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Geoffrey Hellman [97]Geoffrey P. Hellman [3]Geoffrey Paul Hellman [3]
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Geoffrey Hellman
University of Minnesota
  1. Mathematics Without Numbers: Towards a Modal-Structural Interpretation.Geoffrey Hellman - 1989 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Develops a structuralist understanding of mathematics, as an alternative to set- or type-theoretic foundations, that respects classical mathematical truth while ...
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  2. Physicalism: Ontology, Determination and Reduction.Geoffrey Paul Hellman & Frank Wilson Thompson - 1975 - Journal of Philosophy 72 (October):551-64.
  3.  44
    Mathematics Without Numbers: Towards a Modal-Structural Interpretation.Bob Hale & Geoffrey Hellman - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (4):919.
  4. Mathematics without Numbers. Towards a Modal-Structural Interpretation.Geoffrey Hellman - 1991 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 53 (4):726-727.
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  5. Does Category Theory Provide a Framework for Mathematical Structuralism?Geoffrey Hellman - 2003 - Philosophia Mathematica 11 (2):129-157.
    Category theory and topos theory have been seen as providing a structuralist framework for mathematics autonomous vis-a-vis set theory. It is argued here that these theories require a background logic of relations and substantive assumptions addressing mathematical existence of categories themselves. We propose a synthesis of Bell's many-topoi view and modal-structuralism. Surprisingly, a combination of mereology and plural quantification suffices to describe hypothetical large domains, recovering the Grothendieck method of universes. Both topos theory and set theory can be carried out (...)
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  6. Three Varieties of Mathematical Structuralism.Geoffrey Hellman - 2001 - Philosophia Mathematica 9 (2):184-211.
    Three principal varieties of mathematical structuralism are compared: set-theoretic structuralism (‘STS’) using model theory, Shapiro's ante rem structuralism invoking sui generis universals (‘SGS’), and the author's modal-structuralism (‘MS’) invoking logical possibility. Several problems affecting STS are discussed concerning, e.g., multiplicity of universes. SGS overcomes these; but it faces further problems of its own, concerning, e.g., the very intelligibility of purely structural objects and relations. MS, in contrast, overcomes or avoids both sets of problems. Finally, it is argued that the modality (...)
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  7. Structuralism.Geoffrey Hellman - manuscript
    With the rise of multiple geometries in the nineteenth century, and in the last century the rise of abstract algebra, of the axiomatic method, the set-theoretic foundations of mathematics, and the influential work of the Bourbaki, certain views called “structuralist” have become commonplace. Mathematics is seen as the investigation, by more or less rigorous deductive means, of “abstract structures”, systems of objects fulfilling certain structural relations among themselves and in relation to other systems, without regard to the particular nature of (...)
     
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  8. Varieties of Continua: From Regions to Points and Back.Geoffrey Hellman & Stewart Shapiro - 2017 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Hellman and Shapiro explore the development of the idea of the continuous, from the Aristotelian view that a true continuum cannot be composed of points to the now standard, entirely punctiform frameworks for analysis and geometry. They then investigate the underlying metaphysical issues concerning the nature of space or space-time.
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  9. The Classical Continuum Without Points.Geoffrey Hellman & Stewart Shapiro - 2013 - Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (3):488-512.
    We develop a point-free construction of the classical one- dimensional continuum, with an interval structure based on mereology and either a weak set theory or logic of plural quantification. In some respects this realizes ideas going back to Aristotle,although, unlike Aristotle, we make free use of classical "actual infinity". Also, in contrast to intuitionistic, Bishop, and smooth infinitesimal analysis, we follow classical analysis in allowing partitioning of our "gunky line" into mutually exclusive and exhaustive disjoint parts, thereby demonstrating the independence (...)
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  10.  20
    Physicalism. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Hellman - 1980 - Philosophical Review 89 (4):625.
  11. Determination and Logical Truth.Geoffrey Hellman - 1985 - Journal of Philosophy 82 (November):607-16.
    Some remarks on determination, physicalism, model theory, and logical truth.//An attempt to defend physicalism against objections that its bases are indeterminate.
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  12. Mathematical Pluralism: The Case of Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis.Geoffrey Hellman - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (6):621-651.
