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Gerald Gaus [80]Gerald F. Gaus [57]
  1.  36
    The Tyranny of the Ideal: Justice in a Diverse Society.Gerald F. Gaus - 2016 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    In his provocative new book, The Tyranny of the Ideal, Gerald Gaus lays out a vision for how we should theorize about justice in a diverse society. Gaus shows how free and equal people, faced with intractable struggles and irreconcilable conflicts, might share a common moral life shaped by a just framework. He argues that if we are to take diversity seriously and if moral inquiry is sincere about shaping the world, then the pursuit of idealized and perfect theories of (...)
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  2.  86
    The Order of Public Reason: A Theory of Freedom and Morality in a Diverse and Bounded World.Gerald Gaus - 2010 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    In this innovative and important work, Gerald Gaus advances a revised and more realistic account of public reason liberalism, showing how, in the midst of fundamental disagreement about values and moral beliefs, we can achieve a moral and political order that treats all as free and equal moral persons. The first part of this work analyzes social morality as a system of authoritative moral rules. Drawing on an earlier generation of moral philosophers such as Kurt Baier and Peter Strawson as (...)
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  3. Justificatory liberalism: an essay on epistemology and political theory.Gerald F. Gaus - 1996 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This book advances a theory of personal, public and political justification. Drawing on current work in epistemology and cognitive psychology, the work develops a theory of personally justified belief. Building on this account, it advances an account of public justification that is more normative and less "populist" than that of "political liberals." Following the social contract theories of Hobbes, Locke and Kant, the work then argues that citizens have conclusive reason to appoint an umpire to resolve disputes arising from inconclusive (...)
  4.  18
    The Open Society and its Complexities.Gerald F. Gaus - 2021 - New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
    Preface -- Prolegomenon : Hayek's three unsettling theses -- Beyond human nature -- Beyond moral justification -- Beyond human governance -- Three enquiries on the open society -- The rise of a normative species -- A natural history of moral order -- The "starting point" -- The egalitarian revolution -- Self-interest, reciprocity and altruism -- Internalized, enforced, social rules -- The other side of morality -- Cultural evolution -- Part I : the rise and fall of inequality -- A complex (...)
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  5. The roles of religious conviction in a publicly justified polity: The implications of convergence, asymmetry and political institutions.Gerald F. Gaus & Kevin Vallier - 2009 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (1-2):51-76.
    Our concern in this essay are the roles of religious conviction in what we call a “publicly justified polity” — one in which the laws conform to the Principle of Public Justification, according to which (in a sense that will become clearer) each citizen must have conclusive reason to accept each law as binding. According to “justificatory liberalism,”1 this public justification requirement follows from the core liberal commitment of respect for the freedom and equality of all citizens.2 To respect each (...)
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  6.  53
    Value and Justification: The Foundations of Liberal Theory.Gerald F. Gaus - 1990 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This important new book takes as its points of departure two questions: What is the nature of valuing? and What morality can be justified in a society that deeply disagrees on what is truly valuable? In Part One, the author develops a theory of value that attempts to reconcile reason with passions. Part Two explores how this theory of value grounds our commitment to moral action. The author argues that rational moral action can neither be seen as a way of (...)
  7.  35
    An Essay on Rights.Gerald F. Gaus - 1996 - Journal of Philosophy 93 (4):203.
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  8. Consensus on What? Convergence for What? Four Models of Political Liberalism.Gerald Gaus & Chad Van Schoelandt - 2017 - Ethics 128 (1):145-172.
    As we read his work, John Rawls was developing an innovative approach to political philosophy, and Political Liberalism struggles with different ways to model these new insights. This article presents four models of political liberalism, particularly focusing on understanding the nature of overlapping consensus and its relation to public reason. Beyond clarifying Rawls’s insights, we aim to spur readers to reassemble the rich elements of Political Liberalism to produce tractable and enlightening models of political life among free and equal citizens (...)
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  9. Coercion, ownership, and the redistributive state: Justificatory liberalism's classical tilt: Gerald Gaus.Gerald Gaus - 2010 - Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (1):233-275.
