Holyoak and Cheng 's account of Wason's selection task was evaluated by testing participants' recognition memory for the rule. To accommodate the finding that participants' selections are systematically influenced by manipulating their perspective on the rule to be tested, Holyoak and Cheng put forward a development of Pragmatic Reasoning Schema theory, according to which the rule being tested is mapped onto different schematic rules depending on the perspective taken. The instantiated schema then becomes the basis for reasoning, and the different (...) schemas encourage the selection of different cases. We hypothesised that if participants interpret the rule by instantiating a particular schema, then they should falsely recognise a sentence corresponding to the instantiated schema a short time after performing the task. An experimental test provided limited support for this hypothesis. (shrink)
A brief popular biography of George Fox, quoting extensively from his Journal, followed by an account of the beliefs and work of the Quakers both here and in Europe. This paperback is profusely and interestingly illustrated, but one would like a larger format and better binding. --L. S. F.
This brief and valuable reconstruction of Mead's theory of social reality combines a carefully documented exposition of the development of Mead's thought with a philosophically critical examination of some of his major themes. Whereas most interpreters have typed Mead as a "social behaviorist," his theories are here rightly portrayed as transcending the behavioristic framework, moving "from a problematic empiricism toward an idealistic and subjectivistic account of the nature of social reality." The author finds unresolved "foundational confusions" in Mead's theories, however, (...) springing primarily from his evasion of epistemological issues. --L. K. B. (shrink)
Introduction, W G Runciman Social Evolution in Primates: The Role of Ecological Factors and Male Behaviour, Carel P van Schaik Determinants of Group Size in Primates: A General Model, R I M Dunbar Function and Intention in the Calls of Non-Human Primates, Dorothy L Cheney & Robert M Seyfarth Why Culture is Common, but Cultural Evolution is Rare, Robert Boyd & Peter J Richerson An Evolutionary and Chronological Framework for Human Social Behaviour, Robert A Foley Friendship and the Banker?s (...) Paradox: Other Pathways to the Evolution of Adaptations for Altruism, John Tooby & Leda Cosmides The Early Prehistory of Human Social Behaviour: Issues of Archaeological Inference and Cognitive Evolution, Steven Mithen The Emergence of Biologically Modern Populations in Europe: A Social and Cognitive ?Revolution??, Paul Mellars Responses to Environmental Novelty: Changes in Men?s Marriage Strategies in a Rural Kenyan Community, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder Genetic Language Impairment: Unruly Grammars, M Gopnik, J Dalalakis, S E Fukuda, S Fukuda & E Kehayia The Emergence of Cultures among Wild Chimpanzees, Christophe Boesch Terrestriality, Bipedalism and the Origin of Language, Leslie C Aiello Conclusions, John Maynard Smith. (shrink)
Objective: Compassion has been associated with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior, and has been regarded as a virtue, both historically and cross-culturally. However, the psychological study of compassion has been limited to laboratory settings and/or standard survey assessments. Here, we use an experience sampling method (ESM) to compare naturalistic assessments of compassion with standard assessments, and to examine compassion, its variability, and associations with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior. -/- Methods: Participants took a survey which included standard assessments of compassion and eudaimonia. (...) Then, over four days, they were repeatedly asked about their level of compassion, eudaimonia, and situational factors within the moments of daily life. Finally, prosocial behavior was tested using the Dual Gamble Task and an opportunity to donate task winnings. -/- Results: Analyses revealed within-person associations between ESM compassion and eudaimonia. ESM compassion also predicted eudaimonia at the next ESM time point. While not impervious to situational factors, considerable consistency was observed in ESM compassion in comparison with eudaimonia. Further, ESM compassion along with eudaimonia predicted donating behavior. Standard assessments did not. -/- Conclusion: Consistent with virtue theory, some individual’s reports displayed a probabilistic tendency toward compassion, and ESM compassion predicted ESM eudaimonia and prosocial behavior toward those in need. (shrink)
This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent. The latter approach, i.e. whether constructivism is internally consistent, is the focus of this article. The issues singled out for discussion are concerned with the constructivist ontology and epistemology. This article shows that (...) constructivism's paradigmatic beliefs are internally in tension. (shrink)
Abstract. We argue that all human beings have a special type of dignity which is the basis for (1) the obligation all of us have not to kill them, (2) the obligation to take their well-being into account when we act, and (3) even the obligation to treat them as we would have them treat us, and indeed, that all human beings are equal in fundamental dignity. We give reasons to oppose the position that only some human beings, because of (...) their possession of certain characteristics in addition to their humanity (for example, an immediately exercisable capacity for self-consciousness, or for rational deliberation), have full moral worth. What distinguishes human beings from other animals, what makes human beings persons rather than things, is their rational nature, and human beings are rational creatures by virtue of possessing natural capacities for conceptual thought, deliberation, and free choice, that is, the natural capacity to shape their own lives. (shrink)
I know about you only from your valuable books and from the little that was communicated to me by telephone in Moscow in September. Nevertheless, we share a warm interest in Greek culture generally and philosophy in particular.
La belle collection « Acteurs de l'histoire » (éditions de l'Imprimerie Nationale), qui rassemble des textes fondateurs de l'Antiquité à nos jours, accueille _ après plus d'une trentaine de titres déclinés au masculin _ sa première « actrice » en la personne de George Sand. En choisissant de présenter une « édition exhaustive de tous les textes politiques publiés par Sand en cette période de son plus grand engagement [1843-1850] », Michelle Perrot nous permet d'accéder de la meilleure ..
Le rapprochement entre émancipation féminine et religion peut sembler incongru, car il est généralement admis que les convictions religieuses sont un obstacle au féminisme et à toute forme d'émancipation. Il apparaît toutefois que les idées religieuses de George Sand, issues de différents courants de pensée du romantisme, peuvent servir de point d'appui à l'émancipation féminine. Elles semblent en outre préfigurer certaines découvertes des sciences humaines, de la sociologie historique et de l'ethnologie notamment, qu'avait résumées Bachofen vers 1860 sous le (...) vocable " religions favorables au droit de la mère ". The parallel between emancipation of women and religion could seem incongruous since it is generally accepted that religious convictions are an obstacle to feminism or to any form of emancipation. It would appear however that George Sand's religious ideas, stemming from various thought trends in romanticism, could serve to support women's emancipation. Sand's ideas also prefigure certain discoveries of human sciences, notably historical sociology and ethnology, which Bachofen had summarised around 1860 under the expression " religions favourable to maternal right ". (shrink)