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Gerald Gaus [75]Gerald F. Gaus [55]
  1.  42
    The Order of Public Reason: A Theory of Freedom and Morality in a Diverse and Bounded World.Gerald Gaus - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this innovative and important work, Gerald Gaus advances a revised and more realistic account of public reason liberalism, showing how, in the midst of fundamental disagreement about values and moral beliefs, we can achieve a moral and political order that treats all as free and equal moral persons. The first part of this work analyzes social morality as a system of authoritative moral rules. Drawing on an earlier generation of moral philosophers such as Kurt Baier and Peter Strawson as (...)
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  2. The Tyranny of the Ideal: Justice in a Diverse Society.Gerald Gaus - unknown
     
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  3. The Roles of Religious Conviction in a Publicly Justified Polity: The Implications of Convergence, Asymmetry and Political Institutions.Gerald Gaus & Kevin Vallier - 2009 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (1-2):51-76.
    Our concern in this essay are the roles of religious conviction in what we call a “publicly justified polity” — one in which the laws conform to the Principle of Public Justification, according to which (in a sense that will become clearer) each citizen must have conclusive reason to accept each law as binding. According to “justificatory liberalism,”1 this public justification requirement follows from the core liberal commitment of respect for the freedom and equality of all citizens.2 To respect each (...)
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  4. Justificatory Liberalism: An Essay on Epistemology and Political Theory.Gerald F. Gaus - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    This book advances a theory of personal, public and political justification. Drawing on current work in epistemology and cognitive psychology, the work develops a theory of personally justified belief. Building on this account, it advances an account of public justification that is more normative and less "populist" than that of "political liberals." Following the social contract theories of Hobbes, Locke and Kant, the work then argues that citizens have conclusive reason to appoint an umpire to resolve disputes arising from inconclusive (...)
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  5.  95
    Coercion, Ownership, and the Redistributive State: Justificatory Liberalism's Classical Tilt.Gerald Gaus - 2010 - Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (1):233.
    Justificatory liberalism1 rests on a conception of members of the public as free and equal. To say that each is free implies that each has a fundamental claim to act as she sees fit on the basis of her own reasoning. To say that each is equal is to insist that members of the public are symmetrically placed insofar as no one has a natural right to command others, nor does anyone have a natural duty to defer to the reasoning (...)
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  6.  59
    On Two Critics of Justificatory Liberalism: A Response to Wall and Lister.Gerald Gaus - 2010 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 9 (2):177-212.
    In replying to Steven Wall’s and Andrew Lister’s thoughtful essays on my account of justificatory liberalism in this issue, I respond to many of their specific criticisms while taking the opportunity to explicate the foundations of justificatory liberalism. Justificatory liberalism takes seriously the moral requirement to justify all claims of authority over others, as well as all coercive interferences with their lives. If we do so, although we are by no means committed to libertarianism, we find that that many of (...)
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  7.  27
    Value and Justification: The Foundations of Liberal Theory.Gerald F. Gaus - 1990 - Cambridge University Press.
    This important new book takes as its points of departure two questions: What is the nature of valuing? and What morality can be justified in a society that deeply disagrees on what is truly valuable? In Part One, the author develops a theory of value that attempts to reconcile reason with passions. Part Two explores how this theory of value grounds our commitment to moral action. The author argues that rational moral action can neither be seen as a way of (...)
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  8. Perfectionism and Neutrality: Essays in Liberal Theory.Bruce Ackerman, Richard J. Arneson, Ronald W. Dworkin, Gerald F. Gaus, Kent Greenawalt, Vinit Haksar, Thomas Hurka, George Klosko, Charles Larmore, Stephen Macedo, Thomas Nagel, John Rawls, Joseph Raz & George Sher - 2003 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Editors provide a substantive introduction to the history and theories of perfectionism and neutrality, expertly contextualizing the essays and making the collection accessible.
     
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  9.  5
    Moral Learning in the Open Society: The Theory and Practice of Natural Liberty.Gerald Gaus & Shaun Nichols - 2017 - Social Philosophy and Policy 34 (1):79-101.
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  10.  16
    On Seeking the Truth Through Democracy: Estlund’s Case for the Qualified Epistemic Claim.Gerald Gaus - 2011 - Ethics 121 (2):270-300.
  11.  16
    The Egalitarian Species.Gerald Gaus - 2015 - Social Philosophy and Policy 31 (2):1-27.
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  12. The Place of Autonomy Within Liberalism.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    My concern in this chapter is the place of autonomy within liberalism, understood as a public morality.1 To what extent is liberal morality necessarily committed to some doctrine of autonomy, and what is the nature of this doctrine? I begin (§2) by briefly explicating my understanding of liberalism, which is based the fundamental liberal principle—that all interferences with action stand in need of justification. Section 3 then defends my first core claim: given a certain compelling view of the nature of (...)
     