    Justificatory liberalism is liberal in an abstract and foundational sense: it respects each as free and equal, and so insists that coercive laws must be justified to all members of the public. In this essay I consider how this fundamental liberal principle relates to disputes within the liberal tradition on “the extent of the state.” It is widely thought today that this core liberal principle of respect requires that the state regulates the distribution of resources or well-being to conform to (...)
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  10.  82
    The Moral Foundations of Liberal Neutrality.Gerald F. Gaus - 2009 - In Thomas Christiano & John Christman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Political Philosophy. Oxford, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 79–98.
    This chapter contains sections titled: The Concept of Neutrality Liberal Moral Neutrality Liberal Political Neutrality The Implications of Liberal Political Neutrality Notes.
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  11.  45
    Liberalism.Gerald Gaus - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  12.  19
    The Morals of Modernity.Gerald Gaus - 1996 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 60 (1):228-231.
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  13.  12
    Social Philosophy.Gerald F. Gaus - 1999 - Routledge.
    This accessible, college-level introduction to the major theories of public morality begins with a discussion of why we should seek a publicly justified public morality and how we might go about publicly justifying social principles. The latter part of the volume considers the basic principles of public morality, evaluating the concepts of J.S. Mill, Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, John Rawls, David Gauthier, and Joel Feinberg, as well as contemporary philosophers. Theories addressed include game theory, social choice (...)
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  14.  16
    Works Cited.Gerald Gaus - 2016 - In Gerald F. Gaus (ed.), The Tyranny of the Ideal: Justice in a Diverse Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 265-278.
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  15. Liberal Neutrality: A Compelling and Radical Principle.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    Compared to other debates in contemporary political philosophy, the light-to-heat ratio of discussions of neutrality has been somewhat dismal. Although most political philosophers seem to know whether they are for it or against it, there is considerable confusion about what “it” is. To be sure, some of this ambiguity has been noted, and at least partially dealt with, in the literature. Neutrality understood as a constraint on the sorts of reasons that may be advanced to justify state action is regularly (...)
     
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  16.  75
    On Dissing Public Reason: A Reply to Enoch.Gerald Gaus - 2015 - Ethics 125 (4):1078-1095.
    This essay responds to David Enoch’s “The Disorder of Public Reason,” published in a previous issue of Ethics. I seek to set the record straight on several of the many charges Enoch makes. More importantly, having clarified some of the more basic points, I make some preliminary efforts at identifying when his brand of moral realism and my version of public reason differ—and, perhaps, where they are more compatible than one might think.
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  17.  54
    The good, the bad, and the ugly: three agent-type challenges to The Order of Public Reason.Gerald Gaus - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 170 (3):563-577.
    In this issue of Philosophical Studies, Richard Arneson, Jonathan Quong and Robert Talisse contribute papers discussing The Order of Public Reason (OPR). All press what I call “agent-type challenges” to the project of OPR. In different ways they all focus on a type (or types) of moral (or sometimes not-so-moral) agent. Arneson presents a good person who is so concerned with doing the best thing she does not truly endorse social morality; Quong a bad person who rejects it and violates (...)
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  18.  73
    Self-organizing moral systems: Beyond social contract theory.Gerald Gaus - 2018 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 17 (2):119-147.
    This essay examines two different modes of reasoning about justice: an individual mode in which each individual judges what we all ought to do and a social mode in which we seek to reconcile our judgments of justice so that we can share common rules of justice. Social contract theory has traditionally emphasized the second, reconciliation mode, devising a central plan to do so. However, I argue that because we disagree not only in our judgments of justice but also about (...)
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  19. The Place of Religious Belief in Public Reason Liberalism.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    In the few decades a new conception of liberalism has arisen—the “public reason view” — which developed out of contractualist approaches to justifying liberalism. The social contract theories of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau all stressed that the justification of the state depended on showing that everyone would, in some way, consent to it. By relying on consent, social contract theory seemed to suppose a voluntarist conception of political justice: what is just depends on what people choose to agree to — (...)
