended by predicate symbols that take modal operators as arguments. Denote this family by \}\). There exist epistemic logics whose languages have the above mentioned properties :311–350, 1995; Lomuscio and Colombetti in Proceedings of ATAL 1996. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 1193, pp 71–85, 1996). But these logics are obtained from first-order (...) modal logics, while a logic of \}\) can be regarded as a propositional multi-modal logic whose language includes quantifiers over modal operators and predicate symbols that take modal operators as arguments. Among the logics of \}\) there are logics with a syntactical distinction between two readings of epistemic sentences: de dicto and de re. We show the decidability of logics of \}\) with the help of the loosely guarded fragment of first-order logic. Namely, we generalize LGF to a higher-order decidable loosely guarded fragment. The latter fragment allows us to construct various decidable propositional epistemic logics with quantification over modal operators. The family of this logics coincides with \}\). There are decidable propositional logics such that these logics implicitly contain quantification over agents of knowledge, but languages of these logics are usual propositional epistemic languages without quantifiers and predicate symbols :345–378, 1993). Some logics of \}\) can be regarded as counterparts of logics defined in Grove and Halpern :345–378, 1993). We prove that the satisfiability problem for these logics of \}\) is Pspace-complete using their counterparts in Grove and Halpern :345–378, 1993). (shrink)
In the previous paper with a similar title :311–344, 2018), we presented a family of propositional epistemic logics whose languages are extended by two ingredients: by quantification over modal operators or over agents of knowledge and by predicate symbols that take modal operators as arguments. We denoted this family by \}\). The family \}\) is defined on the basis of a decidable higher-order generalization of the loosely guarded fragment of first-order logic. And since HO-LGF is decidable, we obtain the decidability (...) of logics of \}\). In this paper we construct an alternative family of decidable propositional epistemic logics whose languages include ingredients and. Denote this family by \}\). Now we will use another decidable fragment of first-order logic: the two variable fragment of first-order logic with two equivalence relations +2E) [the decidability of FO\+2E was proved in Kieroński and Otto :729–765, 2012)]. The families \}\) and \}\) differ in the expressive power. In particular, we exhibit classes of epistemic sentences considered in works on first-order modal logic demonstrating this difference. (shrink)
It is known that the Restricted Predicate Calculus can be embedded in an elementary theory, the signature of which consists of exactly two equivalences. Some special models for the mentioned theory were constructed to prove this fact. Besides formal adequacy of these models, a question may be posed concerning their conceptual simplicity, "transparency" of interpretations they assigned to the two stated equivalences. In works known to us these interpretations are rather complex, and can be called "technical", serving only the purpose (...) of embedding. We propose a conversion method, which transforms an arbitrary model of RPC into some model of the elementary theory TR, which includes three equivalences. RPC is embeddable in TR, and it appears possible to assign some "natural" interpretations to three equivalences using the "Track of Relation " concept. (shrink)
The structural element of a prospect is not a key factor in the detection of hydrocarbon deposits within the Jurassic formations of the southern parts of the West Siberian province. We investigated a method of mapping oil-saturated zones within the Middle Jurassic reservoirs. We evaluated the quantitative criteria between oil-saturated versus water-saturated zones. The methodology was based on amplitude analysis of seismic data and information obtained from the data and well testing.