    A remarkable development in twentieth-century mathematics is smooth infinitesimal analysis ('SIA'), introducing nilsquare and nilpotent infinitesimals, recovering the bulk of scientifically applicable classical analysis ('CA') without resort to the method of limits. Formally, however, unlike Robinsonian 'nonstandard analysis', SIA conflicts with CA, deriving, e.g., 'not every quantity is either = 0 or not = 0.' Internally, consistency is maintained by using intuitionistic logic (without the law of excluded middle). This paper examines problems of interpretation resulting from this 'change of logic', (...)
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  13.  58
    Physicalist Materialism.Geoffrey Hellman & Frank Wilson Thompson - 1977 - Noûs 11 (4):309-45.
  14. Predicative Foundations of Arithmetic.Solomon Feferman & Geoffrey Hellman - 1995 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (1):1 - 17.
  15. The Structure of Appearance.N. Goodman & Geoffrey Hellman - 1966 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 42 (4):828-829.
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  16. Frege Meets Aristotle: Points as Abstracts.Stewart Shapiro & Geoffrey Hellman - 2015 - Philosophia Mathematica:nkv021.
    There are a number of regions-based accounts of space/time, due to Whitehead, Roeper, Menger, Tarski, the present authors, and others. They all follow the Aristotelian theme that continua are not composed of points: each region has a proper part. The purpose of this note is to show how to recapture ‘points’ in such frameworks via Scottish neo-logicist abstraction principles. The results recapitulate some Aristotelian themes. A second agenda is to provide a new arena to help decide what is at stake (...)
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  17.  54
    Stochastic Einstein-Locality and the Bell Theorems.Geoffrey Hellman - 1982 - Synthese 53 (3):461 - 504.
    Standard proofs of generalized Bell theorems, aiming to restrict stochastic, local hidden-variable theories for quantum correlation phenomena, employ as a locality condition the requirement of conditional stochastic independence. The connection between this and the no-superluminary-action requirement of the special theory of relativity has been a topic of controversy. In this paper, we introduce an alternative locality condition for stochastic theories, framed in terms of the models of such a theory (§2). It is a natural generalization of a light-cone determination condition (...)
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  18. Against 'Absolutely Everything'!Geoffrey Hellman - 2006 - In Agustín Rayo & Gabriel Uzquiano (eds.), Absolute Generality. Clarendon Press.
     
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  19.  10
    Determination and Logical Truth.Geoffrey Hellman - 1985 - Journal of Philosophy 82 (11):607-616.
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  20.  53
    Bayes and Beyond.Geoffrey Hellman - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (2):191-221.
    Several leading topics outstanding after John Earman's Bayes or Bust? are investigated further, with emphasis on the relevance of Bayesian explication in epistemology of science, despite certain limitations. (1) Dutch Book arguments are reformulated so that their independence from utility and preference in epistemic contexts is evident. (2) The Bayesian analysis of the Quine-Duhem problem is pursued; the phenomenon of a "protective belt" of auxiliary statements around reasonably successful theories is explicated. (3) The Bayesian approach to understanding the superiority of (...)
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  21. Pluralism and the Foundations of Mathematics.Geoffrey Hellman - 2006 - In ¸ Itekellersetal:Sp. pp. 65--79.
    A plurality of approaches to foundational aspects of mathematics is a fact of life. Two loci of this are discussed here, the classicism/constructivism controversy over standards of proof, and the plurality of universes of discourse for mathematics arising in set theory and in category theory, whose problematic relationship is discussed. The first case illustrates the hypothesis that a sufficiently rich subject matter may require a multiplicity of approaches. The second case, while in some respects special to mathematics, raises issues of (...)
     
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  22. Mathematical Structuralism.Geoffrey Hellman & Stewart Shapiro - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    The present work is a systematic study of five frameworks or perspectives articulating mathematical structuralism, whose core idea is that mathematics is concerned primarily with interrelations in abstraction from the nature of objects. The first two, set-theoretic and category-theoretic, arose within mathematics itself. After exposing a number of problems, the book considers three further perspectives formulated by logicians and philosophers of mathematics: sui generis, treating structures as abstract universals, modal, eliminating structures as objects in favor of freely entertained logical possibilities, (...)
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  23. Towards a Point-Free Account of the Continuous.Geoffrey Hellman & Stewart Shapiro - 2012 - Iyyun 61:263.
  24. Aristotelian Continua.Øystein Linnebo, Stewart Shapiro & Geoffrey Hellman - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (2):214-246.
