The British Cooperative movement offers a curious case of utopianism in which Robert Owen's program for total social and economic transformation finds its most durable, practical expression in a small shop founded by the "Rochdale Pioneers." The success of the Rochdale model created a national, then international, movement that improved the lives of many working-class people, in multiple ways, in the period between 1860 and 1950. However, despite its undeniable success, the British Cooperative movement increasingly adapted to, rather than transformed, (...) the social and economic order within which it operated: a case of utopia stalled or... (shrink)
Vigil summarizes sex-related differences in emotivity, and presents a psychological model based on the restrictive assumption that responses to stimuli are dichotomous. The model uses for support the concept of intrasexual selection, but ignores intersexual selection. An alternative hypothesis might be that emotivity signals age: maturity in men and youth in women. Integration requires considering all evolutionary biology, not just agreeable concepts.
Economic motivations are key drivers of human behavior. Unfortunately, they are largely overlooked in literature related to medical decisionmaking, particularly with regard to end-of-life care. It is widely understood that the directions of a proxy acting in bad faith can be overridden. But what of cases in which the proxy or surrogate appears to be acting in good faith to effectuate the patient’s values, yet doing so directly serves the decision-maker’s financial interests? Such situations are not uncommon. Many patients care (...) as deeply about economic wellbeing of their families as they do for their own lives and health. This brief work examines three scenarios that raise ethical issues regarding the role of pecuniary motives in making critical medical decisions. Each scenario presents a potential financial conflict of interest between an incapacitated patient and a third-party decision-maker and offers a framework for integrating ethical and legal concerns into clinical care. It is our hope that this work prepares physicians for unexpected ethical conflicts of interest and enables them to further the interests of his or her patients. (shrink)
The twentieth century saw what could be described as a parting of the ways between humans and other species of animal in many parts of the world. Increasing urbanization and the intensification of farming resulted in restricted opportunities to interact directly with other animals, particularly freeroaming animals in their natural habitats. At the same time, changes in technology led to greatly increased opportunities to come into contact with animals indirectly through their representation in media such as film, television, and the (...) internet. This extra stage of mediation between actual animals in the world and a human population’s experience of them is extremely important, because representations necessarily are partial. Among the forces that potentially influence representations are powerful commercial forces. They pressure for increased intensive confinement of animals, increased human use of habitats, larger catches of animals in the wild, and numerous other ways of increasing the utility drawn from animals. At the same time, these forces are resisted in a variety of directions by those working for animal welfare, rights, . (shrink)
This study investigated employee perceptions of ethical climates in a sample of Russian organizations and the relationship between ethical climate and behaviors believed to characterize successful managers. A survey of managerial employees in Russia (n = 136) indicates that "rules" was the most reported and "independence" was the least reported ethical climate type. Those who perceived a strong link between success and ethical behavior report high levels of a "caring" climate and low levels of an "instrumental" climate. Implications for practitioners (...) and researchers are discussed. (shrink)
Contents \t\t\t\t\t \tTRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION \t\t1 \t \tNOTE ON THE TRANSLATION \t\t39 \t OBSERVATIONS ON THE FEELING OF THE BEAUTIFUL AND SUBLIME \t\t\t\t\t \tSECTION ONE: \t\t\t\t \t\tOf the Distinct Objects of the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime \t\t45 \tSECTION TWO: \t\t\t\t \t\tOf the Attributes of the Beautiful and Sublime.
In this comment on Firestone and Jacobs’s book, In Defense of Kant’s Religion, I take issue with the authors’ strategy in demonstrating that it is possibleto positively incorporate religion and theology into Kant’s critical corpus, and their intention to focus on the coherence of Kant’s theory without necessarily recommending it for Christianity. Regarding, I argue that in pursuing their strategy the authors ignore the fact that Kant has transposed what appear to be traditional religious doctrines to a completely different (...) level of reflection, in effect turning them into imaginary tropes intended to mask otherwise irreducible contradictions in his view of human agency. As for, I claim that the authors’ intention runs the risk of being disingenuous, since Kant presented his religion as the true religion, opposing it to historical Christianity. (shrink)
In 2014, the International Association for the Psychology of Religion will have its centennial, and so will its scientific journal, the present Archive for the Psychology of Religion [ Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ARp]. This first article on IAPR's history analyses the fate of the forerunner of ARp, which was published from 1907-1913. When psychology in general began to develop as an empirical, research-based “scientific discipline” since the midst of the 19th century, the psychology of religion became a prominent application of (...) that “new” science of psychology, involving many of the founding fathers of present day psychology. Shortly after evoking these beginnings, the focus of the present article turns to the development of early scientific infrastructure for the psychology of religion. While the psychology of religion was initiated by European scholars such as Fechner and Wundt, it was the organizer of American psychology in general who started the first journal in this field, G. Stanley Hall. Through his European admirer Gustav Vorbrodt, Hall's journal may have been an inspiration to the founding of the first European journal for the psychology of religion, the German-speaking Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie. Most likely the psychiatrist Johannes Bresler took the initiative to start this journal and had invited pastor Gustav Vorbrodt, who had already repeatedly and vigorously called for psychological study of religion, to join him as editor. Consequently, the subtitle of the journal was ‘Grenzfragen der Theologie und der Medizin [ Boundary Questions in Theology and Medicine].’ The present paper discusses both Vorbrodt's and Bresler's work in the realm of the psychology of religion, as it does the contributions of two further editors; the philosopher-historian of religion Georg Runze, an honorary professor at Berlin University, and Otto Klemm, a collaborator of Wilhelm Wundt and later the director of the latter's psychological laboratory in Leipzig and the first to hold a professorship for applied psychology. Several reasons are discussed to answer the question why the Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie ceased publishing. Based on empirical-archival research, special attention is given to scholarly disagreements behind the transition of the Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie to the new Archiv für Religionspsychologie. (shrink)
Georg Simmel developed a "form" method for the newly revived field of sociology, drawing on the subjectivity/objectivity dialectic. While his book's organization differs from that of contemporary texts, his method remains implicit in the field to this day.
