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George Khushf
University of South Carolina
  1.  74
    An Agenda for Future Debate on Concepts of Health and Disease.George Khushf - 2007 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (1):19-27.
    The traditional contrast between naturalist and normativist disease concepts fails to capture the most salient features of the health concepts debate. By using health concepts as a window on background notions of medical science and ethics, I show how Christopher Boorse (an influential naturalist) and Lennart Nordenfelt (an influential normativist) actually share deep assumptions about the character of medicine. Their disease concepts attempt, in different ways, to shore up the same medical model. For both, health concepts function like demarcation criteria (...)
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  2.  73
    Recommendations for Nanomedicine Human Subjects Research Oversight: An Evolutionary Approach for an Emerging Field.Leili Fatehi, Susan M. Wolf, Jeffrey McCullough, Ralph Hall, Frances Lawrenz, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Cortney Jones, Stephen A. Campbell, Rebecca S. Dresser, Arthur G. Erdman, Christy L. Haynes, Robert A. Hoerr, Linda F. Hogle, Moira A. Keane, George Khushf, Nancy M. P. King, Efrosini Kokkoli, Gary Marchant, Andrew D. Maynard, Martin Philbert, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Ronald A. Siegel & Samuel Wickline - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):716-750.
    Nanomedicine is yielding new and improved treatments and diagnostics for a range of diseases and disorders. Nanomedicine applications incorporate materials and components with nanoscale dimensions where novel physiochemical properties emerge as a result of size-dependent phenomena and high surface-to-mass ratio. Nanotherapeutics and in vivo nanodiagnostics are a subset of nanomedicine products that enter the human body. These include drugs, biological products, implantable medical devices, and combination products that are designed to function in the body in ways unachievable at larger scales. (...)
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  3.  19
    When Religious Language Blocks Discussion About Health Care Decision Making.George Khushf - 2019 - HEC Forum 31 (2):151-166.
    There is a curious asymmetry in cases where the use of religious language involves a breakdown in communication and leads to a seemingly intractable dispute. Why does the use of religious language in such cases almost always arise on the side of patients and their families, rather than on the side of clinicians or others who work in healthcare settings? I suggest that the intractable disputes arise when patients and their families use religious language to frame their problem and the (...)
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  4.  53
    Intolerant Tolerance.George Khushf - 1994 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (2):161-181.
    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. (...)
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  5.  39
    Health as Intra-Systemic Integrity: Rethinking the Foundations of Systems Biology and Nanomedicine.George Khushf - 2008 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (3):432-449.
  6.  15
    What Hope for Reason? A Critique of New Natural Law Theory.George Khushf - 2016 - Christian Bioethics 22 (2):238-264.
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  7.  64
    Why Bioethics Needs the Philosophy of Medicine: Some Implications of Reflection on Concepts of Health and Disease.George Khushf - 1997 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (1-2):145-163.
    Germund Hesslow has argued that concepts of health and disease serve no important scientific, clinical, or ethical function. However, this conclusion depends upon the particular concept of disease he espouses; namely, on Boorse's functional notion. The fact/value split embodied in the functional notion of disease leads to a sharp split between the science of medicine and bioethics, making the philosophy of medicine irrelevant for both. By placing this disease concept in the broader context of medical history, I shall show that (...)
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  8.  41
    The Aesthetics of Clinical Judgment: Exploring the Link Between Diagnostic Elegance and Effective Resource Utilization.George Khushf - 1999 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (2):141-159.
    Many physicians assert that new cost-control mechanisms inappropriately interfere with clinical decision-making. They claim that high costs arise from poorly practiced medicine, and argue that effective utilization of resources is best promoted by advancing the scientific and ethical ideals of medicine. However, the claim is not warranted by empirical evidence. In this essay, I show how it rests upon aesthetic considerations associated with diagnostic elegance. I first consider scientific rationality generally. After a review of analytical empiricist and socio-historical approaches in (...)
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  9.  16
    The Case for Managed Care: Reappraising Medical and Socio-Political Ideals.George Khushf - 1999 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (5):415 – 433.
    The arguments against managed care can be divided into two general clusters. One cluster concerns the way managed care undermines the ethical ideals of medical professionalism. Since those ideals largely focus on the physician-patient relation, the first cluster comes under the rubric of micro-ethics; namely, the ethics of individual-individual relations. The second cluster of criticisms focuses on macro-ethical issues, primarily on issues of justice and policy. By reviewing these arguments, it becomes clear that managed care does not easily fit within (...)
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  10.  34
    A Radical Rupture in the Paradigm of Modern Medicine: Conflicts of Interest, Fiduciary Obligations, and the Scientific Ideal.George Khushf - 1998 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (1):98 – 122.
    Conflicts of interest serve as a cipher for a radical rupture in the Flexnerian paradigm of medicine, and they can only be addressed if we recognize that health care is now practiced by institutions, not just individual physicians. By showing how "appropriate utilization of services" or "that which is medically indicated" is a function of socioeconomic factors related to institutional responsibilities, I point toward an administrative and organizational ethic as a needed component for addressing conflicts of interest. The argument is (...)
