Transcription is a potential threat to genome integrity, and transcription‐associated DNA damage must be repaired for proper messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis and for cells to transmit their genome intact into progeny. For a wide range of structurally diverse DNA lesions, cells employ the highly conserved nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway to restore their genome back to its native form. Recent evidence suggests that NER factors function, in addition to the canonical DNA repair mechanism, in processes that facilitate mRNA synthesis or (...) shape the 3D chromatin architecture. Here, these findings are critically discussed and a working model that explains the puzzling clinical heterogeneity of NER syndromes highlighting the relevance of physiological, transcription‐associated DNA damage to mammalian development and disease is proposed. (shrink)
La région de la Haute Macédoine , la zone extrême de la Macédoine du Nord, souvent évoquée par les sources anciennes, en raison de sa position géographique particulière et de ses populations d’origines différentes, a constitué un terrain d’affrontements, de fusions et de manifestations de syncrétisme des courants et croyances religieux au cours de sa marche dans le temps. Il s’agit d’une région à population surtout rurale, malgré la présence de certains centres urbains, laquelle a conservé ses traits de culture (...) jusqu’à l’antiquité tardive. Les quatre régions particulières d’Élimée, d’Éordée, d’Orestide et de Lyncestide constituent un noyau actif bien que conservateur, où se rattachent et dont se détachent des régions au cours de l’histoire, un phénomène notamment déterminé par les aspirations conquérantes des souverains. Au-delà des sites attendus des sanctuaires dans les villes ou zones d’agglomérations identifiées, comme Aiané, Héraclée Lyncestice, Pétrès, Ératyra, les autres sanctuaires attestés de la Haute Macédoine sont situés au sommet de collines ou de montagnes , à des points de passages importants, ce qui est probablement dû à la grande portée du culte , ou à de simples passages, en fonction de la propagation du culte, . Leur situation suit donc la répartition géographique générale des villes et agglomérations à quelques légères différences près. Selon les données archéologiques connues jusqu’ici, ces sanctuaires ne présentent pas de constructions monumentales, ce qui est l’une des caractéristiques de l’espace macédonien.The region of Upper Macedonia became a field of controversy, fusions and syncretism over the course of its history due to its distinct geographical location and the diversity of its population. The region consisted of a mainly rural population despite having some urban centres. This population maintained its tribal and cultural characteristics until Late Antiquity. The four member areas Elimeia, Eordaia, Orestis and Lyncestis formed a conservative yet active core, annexing or de-annexing regions in accordance with historical developments shaped by ambitious rulers desirous of expanding their dominion. Apart from sites where sanctuaries would be expected, for example, in urban centres or the sites of identified settlements, such as Aiane, Heraclea Lyncestis, Petres and Eratyra, the other attested sanctuaries of Upper Macedonia are located: a) on the crests of hills or on mountaintops ; b) at hubs, probably as the result of a cult’s wide influence , and c) in passages, because of a cult’s dissemination . Thus, sanctuary locations follow the general geographical distribution of cities and settlements. According to the present excavation data, these sanctuaries do not display monumentality, which is a characteristic of the Macedonian region. (shrink)
This article reports the findings from a study that investigates the relationship between ethical climates and police whistle-blowing on five forms of misconduct in the State of Georgia. The results indicate that a friendship or team climate generally explains willingness to blow the whistle, but not the actual frequency of blowing the whistle. Instead, supervisory status, a control variable investigated in previous studies, is the most consistent predictor of both willingness to blow the whistle and frequency of blowing the (...) whistle. Contrary to popular belief, the results also generally indicate that police are more inclined than civilian employees to blow the whistle in Georgia - in other words, they are less inclined to maintain a code of silence. (shrink)
In this paper I utilize anthropological insights to illuminate how health professionals and patients navigate and negotiate what for them is social about tuberculosis in order to improve treatment outcomes and support patients as human beings. I draw on ethnographic research about the implementation of the DOTS approach in Georgia’s National Tuberculosis Program in the wake of the Soviet healthcare system. Georgia is a particularly unique context for exploring these issues given the country’s rich history of medical professionalism (...) and the insistence that the practice of medicine is a moral commitment to society. I argue for critical attention to the ways in which treatment recipients and providers navigate what, for them, is “social” about therapeutic practices and their significance for avoiding biological and social reductionism. (shrink)
Currently, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have youth concussion laws based on the core principals of the 2009 Lystedt Law of Washington State. On April 23, 2013, the state of Georgia signed into law House Bill 284, “The Return to Play Act of 2013” and became one of the last states to pass youth concussion legislation. This Act became effective on January 1, 2014. The purpose of this report is to highlight the legislative process of enacting (...)Georgia House Bill 284 and compare it to the legislation of other states. (shrink)