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  13.  92
    On Theorizing About Public Reason.Gerald Gaus - 2013 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 9 (1):64-85.
    This essay responds to the thoughtful essays on the Order of Public Reason (OPR) by Elvio Baccarini, Giulia Bistagnino and Nenad Miscevic. All three essays interrogate OPR’s understanding of moral theory - “meta” matters about the nature of morality, reasons and modeling within moral theories. I first turn to the general understanding of the moral enterprise underlying OPR, explaining why it takes a view at odds with the contemporary mainstream in moral philosophy. I then explain the idea of moral truth (...)
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  14. Reasonable Pluralism and the Domain of the Political: How the Weaknesses of John Rawls's Political Liberalism Can Be Overcome by a Justificatory Liberalism.Gerald F. Gaus - 1999 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 42 (2):259 – 284.
    Under free institutions the exercise of human reason leads to a plurality of reasonable, yet irreconcilable doctrines. Rawls's political liberalism is intended as a response to this fundamental feature of modern democratic life. Justifying coercive political power by appeal to any one (or sample) of these doctrines is, Rawls believes, oppressive and illiberal. If we are to achieve unity without oppression, he tells us, we must all affirm a public political conception that is supported by these diverse reasonable doctrines. The (...)
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  15.  27
    The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Three Agent-Type Challenges to The Order of Public Reason.Gerald Gaus - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 170 (3):563-577.
    In this issue of Philosophical Studies, Richard Arneson, Jonathan Quong and Robert Talisse contribute papers discussing The Order of Public Reason (OPR). All press what I call “agent-type challenges” to the project of OPR. In different ways they all focus on a type (or types) of moral (or sometimes not-so-moral) agent. Arneson presents a good person who is so concerned with doing the best thing she does not truly endorse social morality; Quong a bad person who rejects it and violates (...)
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  16.  5
    Coercion, Ownership, and the Redistributive State: Justificatory Liberalism's Classical Tilt: Gerald Gaus.Gerald Gaus - 2010 - Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (1):233-275.
    Justificatory liberalism is liberal in an abstract and foundational sense: it respects each as free and equal, and so insists that coercive laws must be justified to all members of the public. In this essay I consider how this fundamental liberal principle relates to disputes within the liberal tradition on “the extent of the state.” It is widely thought today that this core liberal principle of respect requires that the state regulates the distribution of resources or well-being to conform to (...)
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  17. The Place of Religious Belief in Public Reason Liberalism.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    In the few decades a new conception of liberalism has arisen—the “public reason view” — which developed out of contractualist approaches to justifying liberalism. The social contract theories of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau all stressed that the justification of the state depended on showing that everyone would, in some way, consent to it. By relying on consent, social contract theory seemed to suppose a voluntarist conception of political justice: what is just depends on what people choose to agree to — (...)
     
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  18.  47
    On Justifying the Moral Rights of the Moderns: A Case of Old Wine in New Bottles.Gerald F. Gaus - 2007 - Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (1):84-119.
    In this essay I sketch a philosophical argument for classical liberalism based on the requirements of public reason. I argue that we can develop a philosophical liberalism that, unlike so much recent philosophy, takes existing social facts and mores seriously while, at the same time, retaining the critical edge characteristic of the liberal tradition. I argue that once we develop such an account, we are led toward a vindication of “old” (qua classical) liberal morality—what Benjamin Constant called the “liberties of (...)
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  19.  6
    Justificatory Liberalism: An Essay on Epistemology and Political Theory.Thomas Christiano & Gerald F. Gaus - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (3):455.
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  20. Backwards Into the Future: Neorepublicanism as a Postsocialist Critique of Market Society.Gerald Gaus - 2003 - Social Philosophy and Policy 20 (1):59-91.
    A. Two conceptions of moral legitimacy Socialism, understood as the rejection of markets based on private property in favor of comprehensive centralized economic planning, is no longer a serious political option. If the core of capitalism is the organization of the economy primarily through market competition based on private property, then capitalism has certainly defeated socialism. Markets have been accepted—and central planning abandoned—throughout most of the “third world” and the formerly Communist states. In the advanced industrial states of the West, (...)
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  21. Social Complexity and Evolved Moral Principles.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    A central theme in F. A. Hayek’s work is the contrast between principles and expediency, and the insistence that governments follow abstract general principles rather than pursue apparently expedient social and economic policies that seek to make us better off.2 This is a radical and striking thesis, especially from an economist: governments should abjure the pursuit of social and economic policies that aim to improve welfare and, instead, adhere to moral principles. In this chapter I defend this radical claim. I (...)
     