Ce livre s'adresse à tous les " hommes et femmes de bonne volonté " à la recherche de la vérité. La première partie relate les réflexions que portent sur leur discipline les scientifiques tout au long du XXe siècle avec leur particularité voire leur opposition. C'est ainsi que Jacques Monod base sa réflexion sur le hasard conçu comme " une liberté absolue niais aveugle ", François Jacob sur le " jeu des possibles ", Alfred Kastler sur " une finalité objective (...) " et Trinh Xuan Thuan sur " les Lois de l'Univers avec des possibilités d'évolution ". Quant à Georges Charpack dans : " Soyez savants, soyez prophètes " il affirme ; " Ce qui reste la clef du problème que la science pose à la philosophie se trouve dans les lois de l'univers et dans l'interprétation de leur caractère. Nous n'avons rien trouvé qui réponde vraiment à nos désirs. Mais la question reste posée, non pas comme un défi aux philosophes, mais comme une requête instante posée à leur réflexion ". C'est à ce défi que cet ouvrage essaie de répondre, remettant en question certains concepts philosophiques pour accéder à une néo-métaphysique réclamée par les scientifiques. Par une étude synthétique du passage du polythéisme au monothéisme jusqu'au seuil de la Révélation Chrétienne, l'auteur développe le concept original néo-métaphysique de " l'Etre et de l'étant " appliqué à l'Univers. Ce concept permet une avancée décisive dans la recherche de la Vérité sur Dieu, faisant apparaître une corrélation inédite avec le prologue de l'Evangile de Saint Jean. (shrink)
As the work of thinkers such as Michel Foucault, François Jacob, Louis Althusser, and Pierre Bourdieu demonstrates, Georges Canguilhem has exerted tremendous influence on the philosophy of science and French philosophy more generally. In Knowledge of Life, a book that spans twenty years of his essays and lectures, Canguilhem offers a series of epistemological histories that seek to establish and clarify the stakes, ambiguities, and emergence of philosophical and biological concepts that defined the rise of modern biology. How do transformations (...) in biology and modern medicine shape conceptions of life? How do philosophical concepts feed into biological ideas and experimental practices, and how are they themselves transformed? How does knowledge "undo the experience of life so as to help man remake what life has made without him, in him or outside of him?" Knowledge of Life is Canguilhem's effort to explain how the movements of knowledge and life come to rest upon each other. Published at the dawn of the genetic revolution and still pertinent today, the book tackles the history of cell theory, the conceptual moves toward and away from mechanical understandings of the organism, the persistence of vitalism, and the nature of normality in science and its objects. (shrink)
This collection of thirteen essays represents an in-depth, well-focused, creative exploration of Heidegger’s sustained, extensive dialogue with the Presocratics. The list of contributors from abroad and America is impressive: Heidegger, Gadamer, Jean-François Courtaine, Michel Serres, Parvis Emad, Michael Naas, David F. Krell, John Sallis, Dennis J. Schmidt, David C. Jacobs, Charles E. Scott, Walter A. Brogan, and Véronique M. Fóti. These well-researched, thoughtful studies constitute a unified work that amounts to a rediscovery of the early Greeks from the perspective (...) of Heidegger’s fascination with the dawn of occidental thinking. The diversity of approaches of the contributions leads to the discernment of basic insights and to unearthing of unthought dimensions of Heidegger’s understanding of the Presocratics; it clearly shows the need for hermeneutic attentiveness and openness in trying to come to grips with the texts of the early Greek thinkers and with Heidegger’s own project. This book, then, is more than an “anthology”; it is a unified, perceptive, thoughtful festival of interpretations. (shrink)