This is a contribution to thesociology and social epistemology of knowledgeproduction in Russian social sciences today. Inthe initial section, the epistemic status andsocial function of Soviet social scientificdiscourse are characterized in terms of textualforms and their modes of (re-)production. Theremaining sections detail the course of therestructuration of social scientific discoursesince the fall of the Soviet Union and draw onextant empirical sources, in particular studiesof bibliographical rubrics, thematicrepertoires, and current textual formsthroughout the public sphere and the academicestablishment in Russia. An underlying (...) concernis the shifting status of the intellectual inthe wider socio-cultural context as reflectedin language usage and its textualembodiments. (shrink)
We have considered a permeability prognosis in the crosswell space within the Middle Jurassic [Formula: see text] Formation in the southern part of Western Siberia. The prognosis was based on core measurements, well log analysis, and seismic attribute calculations. We have estimated the formation permeability in the wells, calculated seismic attribute proportional to fluid mobility from the 3D seismic data, and eliminated the influence of the reservoir thickness variations. The correlation between appropriate seismic attribute values and [Formula: see text] formation (...) permeability was used for the prognosis and mapping the permeability in the crosswell space. (shrink)
Violence is one of the most pervasive problems in the world today. Despite all efforts to apply the powers of reason in order to contain, if not completely eliminate violence, violence proves to be capable of escaping capture and re-emerging in new and unexpected forms. Reason and rationality appear to be powerless against violence. The paper explores some philosophical issues that shed new light on the persistence of violence in the modern world. It argues that the failure of modernity to (...) recognize and come to grips with the process of construction that constitutes the basis of our relationship with reality plays a critical role in the continued survival of violence. (shrink)
There is a growing realization of the need to promote a constructive dialogue between science and religion both in the scientific and the religious community. Accommodationism based on the concept of nonoverlapping magisteria is arguably the dominant trend in the effort to achieve this goal. Yet despite the fact that accommodationism has many supporters, it has so far failed to promote a productive engagement between science and religion. The article argues that such engagement requires a critical re-examination of the principal (...) tenets, self-evident truths, and intuitions by both the scientific and the religious community. It further argues that despite isolated efforts seeking to promote such re-examination in both domains, neither the scientific nor the religious establishment shows much willingness to pursue this course. Rather they prefer to follow a conservative agenda and impose limits on reason that are designed to protect the status quo. (shrink)
Tautology is interpreted as a necessary condition for the workability of an operations system. This condition suggests the following possibilities: the stable solvability of balance equations between available resources and requests for them; the calculation of potential and kinetic of the system together with the estimation of the contribution of every operation to the kinetic of the system; the construction of a deadlockless infinite cyclic process for performance of some works.
This article is devoted to the crisis of the modern philosophy caused by the generally accepted approach towards the ontology issues of existence and the ways to solve these problems. Before Kant’s theory the fundamental principle of the universe organization in the ontology was the determination of the existence as the number of objects that were independent from the subject and explored as they were. Kant showed then that the subject deals only with the images of its own conscience. The (...) existence became not the thing-in-itself, but the thing, that opens to the human mind. But this experience gave no answer to the question about the differences between the immanent perceptions of conscience and the universe itself. This article reveals that the transition from the understanding of things as independent existing objects toward the understanding of their subjective origin as objects themselves demands more radical conclusions. These conclusions consist of that fact that the ontology should concentrate more exploring existence as the unformed organic whole and not to forget about its general problemsand presentations about the conscience. Currently we can get non-verbal knowledge about the existence itself and take steps of getting verbal one. Separation of the existence as the unformed organic whole from the presentations of conscience prevents from mistake of determining the things created by the subject in the process of universe perception as its attributes (the plurality of interpretations turns into the ontology pluralism). (shrink)
It is possible to pick out a number of tendencies in axiology development. Among them we can see the disciplinary invasion of axiology into the sphere of agathological (agathon - greek - the Good) knowledge. The invasion tendency is connected with the definite understanding of the value nature and with the including non-value content into the axiological sphere. Value and agathon (the good) have different significance. In philosophy of values there are two axiologies: creative and noncreative. In creative axiology the (...) value world is the world created by the free and reasonable subject. All the history of agathon (the good) studying allows for picking it (agathon) out as a subject for special research in agathology. (shrink)