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  22.  39
    Justification, Choice and Promise: Three Devices of the Consent Tradition in a Diverse Society.Gerald Gaus - 2012 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (2):109-127.
    The twin ideas at the heart of the social contract tradition are that persons are naturally free and equal, and that genuine political obligations must in some way be based on the consent of those obligated. The Lockean tradition has held that consent must be in the form of explicit choice; Kantian contractualism has insisted on consent as rational endorsement. In this paper I seek to bring the Kantian and Lockean contract traditions together. Kantian rational justification and actual choice are (...)
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  23. Precis – The Order of Public Reason: A Theory of Freedom and Morality in a Diverse and Bounded World.Gerald Gaus - 2013 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 9 (1):8-13.
  24.  21
    On Dissing Public Reason: A Reply to Enoch.Gerald Gaus - 2015 - Ethics 125 (4):1078-1095.
    This essay responds to David Enoch’s “The Disorder of Public Reason,” published in a previous issue of Ethics. I seek to set the record straight on several of the many charges Enoch makes. More importantly, having clarified some of the more basic points, I make some preliminary efforts at identifying when his brand of moral realism and my version of public reason differ—and, perhaps, where they are more compatible than one might think.
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  25.  1
    An Essay on Rights.Gerald F. Gaus & Hillel Steiner - 1996 - Journal of Philosophy 93 (4):203.
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  26. The (Severe) Limits of Deliberative Democracy as the Basis for Political Choice.Gerald F. Gaus - 2008 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 55 (117):26-53.
    This essay analyses optimal voting rules for one form of deliberative democracy. Drawing on public choice analysis, it is argued that the voting rule that best institutionalises deliberative democracy is a type of a supermajority rule. Deliberative democracy is also committed to the standard neutrality condition according to which if x votes are enough to select alternative A, x votes must be enough to select not-A. Taken together, these imply that deliberative democracy will often be indeterminate. This result shows that (...)
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  27.  67
    Does Democracy Reveal the Voice of the People? Four Takes on Rousseau.Gerald Gaus - 1997 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 75 (2):141 – 162.
  28.  20
    Consensus on What? Convergence for What? Four Models of Political Liberalism.Gerald Gaus & Chad Van Schoelandt - 2017 - Ethics 128 (1):145-172.
    As we read his work, John Rawls was developing an innovative approach to political philosophy, and Political Liberalism struggles with different ways to model these new insights. This article presents four models of political liberalism, particularly focusing on understanding the nature of overlapping consensus and its relation to public reason. Beyond clarifying Rawls’s insights, we aim to spur readers to reassemble the rich elements of Political Liberalism to produce tractable and enlightening models of political life among free and equal citizens (...)
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  29. Social Philosophy.Gerald F. Gaus - 1999
     
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  30.  38
    What is Deontology? Part Two: Reasons to Act. [REVIEW]Gerald F. Gaus - 2001 - Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (2):179-193.
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  31.  82
    The Rational, the Reasonable and Justification.Gerald F. Gaus - 1995 - Journal of Political Philosophy 3 (3):234–258.
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  32.  13
    Liberalism.Gerald Gaus - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  33.  29
    Moral Constitutions.Gerald Gaus - 2013 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 19:4-22.
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  34. The Idea and Ideal of Capitalism.Gerald Gaus - 2010 - In George G. Brenkert & Tom L. Beauchamp (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Consider a stylized contrast between medical and business ethics. Both fields of applied ethics focus on a profession whose activities are basic to human welfare. Both enquire into obligations of professionals, and the relations between goals intrinsic to the profession and ethical duties to others and to the society. I am struck, however, by a fundamental difference: whereas medical ethics takes place against a background of almost universal consensus that the practice of medicine is admirable and morally praiseworthy, the business (...)
     