    In previous work, Hellman and Shapiro present a regions-based account of a one-dimensional continuum. This paper produces a more Aristotelian theory, eschewing the existence of points and the use of infinite sets or pluralities. We first show how to modify the original theory. There are a number of theorems that have to be added as axioms. Building on some work by Linnebo, we then show how to take the ‘potential’ nature of the usual operations seriously, by using a modal language, (...)
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  25.  43
    Constructive Mathematics and Quantum Mechanics: Unbounded Operators and the Spectral Theorem. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Hellman - 1993 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (3):221 - 248.
  26.  30
    Gleason's Theorem is Not Constructively Provable.Geoffrey Hellman - 1993 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (2):193 - 203.
  27. Dualling: A Critique of an Argument of Popper and Miller.J. Michael Dunn & Geoffrey Hellman - 1986 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (2):220-223.
  28.  46
    Never Say “Never”!: On the Communication Problem Between Intuitionism and Classicism.Geoffrey Hellman - 1989 - Philosophical Topics 17 (2):47-67.
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  29.  64
    Einstein and Bell: Strengthening the Case for Microphysical Randomness.Geoffrey Hellman - 1982 - Synthese 53 (3):445 - 460.
  30. Predicativism as a Philosophical Position.Geoffrey Hellman - 2004 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 3:295-312.
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  31.  61
    Mathematical Constructivism in Spacetime.Geoffrey Hellman - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (3):425-450.
    To what extent can constructive mathematics based on intuitionistc logic recover the mathematics needed for spacetime physics? Certain aspects of this important question are examined, both technical and philosophical. On the technical side, order, connectivity, and extremization properties of the continuum are reviewed, and attention is called to certain striking results concerning causal structure in General Relativity Theory, in particular the singularity theorems of Hawking and Penrose. As they stand, these results appear to elude constructivization. On the philosophical side, it (...)
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  32.  67
    Regions-Based Two Dimensional Continua: The Euclidean Case.Geoffrey Hellman & Stewart Shapiro - 2015 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 24 (4).
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  33. Maximality Vs. Extendability: Reflections on Structuralism and Set Theory.Geoffrey Hellman - unknown
    In a recent paper, while discussing the role of the notion of analyticity in Carnap’s thought, Howard Stein wrote: “The primitive view–surely that of Kant–was that whatever is trivial is obvious. We know that this is wrong; and I would put it that the nature of mathematical knowledge appears more deeply mysterious today than it ever did in earlier centuries – that one of the advances we have made in philosophy has been to come to an understanding of just ∗I (...)
     
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  34.  43
    Realist Principles.Geoffrey Hellman - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (2):227-249.
    We list, with discussions, various principles of scientific realism, in order to exhibit their diversity and to emphasize certain serious problems of formulation. Ontological and epistemological principles are distinguished. Within the former category, some framed in semantic terms (truth, reference) serve their purpose vis-a-vis instrumentalism (Part 1). They fail, however, to distinguish the realist from a wide variety of (constructional) empiricists. Part 2 seeks purely ontological formulations, so devised that the empiricist cannot reconstruct them from within. The main task here (...)
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  35.  71
    Toward a Modal-Structural Interpretation of Set Theory.Geoffrey Hellman - 1990 - Synthese 84 (3):409 - 443.
  36.  45
    EPR, Bell, and Collapse: A Route Around "Stochastic" Hidden Variables.Geoffrey Hellman - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (4):558-576.
    Two EPR arguments are reviewed, for their own sake, and for the purpose of clarifying the status of "stochastic" hidden variables. The first is a streamlined version of the EPR argument for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics. The role of an anti-instrumentalist ("realist") interpretation of certain probability statements is emphasized. The second traces out one horn of a central foundational dilemma, the collapse dilemma; complex modal reasoning, similar to the original EPR, is used to derive determinateness (of all spin components (...)
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  37. Supervenience/Determination a Two-Way Street? Yes, but One of the Ways is the Wrong Way!Geoffrey Hellman - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy 89 (1):42-47.
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  38.  84
    Quantum Mechanical Unbounded Operators and Constructive Mathematics – a Rejoinder to Bridges.Geoffrey Hellman - 1997 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 26 (2):121-127.