Pour pouvoir la résoudre, nous généralisons la question posée par Needham : Qu’est-ce qui a empêché la science gréco-romaine et médiévale de franchir la prochaine grande étape après Archimède, et qu’est-ce qui a empêché les savants orientaux de contribuer à la physique moderne des siècles encore après Galilée? Pour répondre à cette question, on propose comme distinction-clef entre physique moderne et science néo-galiléenne le droit d’inventer des concepts fondamentaux « illogiques », vérifiables par expérimentation. Ce droit se fonde sur la (...) croyance en un univers régi par des lois fondamentales cachées, mais accessibles à la connaissance humaine. Cette croyance prend sa source dans la vision biblique du monde, qui devint le socle des cultures européennes à l’époque de la révolution scientifique à l’occasion de l’invention de l’imprimerie et de la Réforme. (shrink)
This article is devoted to the crisis of the modern philosophy caused by the generally accepted approach towards the ontology issues of existence and the ways to solve these problems. Before Kant’s theory the fundamental principle of the universe organization in the ontology was the determination of the existence as the number of objects that were independent from the subject and explored as they were. Kant showed then that the subject deals only with the images of its own conscience. The (...) existence became not the thing-initself, but the thing, that opens to the human mind. But this experience gave no answer to the question about the differences between the immanent perceptions of conscience and the universe itself. This article reveals that the transition from the understandingof things as independent existing objects toward the understanding of their subjective origin as objects themselves demands more radical conclusions. These conclusions consist of that fact that the ontology should concentrate more exploring existence as the unformed organic whole and not to forget about its general problems and presentations about the conscience. Currently we can get nonverbal knowledge about the existence itself and take steps of getting verbal one. Separation of the existence as the unformed organic whole from the presentations of conscience prevents from mistake of determining the things created by the subject in the process of universe perception as its attributes (the plurality of interpretations turns into the ontology pluralism). (shrink)
By the end of the 20th century educational issues had become of global character due to the fact, that it is education that makes the basis for the social dimensions of the 21st century. The importance of educational issues can be explained by the post-industrial society being oriented at rising the significance of information and knowledge as being the main resources for the society development, at the priority of intellectual activities, resulting in changing the roleand place of education in the (...) society, at turning education into the strategically important sphere of our lives. (shrink)
The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the “phase 2” of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are being proposed for large scale adoption by many countries. A centralized approach, where data sensed by the app are all sent to a nation-wide server, raises concerns about citizens’ privacy (...) and needlessly strong digital surveillance, thus alerting us to the need to minimize personal data collection and avoiding location tracking. We advocate the conceptual advantage of a decentralized approach, where both contact and location data are collected exclusively in individual citizens’ “personal data stores”, to be shared separately and selectively, voluntarily, only when the citizen has tested positive for COVID-19, and with a privacy preserving level of granularity. This approach better protects the personal sphere of citizens and affords multiple benefits: it allows for detailed information gathering for infected people in a privacy-preserving fashion; and, in turn this enables both contact tracing, and, the early detection of outbreak hotspots on more finely-granulated geographic scale. The decentralized approach is also scalable to large populations, in that only the data of positive patients need be handled at a central level. Our recommendation is two-fold. First to extend existing decentralized architectures with a light touch, in order to manage the collection of location data locally on the device, and allow the user to share spatio-temporal aggregates—if and when they want and for specific aims—with health authorities, for instance. Second, we favour a longer-term pursuit of realizing a Personal Data Store vision, giving users the opportunity to contribute to collective good in the measure they want, enhancing self-awareness, and cultivating collective efforts for rebuilding society. (shrink)
The authors argue that in the 1993 Duma elections it was the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, led by Gennady Zyuganov, that incorporated rhetorical values and audience adaptation into its campaign strategy. Finding its discursive ground limited by history, the CPRF gradually shifted its rhetorical posture and argumentative strategies, redefining itself in the process. This evolution allowed the CPRF to employ the ideographs of ’democracy‘, ‘will of the people‘, ’citizen‘, and other key terms of Western-style democracy, while retaining, (...) albeit in transformed meaning, traditional communist ideographs such as ’justice‘ and ’spirituality‘. In addition, the CPRF was able to borrow selectively from the history of the USSR between 1917 and 1989, thereby imbuing their political appeals with historical force and cultural memory. (shrink)