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  35.  68
    Recognized Rights as Devices of Public Reason.Gerald Gaus - 2009 - Philosophical Perspectives 23 (1):111-136.
    My concern in this essay is a family of liberal theories that I shall call “public reason liberalism,” which arose out of the social contract theories of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. These social contract accounts stressed that the justification of the state depended on showing that everyone would, in some way, consent to it. However, by relying on consent, social contract theory seemed to suppose a voluntarist conception of political obligation and authority: I am only bound by political authority if (...)
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  36.  56
    What is Deontology? Part One: Orthodox Views. [REVIEW]Gerald F. Gaus - 2001 - Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (1):27-42.
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  37.  64
    Is the Public Incompetent? Compared to Whom? About What?Gerald Gaus - 2008 - Critical Review 20 (3):291-311.
    From Mill to, most recently, Bryan Caplan, political and economic elites have been seen as the solution to the public’s ignorance and incompetence. In order to show that elites are actually more competent than the public, however, we would have to find out what type of knowledge is necessary to enact good public policy. The empirical evidence shows that economic experts have a slight advantage over the general public in knowledge of how to achieve policy goals. But, contrary to Caplan, (...)
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  38.  28
    The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy.Gerald F. Gaus & Fred D'Agostino (eds.) - 2012 - Routledge.
    The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy is a comprehensive, definitive reference work, providing an up-to-date survey of the field, charting its history and key figures and movements, and addressing enduring questions as ...
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  39. The Demands of Impartiality and the Evolution of Morality.Gerald F. Gaus - 2010 - In Brian Feltham & John Cottingham (eds.), Partiality and Impartiality: Morality, Special Relationships, and the Wider World. Oxford University Press.
     
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  40.  74
    Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract.Fred D'Agostino, John Thrasher & Gerald Gaus - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  41.  14
    Self-Organizing Moral Systems: Beyond Social Contract Theory.Gerald Gaus - 2018 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 17 (2):119-147.
    This essay examines two different modes of reasoning about justice: an individual mode in which each individual judges what we all ought to do and a social mode in which we seek to reconcile our judgments of justice so that we can share common rules of justice. Social contract theory has traditionally emphasized the second, reconciliation mode, devising a central plan to do so. However, I argue that because we disagree not only in our judgments of justice but also about (...)
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  42.  62
    Are Property Rights Problematic?Gerald F. Gaus & Loren E. Lomasky - 1990 - The Monist 73 (4):483-503.
  43. Weithman , Paul . Why Political Liberalism? On John Rawls's Political Turn . New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Pp. Xii+379. $65.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW]Gerald Gaus - 2011 - Ethics 122 (1):220-224.
  44. Principles, Goals and Symbols: Nozick on Practical Rationality.Gerald F. Gaus - 2002 - In David Schmidtz (ed.), Robert Nozick. Cambridge University Press. pp. 105--130.
     
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  45.  33
    Why All Welfare States Are Unreasonable.Gerald F. Gaus - 1998 - Social Philosophy and Policy 15 (2):1.
    Liberal political theory is all too familiar with the divide between classical and welfare-state liberals. Classical liberals, as we all know, insist on the importance of small government, negative liberty, and private property. Welfare-state liberals, on the other hand, although they too stress civil rights, tend to be sympathetic to “positive liberty,” are for a much more expansive government, and are often ambivalent about private property. Although I do not go so far as to entirely deny the usefulness of this (...)
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  46.  38
    Should Philosophers 'Apply Ethics'?Gerald Gaus - 2005 - Think 3 (9):63-68.
    By , do philosophers actually succeed in corrupting philosophy?
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  47.  15
    The Property Equilibrium in a Liberal Social Order.Gerald Gaus - 2011 - Social Philosophy and Policy 28 (2):74-101.
    The “welcome return” to “substantive political philosophy” that Rawls's A Theory of Justice was said to herald has resulted in forty years of proposals seeking to show that philosophical reflection leads to the demonstrable truth of almost every and any conceivable view of the justice of property rights. Select any view—from the justice of unregulated capitalist markets to the most extreme forms of egalitarianism—and one will find that some philosophers have proclaimed that rational reflection uniquely leads to its justice. This (...)
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  48.  22
    The Moral Foundations of Liberal Neutrality.Gerald F. Gaus - 2009 - In Thomas Christiano & John Philip Christman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Political Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 91--2.
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  49. What is Deontology?, Part One: Orthodox Viewsa Gerald F. Gaus.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    Current moral philosophy is often seen as essentially a debate between the two great traditions of consequentialism and deontology. Although there has been considerable work clarifying consequentialism, deontology is more often attacked or defended than analyzed. Just how we are to understand the very idea of a deontological ethic? We shall see that competing conceptions of deontology have been advanced in recent ethical thinking, leading to differences in classifying ethical theories. If we do not focus on implausible versions, the idea (...)
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  50.  7
    Why All Welfare States Are Unreasonable*: GERALD F. GAUS.Gerald F. Gaus - 1998 - Social Philosophy and Policy 15 (2):1-33.
    Liberal political theory is all too familiar with the divide between classical and welfare-state liberals. Classical liberals, as we all know, insist on the importance of small government, negative liberty, and private property. Welfare-state liberals, on the other hand, although they too stress civil rights, tend to be sympathetic to “positive liberty,” are for a much more expansive government, and are often ambivalent about private property. Although I do not go so far as to entirely deny the usefulness of this (...)
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