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  11.  40
    A Framework for Understanding Medical Epistemologies.George Khushf - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (5):461-486.
    What clinicians, biomedical scientists, and other health care professionals know as individuals or as groups and how they come to know and use knowledge are central concerns of medical epistemology. Activities associated with knowledge production and use are called epistemic practices. Such practices are considered in biomedical and clinical literatures, social sciences of medicine, philosophy of science and philosophy of medicine, and also in other nonmedical literatures. A host of different kinds of knowledge claims have been identified, each with different (...)
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  12.  13
    A Hierarchical Architecture for Nano-Scale Science and Technology: Taking Stock of the Claims About Science Made by Advocates of NBIC Convergence.George Khushf - 2004 - In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios. pp. 21--33.
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  13.  49
    Handbook of Bioethics: Taking Stock of the Field From a Philosophical Perspective.George Khushf (ed.) - 2004 - Kluwer Academic.
    This book is for those interested in an extensive review of the field of bioethics. It is for philosophers who wish to understand the core conceptual issues in health care ethics, and for bioethicists who wish to better understand classical problems in philosophy that have a bearing on health care ethics. The Handbook of Bioethics: Taking Stock of the Field from a Philosophical Perspective: -presents a comprehensive survey of bioethics in one volume; -has 27 of the most prominent scholars in (...)
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  14.  45
    The Institute of Medicine’s Reports on Quality and Safety: Paradoxes and Tensions. [REVIEW]George Khushf, James Raymond & Charles Beaman - 2008 - HEC Forum 20 (1):1-14.
  15.  14
    The Social Conditions for Nanomedicine: Disruption, Systems, and Lock-In.Robert Best & George Khushf - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):733-740.
    Many believe that nanotechnology will be disruptive to our society. Presumably, this means that some people and even whole industries will be undermined by technological developments that nanoscience makes possible. This, in turn, implies that we should anticipate potential workforce disruptions, mitigate in advance social problems likely to arise, and work to fairly distribute the future benefits of nanotechnology. This general, somewhat vague sense of disruption, is very difficult to specify – what will it entail? And how can we responsibly (...)
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  16.  19
    Owning Up to Our Agendas: On the Role and Limits of Science in Debates About Embryos and Brain Death.George Khushf - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (1):58-76.
    The ethical issues integral to embryo research and brain death are intertwined with comprehensive views of life that are not explicitly discussed in most policy debate. I consider three representative views – a naturalist, romantic, and theist – and show how these might inform the way practical ethical issues are addressed. I then consider in detail one influential argument in embryo research that attempts to bypass deep values. I show that this twinning argument is deeply flawed. It presupposes naturalist commitments (...)
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  17.  17
    The Social Conditions for Nanomedicine: Disruption, Systems, and Lock-In.Robert Best & George Khushf - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):733-740.
    Here we consider two ways that nanomedicine might be disruptive. First, low-end disruptions that are intrinsically unpredictable but limited in scope, and second, high end disruptions that involve broader societal issues but can be anticipated, allowing opportunity for ethical reflection.
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  18.  7
    Owning Up to Our Agendas: On the Role and Limits of Science in Debates About Embryos and Brain Death.George Khushf - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (1):58-76.
    ”Merely fact-minded sciences make merely factminded people.”“ …the positivistic concept of science in our time is, historically speaking, a residual concept. It has dropped all the questions which had been considered under the now narrower, now broader concepts of metaphysics….all these ‘metaphysical’ questions, taken broadly – commonly called specifically philosophical questions – surpass the world understood as the universe of mere facts. They surpass it precisely as being questions with the idea of reason in mind. And they all claim a (...)
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  19.  9
    Reflections on the Dignity of Guan Zhong: A Comparison of Confucian and Western Liberal Notions of Suicide.George Khushf - forthcoming - Confucian Bioethics.
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  20. The Ethics of NBIC Convergence.George Khushf - 2007 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (3):185 – 196.
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  21.  31
    Open Questions in the Ethics of Convergence.George Khushf - 2007 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (3):299 – 310.
    After historically situating NBIC Convergence in the context of earlier bioethical debate on genetics, ten questions are raised in areas related to the ethics of Convergence, indicating where future research is needed.
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  22.  77
    Expanding the Horizon of Reflection on Health and Disease.George Khushf - 1995 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (5):461-473.
  23.  24
    Announcing a New Section and a Call for Papers Administrative and Organizational Ethics.George Khushf - 1997 - HEC Forum 9 (4):299-309.
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  24.  24
    Setting Organizational Ethics Within a Broader Social and Legal Context.George Khushf & Rosemarie Tong - 2002 - HEC Forum 14 (2):77-85.
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  25.  13
    The Value of Comparative Analysis in Framing the Problems of Organizational Ethics.George Khushf - 2001 - HEC Forum 13 (2):125-131.