This paper discusses the diverse forms of contemporary Islam practised by the Kists, inhabitants of Georgia's Pankisi Gorge related to the Chechens. The newest wave of Salafi-inspired Islam among the young generation of Chechens, mostly men who have fought in the Chechen-Russian war, is aesthetically marked by a distinctive style of minaret and by a more public adhān than Pankisi has hitherto known. The reactions of local Kists to the aesthetics and morality of the new Islam, and the distinctions (...) between Salafi, Wahhabi, and Pankisi Islam are explored. It is argued that the new Islam is not as foreign to the Caucasus as scholarship tends to suggest. Ethnographies of minarets and headstones are followed by an exploration of reactions to Soviet secularism in the historiography of Chechen Islam. Positioning itself within recent scholarship aiming to overcome the constraints imposed by secular forms of knowledge in the study of Islamic societies, the paper seeks to locate the unique modes of Kist belief within the framework of a comparative, post-secular anthropology of Islam. (shrink)
This article argues that the equality versus difference dispute in feminism is not essentially a dispute about the basis of public policy as Georgia Warnke implies. Furthermore, rarely can public policy issues concerning women be resolved by direct appeal to interpretation. Interpretation should be understood as offering a model of cultural transformation rather than public policy adjudication. Key Words: deliberation democracy difference equality feminism interpretation.
The stage of the formation and establishment of a market economy in Georgia raises the necessity for economic science to solve fundamentally different problems concerning the improvement of the investment environment and investment climate in national economy. After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the replacement with new relationships has been quite difficult and painful in which foreign investments should play a crucial role. Issues to be discussed include the questions that explore some of the categories and the (...) constraints of the investment climate. All this leads to the relevance of the article and, therefore, determines the purpose of the article. The research process uses general dialectical methods of socio-economic research as well as modern methods of research of economic theory. The scientific aim of the research is to highlight the current issues of the investment environment and investment climate in economy, to study the transformation processes taking place in Georgia during the last two decades, to conduct analysis using proper methods, to show the current social and political as well as other important processes, to generalize them and to form proper opinions. Findings based on research suggest that it is possible to speed up the process of economic development of Georgia. However, the situation will remain difficult in the region and the factors causing the recession _ instability in oil prices and the weakening of the national currency against the US dollar will still be present. In conclusion, the opinion can be formed that a stable and predictable legislative process is important for the investment environment. Therefore, all the parties that may undergo the changes should be informed and involved in every project planned by the government; At present, it becomes necessary to further extend the deregulation policy, which should include the development of financial and investment sectors and support of the establishment of appropriate infrastructure, promotion of the further development of microfinance institutions, investment companies and funds, designing the system of investment insurance and stimulation, elimination of unnecessary bureaucracy and artificial barriers, etc. (shrink)
This article discusses the main trends of Georgian philosophy: its basic principles and perspectives, the importance of the Western, especially the European cultural heritage, and the Georgian contribution to the history of ideas in a global perspective. Metaphysical questions of cognition, truth, identity, virtue and value, wisdom and power, as well as issues of ethical, social, political and aesthetic values, phenomenological, philosophical-theological and linguistic research are central to Georgian philosophy and exemplify its continuing relevance vis-à-vis the Western tradition in its (...) broadest sense. Although philosophical ideas in Georgia rarely matured into a well-balanced, selfsufficient system, one may distinguish as original conceptions some ideas of Christian Neo-Platonism and Aletheological Realism. (shrink)
We examine the applicability of the concept of Social Licence to Operate (SLO) for international humanitarian and development cooperation organizations. We review the relevant literature on SLO and derive criteria that can be applicable to the work of development agencies. We also examine the case of the international NGO, Mercy Corps, in the region of Samtskhe-Javakheti, Georgia, specifically its Market Alliances against Poverty project. Using focus groups and key informant interviews, we sought to understand what would constitute an SLO (...) for the local community in the context of a development intervention. Themes that emerged included: transparency and accountability; access to information; the potential benefits and dangers of innovations; the inspirational effect of the presence of an external organization; risks associated with loans and grants; and the reliability of intermediaries. Our results can be utilized by development practitioners and humanitarian organizations as well as academics who want t.. (shrink)
(2010). Betwixt and Between: Working Through the Aesthetic in Philosophy of Education: George F. Kneller Lecture, Conference of the American Educational Studies Association Savannah, Georgia, October 30, 2008. Educational Studies: Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 291-316.