     
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  20.  30
    Perfectionism and Neutrality: Essays in Liberal Theory.Bruce Ackerman, Richard J. Arneson, Ronald W. Dworkin, Gerald F. Gaus, Kent Greenawalt, Vinit Haksar, Thomas Hurka, George Klosko, Charles Larmore, Stephen Macedo, Thomas Nagel, John Rawls, Joseph Raz & George Sher - 2003 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Editors provide a substantive introduction to the history and theories of perfectionism and neutrality, expertly contextualizing the essays and making the collection accessible.
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  21. On two critics of justificatory liberalism: A response to wall and Lister.Gerald Gaus - 2010 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 9 (2):177-212.
    In replying to Steven Wall’s and Andrew Lister’s thoughtful essays on my account of justificatory liberalism in this issue, I respond to many of their specific criticisms while taking the opportunity to explicate the foundations of justificatory liberalism. Justificatory liberalism takes seriously the moral requirement to justify all claims of authority over others, as well as all coercive interferences with their lives. If we do so, although we are by no means committed to libertarianism, we find that that many of (...)
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  22. Backwards into the future: Neorepublicanism as a postsocialist critique of market society.Gerald F. Gaus - 2003 - Social Philosophy and Policy 20 (1):59-91.
    A. Two conceptions of moral legitimacy Socialism, understood as the rejection of markets based on private property in favor of comprehensive centralized economic planning, is no longer a serious political option. If the core of capitalism is the organization of the economy primarily through market competition based on private property, then capitalism has certainly defeated socialism. Markets have been accepted—and central planning abandoned—throughout most of the “third world” and the formerly Communist states. In the advanced industrial states of the West, (...)
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  23.  22
    Philosophy, politics, and economics: an introduction.Gerald F. Gaus - 2021 - Princeton: Princeton University Press. Edited by John Thrasher.
    Philosophy, Politics, and Economics offers a complete introduction to the fundamental tools and concepts of analysis that PPE students need to study social and political issues. This fully updated and expanded edition examines the core methodologies of rational choice, strategic analysis, norms, and collective choice that serve as the bedrocks of political philosophy and the social sciences. The textbook is ideal for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and nonspecialists looking to familiarize themselves with PPE's approaches.
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  24. Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract.Fred D'Agostino, John Thrasher & Gerald Gaus - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  25.  88
    A Tale of Two Sets: Public Reason in Equilibrium.Gerald Gaus - 2011 - Public Affairs Quarterly 25 (4):305-25.
    Public reason liberalism is a family of theories according to which liberal political institutions, social structures, and/or basic social rules are politically or morally justified if and only if they can be endorsed from the perspective of each and every free and equal "reasonable and rational" person. Let us call these persons "the members of the justificatory public." Public reason liberalism idealizes the members of the justificatory public in three senses. First, the members of the justificatory public are assumed to (...)
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  26.  32
    Moral learning in the open society: The theory and practice of natural liberty.Gerald Gaus & Shaun Nichols - 2017 - Social Philosophy and Policy 34 (1):79-101.
    Abstract:When people reason on the basis of moral rules, do they suppose that in the absence of a prohibitory rule they are free to act, or do they suppose that morality always requires a justification establishing a permission to act? In this essay we present a series of learning experiments that indicate when learners tend to close their system on the basis of natural liberty and when on the principle of residual prohibition. Those who are taught prohibitory rules tend to (...)
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  27. The Place of Autonomy Within Liberalism.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    My concern in this chapter is the place of autonomy within liberalism, understood as a public morality.1 To what extent is liberal morality necessarily committed to some doctrine of autonomy, and what is the nature of this doctrine? I begin (§2) by briefly explicating my understanding of liberalism, which is based the fundamental liberal principle—that all interferences with action stand in need of justification. Section 3 then defends my first core claim: given a certain compelling view of the nature of (...)
     
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  28. Reasonable pluralism and the domain of the political: How the weaknesses of John Rawls's political liberalism can be overcome by a justificatory liberalism.Gerald F. Gaus - 1999 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 42 (2):259 – 284.