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  26.  20
    A Sympathetic but Critical Assessment of Nanotechnology Initiatives.Robert Best, George Khushf & Robin Wilson - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):655-657.
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  27.  65
    An Ethics Discussion Series for Hospital Administrators.Allan S. Brett, James I. Raymond, Donald E. Saunders & George Khushf - 1998 - HEC Forum 10 (2):177-185.
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  28.  20
    Bioethics in a Liberal Society.George Khushf - 1998 - International Studies in Philosophy 30 (2):124-125.
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  29.  52
    Beware of Mereologists Bearing Gifts: Prolegomena to a Medical Metaphysics.George Khushf - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (5):385-408.
    This essay considers implications of formal mereologies and ontologies for medical metaphysics. Edward Fried’s extensional mereological account of the human body is taken as representative of a prominent strand in analytic metaphysics that has close affinities with medical positivism. I show why such accounts fail. First, I consider how Fried attempts to make sense of the medical case of Barney Clark, the first recipient of an artificial heart, and show that his analytic metaphysical categories do not have the right kind (...)
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  30.  75
    Ethics, Politics, and Health Care Reform.George Khushf - 1994 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (5):397-405.
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  31.  25
    Engelhardt, the Ik, and the Foundation of Bioethics.George Khushf - 2002 - HEC Forum 14 (4):325-334.
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  32.  32
    Hegel and the Spirit: Philosophy as Pneumatology.George Khushf - 1994 - The Owl of Minerva 26 (1):71-77.
    In most of the philosophy of the last 150 years, theological concerns have been increasingly marginalized. This does not mean that the issues that were addressed theologically in the past are no longer addressed. Rather, the perennial concerns have been reconstructed so that they are no longer tied to a religious context. Ecclesiology has become political theory, moral theology has become ethics, and doctrines of revelation have become epistemology. Such a list could be made fairly exhaustive, although there is not (...)
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  33.  32
    Robert L. Perkins (Ed.), International Kierkegaard Commentary: Either/or, Part I Robert L. Perkins (Ed.), International Kierkegaard Commentary: Either/or, Part II. [REVIEW]George Khushf - 1999 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 46 (2):122-125.
  34.  11
    Stem Cells and the Man on the Moon: Should We Go There From Here?George Khushf & Robert G. Best - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (1):37 – 39.
  35.  28
    Struggling to Understand and the Nature of Organizational Ethics.George Khushf - 1999 - HEC Forum 11 (4):285-287.
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  36.  16
    The Concept of Faith: A Philosophical Investigation. [REVIEW]George Khushf - 1997 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 41 (2):126-128.
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  37.  6
    The Domain of Parental Discretion in Treatment of Neonates: Beyond the Impasse Between a Sanctity-of-Life and Quality-of-Life Ethic.George Khushf - 2002 - In Julia Lai Po-Wah Tao (ed.), Cross-Cultural Perspectives on the (Im) Possibility of Global Bioethics. Kluwer Academic. pp. 277--298.
  38.  13
    The Ethics of Nano/Neuro Convergence.George Khushf - 2011 - In Judy Illes & Barbara J. Sahakian (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 467--92.
    This article outlines a few representative areas of research in nano- and neuroscience and then considers the complex continuum of entangled research practices that results. The point of this review is to give a realistic sense of the distributed, opportunistic character of this research, and to show how such emergent practices challenge conventional assumptions about how ethics and science should be advanced. It evaluates the risk profile of research related to that type as if it designated some discrete project. It (...)
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  39. Theoretical Foundations for Organizational Ethics: Developing Norms for a New Kind of Healthcare.George Khushf - 2009 - In Denis Gordon Arnold (ed.), Ethics and the Business of Biomedicine. Cambridge University Press. pp. 220.
     
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  40.  22
    The Scope of Organizational Ethics.George Khushf - 1998 - HEC Forum 10 (2):127-135.
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  41.  19
    The Two Sides of Inter-Ethics.George Khushf - 2000 - HEC Forum 12 (3):185-190.
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  42.  10
    What Is Unique About Nanomedicine? The Significance of the Mesoscale.George Khushf & Ronald A. Siegel - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):780-794.
    Unlike drugs and medical devices, for which long standing and continuously improving quality assurance/quality control infrastructures exist, many nano-based products lack well-defined standards that are useful to manufacturers and regulators. Inherent variabilities in nanoparticle sizes and shapes, their large surface-to-volume ratios, and their mesoscale interactions with subcellular structures, suggest new complexities and challenges that must be met before widespread application of nanomedicines can be expected.
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  43.  10
    What is Unique About Nanomedicine? The Significance of the Mesoscale.George Khushf & Ronald A. Siegel - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):780-794.
    In prominent funding and policy statements, a particle with at least one dimension in the 1-300 nm size range must have novel physicochemical properties to count as a “nanoparticle.” Size is thus only one factor. Novelty of a particle's properties is also essential to its “nano” classification. When particles in this size range are introduced into living systems, they often interact with their host in novel ways that require some modification of existing methods and models used by pharmaceutical scientists and (...)
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