    As argued in Hellman (1993), the theorem of Pour-El and Richards (1983) can be seen by the classicist as limiting constructivist efforts to recover the mathematics for quantum mechanics. Although Bridges (1995) may be right that the constructivist would work with a different definition of 'closed operator', this does not affect my point that neither the classical unbounded operators standardly recognized in quantum mechanics nor their restrictions to constructive arguments are recognizable as objects by the constructivist. Constructive substitutes that may (...)
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  39. Extendability and Paradox.Roy Cook & Geoffrey Hellman - 2018 - In Roy Cook & Geoffrey Hellman (eds.), Hilary Putnam on Logic and Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
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  40.  46
    Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of “Experimental Metaphysics”.Geoffrey Hellman - 2009 - In Wayne C. Myrvold & Joy Christian (eds.), Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle. Springer. pp. 211--227.
  41.  28
    Randomness and Reality.Geoffrey Hellman - 1978 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:79-97.
  42.  47
    Real Analysis Without Classes.Geoffrey Hellman - 1994 - Philosophia Mathematica 2 (3):228-250.
    This paper explores strengths and limitations of both predicativism and nominalism, especially in connection with the problem of characterizing the continuum. Although the natural number structure can be recovered predicatively (despite appearances), no predicative system can characterize even the full predicative continuum which the classicist can recognize. It is shown, however, that the classical second-order theory of continua (third-order number theory) can be recovered nominalistically, by synthesizing mereology, plural quantification, and a modal-structured approach with essentially just the assumption that an (...)
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  43.  43
    Neither Categorical nor Set-Theoretic Foundations.Geoffrey Hellman - 2013 - Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (1):16-23.
    First we review highlights of the ongoing debate about foundations of category theory, beginning with Fefermantop-down” approach, where particular categories and functors need not be explicitly defined. Possible reasons for resisting the proposal are offered and countered. The upshot is to sustain a pluralism of foundations along lines actually foreseen by Feferman (1977), something that should be welcomed as a way of resolving this long-standing debate.
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  44. What is Categorical Structuralism?Geoffrey Hellman - 2006 - In Johan van Benthem, Gerhard Heinzman, M. Rebushi & H. Visser (eds.), The Age of Alternative Logics. Springer. pp. 151--161.
  45.  75
    Maoist Mathematics?Geoffrey Hellman - 1998 - Philosophia Mathematica 6 (3):334-345.
  46.  13
    On Representing `True-in-L' in L.Geoffrey Hellman - 1985 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (4):1068-1071.
  47. Russell's Absolutism Vs.(?) Structuralism.Geoffrey Hellman - manuscript
    Along with Frege, Russell maintained an absolutist stance regarding the subject matter of mathematics, revealed rather than imposed, or proposed, by logical analysis. The Fregean definition of cardinal number, for example, is viewed as (essentially) correct, not merely adequate for mathematics. And Dedekind’s “structuralist” views come in for criticism in the Principles. But, on reflection, Russell also flirted with views very close to a (different) version of structuralism. Main varieties of modern structuralism and their challenges are reviewed, taking account of (...)
     
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  48.  29
    Responses to Maher, and to Kelly, Schulte, and Juhl.Geoffrey Hellman - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (2):317-322.
  49.  42
    Robert L. Martin and Peter W. Woodruff. On Representing ‘True-in-L' in L. Philosophia , Vol. 5 No. 3 , Pp. 213–217. - Saul Kripke. Outline of a Theory of Truth. The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 72 , Pp. 690–716. - Anil Gupta. Truth and Paradox. Journal of Philosophical Logic, Vol. 11 , Pp. 1–60. - Hans G. Herzberger. Notes on Naive Semantics. Journal of Philosophical Logic, Vol. 11 , Pp. 61–102. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Hellman - 1985 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (4):1068-1071.
  50.  31
    Quantum Logic and the Projection Postulate.Geoffrey Hellman - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (3):469-486.
    This paper explores the status of the von Neumann-Luders state transition rule (the "projection postulate") within "real-logic" quantum logic. The entire discussion proceeds from a reading of the Luders rule according to which, although idealized in applying only to "minimally disturbing" measurements, it nevertheless makes empirical claims and is not a purely mathematical theorem. An argument (due to Friedman and Putnam) is examined to the effect that QL has an explanatory advantage over Copenhagen and other interpretations which relativize truth-value assignments (...)
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