With a view to addressing the moral concerns about the use of donor siblings, the Policy Statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics - Children as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors (the Policy) has laid out the criteria upon which tissue harvest from a minor would be permissible.
A brief popular biography of George Fox, quoting extensively from his Journal, followed by an account of the beliefs and work of the Quakers both here and in Europe. This paperback is profusely and interestingly illustrated, but one would like a larger format and better binding. --L. S. F.
This brief and valuable reconstruction of Mead's theory of social reality combines a carefully documented exposition of the development of Mead's thought with a philosophically critical examination of some of his major themes. Whereas most interpreters have typed Mead as a "social behaviorist," his theories are here rightly portrayed as transcending the behavioristic framework, moving "from a problematic empiricism toward an idealistic and subjectivistic account of the nature of social reality." The author finds unresolved "foundational confusions" in Mead's theories, however, (...) springing primarily from his evasion of epistemological issues. --L. K. B. (shrink)
This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent. The latter approach, i.e. whether constructivism is internally consistent, is the focus of this article. The issues singled out for discussion are concerned with the constructivist ontology and epistemology. This article shows that (...) constructivism's paradigmatic beliefs are internally in tension. (shrink)
Adults without the capacity to make their own medical decisions have their rights protected under the Mental Capacity Act in the UK. The underlying principle of the court's decisions is the best interests test, and the evaluation of best interests is a welfare appraisal. Although the House of Lords in the well-known case of Bland held that the decision to withhold treatment for patients in a persistent vegetative state should not be based on their best interests, judges in recent cases (...) have still held that the best interests of persistently vegetative patients demand that the right to die with dignity prevails over society's interest to preserve life. The basis of suggesting that it is in the best interests for one who is alive in peace to die in peace is weak. Even if it may not be in their best interests to live on, it may not be so to die either. The phrase ‘the right to dignity/to die with dignity’ has been misused as a trump card to justify the speculation that a vegetative patient would necessarily refuse to live on machines. Without disrespect to the court's decision, we argue that the use of the best interests test to authorise withdrawing/withholding treatment from persistently vegetative patients without an advance directive is problematic. We propose that the court could have reached the same decision by considering only the futility of treatment without working through the controversial best interests of the patient. (shrink)
Abstract. We argue that all human beings have a special type of dignity which is the basis for (1) the obligation all of us have not to kill them, (2) the obligation to take their well-being into account when we act, and (3) even the obligation to treat them as we would have them treat us, and indeed, that all human beings are equal in fundamental dignity. We give reasons to oppose the position that only some human beings, because of (...) their possession of certain characteristics in addition to their humanity (for example, an immediately exercisable capacity for self-consciousness, or for rational deliberation), have full moral worth. What distinguishes human beings from other animals, what makes human beings persons rather than things, is their rational nature, and human beings are rational creatures by virtue of possessing natural capacities for conceptual thought, deliberation, and free choice, that is, the natural capacity to shape their own lives. (shrink)
Wilkinson and Savulescu did not agree with the court's decision to continue M's treatment and suggested in their recent commentary that the magnitude of benefits of being alive for M is small compared with the potential use of health resources for other patients. We argue that the benefits of being sensate to the surroundings for an otherwise unconscious person are not necessarily small. One cannot assess on behalf of another person the magnitude of benefits of being alive according to the (...) intensity or the duration of negative experiences. Denying life-sustaining treatment to patients in a minimally conscious state solely on the grounds that they are less capable of enjoying the benefits represents grave discrimination against disabled persons. For patients in a minimally conscious state who have not delegated a surrogate or made any advance decision about their medical treatment, the duty of doctors is to preserve their right to self-determination and maximise their capacity to enjoy their life. M should live on, and life-sustaining treatment should not be withdrawn. (shrink)
I know about you only from your valuable books and from the little that was communicated to me by telephone in Moscow in September. Nevertheless, we share a warm interest in Greek culture generally and philosophy in particular.
La belle collection « Acteurs de l'histoire » (éditions de l'Imprimerie Nationale), qui rassemble des textes fondateurs de l'Antiquité à nos jours, accueille _ après plus d'une trentaine de titres déclinés au masculin _ sa première « actrice » en la personne de George Sand. En choisissant de présenter une « édition exhaustive de tous les textes politiques publiés par Sand en cette période de son plus grand engagement [1843-1850] », Michelle Perrot nous permet d'accéder de la meilleure ..
Le rapprochement entre émancipation féminine et religion peut sembler incongru, car il est généralement admis que les convictions religieuses sont un obstacle au féminisme et à toute forme d'émancipation. Il apparaît toutefois que les idées religieuses de George Sand, issues de différents courants de pensée du romantisme, peuvent servir de point d'appui à l'émancipation féminine. Elles semblent en outre préfigurer certaines découvertes des sciences humaines, de la sociologie historique et de l'ethnologie notamment, qu'avait résumées Bachofen vers 1860 sous le (...) vocable " religions favorables au droit de la mère ". The parallel between emancipation of women and religion could seem incongruous since it is generally accepted that religious convictions are an obstacle to feminism or to any form of emancipation. It would appear however that George Sand's religious ideas, stemming from various thought trends in romanticism, could serve to support women's emancipation. Sand's ideas also prefigure certain discoveries of human sciences, notably historical sociology and ethnology, which Bachofen had summarised around 1860 under the expression " religions favourable to maternal right ". (shrink)