    Under free institutions the exercise of human reason leads to a plurality of reasonable, yet irreconcilable doctrines. Rawls's political liberalism is intended as a response to this fundamental feature of modern democratic life. Justifying coercive political power by appeal to any one (or sample) of these doctrines is, Rawls believes, oppressive and illiberal. If we are to achieve unity without oppression, he tells us, we must all affirm a public political conception that is supported by these diverse reasonable doctrines. The (...)
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  29.  36
    Is Public Reason a Normalization Project? Deep Diversity and the Open Society.Gerald Gaus - 2017 - Social Philosophy Today 33:27-52.
    At one point Rawls thought that “a normalization of interests attributed to the parties” is “common to social contract doctrines.” Normalization has a great appeal: once we specify the normalized perspective, we can generate strong and definite principles of justice. Public reasoning is restricted to those who reason from the eligible, normalized, perspective; those who fall outside the “normal” are to be dismissed as unreasonable, unjust, or illiberal. As Rawls’s political liberalism project developed he increasingly relaxed his normalization assumptions, allowing (...)
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  30.  41
    On Seeking the Truth through Democracy: Estlund’s Case for the Qualified Epistemic Claim.Gerald Gaus - 2011 - Ethics 121 (2):270-300.
  31. Property, Rights, and Freedom*: GERALD F. GAUS.Gerald F. Gaus - 1994 - Social Philosophy and Policy 11 (2):209-240.
    William Perm summarized the Magna Carta thus: “First, It asserts Englishmen to be free; that's Liberty. Secondly, they that have free-holds, that's Property.” Since at least the seventeenth century, liberals have not only understood liberty and property to be fundamental, but to be somehow intimately related or interwoven. Here, however, consensus ends; liberals present an array of competing accounts of the relation between liberty and property. Many, for instance, defend an essentially instrumental view, typically seeing private property as justified because (...)
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  32.  46
    Moral Conflict and Prudential Agreement: Michael Moehler’s Minimal Morality.Gerald Gaus - 2019 - Analysis 79 (1):106-115.
    Michael Moehler’s Minimal Morality is a wonderful and important book, from which I have learned a great deal. It reinvigorates rational choice moral theory in the process of confronting what I see as the most important issue in social and moral philosophy today: can those in a deeply morally divided society endorse a common moral framework to structure social cooperation? Is a rational moral order possible under conditions of deep and wide moral diversity? Minimal Morality’s answers are thoughtful and innovative. (...)
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  33.  47
    The egalitarian species.Gerald Gaus - 2015 - Social Philosophy and Policy 31 (2):1-27.
  34.  93
    Does democracy reveal the voice of the people? Four takes on Rousseau.Gerald Gaus - 1997 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 75 (2):141 – 162.
  35. The rational, the reasonable and justification.Gerald F. Gaus - 1995 - Journal of Political Philosophy 3 (3):234–258.
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  36.  10
    The Turn to a Political Liberalism.Gerald Gaus - 2013 - In Jon Mandle & David A. Reidy (eds.), A Companion to Rawls. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 233–250.
    This chapter sketches a reading that confirms John Rawls's view that the stability argument of Part Three of Theory of Justice (TJ) was crucial for the success of TJ as a whole, that it was indeed flawed, and that fundamental ideas of Political Liberalism (PL) can be traced to the wide‐ranging consequences of recognizing the flaw in that argument. In Rawls's political liberalism, one can find at least two accounts of the way in which stability considerations enter into justificatory arguments (...)
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  37. On Theorizing about Public Reason.Gerald Gaus - 2013 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 9 (1):64-85.
    This essay responds to the thoughtful essays on the Order of Public Reason (OPR) by Elvio Baccarini, Giulia Bistagnino and Nenad Miscevic. All three essays interrogate OPR’s understanding of moral theory - “meta” matters about the nature of morality, reasons and modeling within moral theories. I first turn to the general understanding of the moral enterprise underlying OPR, explaining why it takes a view at odds with the contemporary mainstream in moral philosophy. I then explain the idea of moral truth (...)
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  38. Are Property Rights Problematic?Gerald F. Gaus & Loren E. Lomasky - 1990 - The Monist 73 (4):483-503.
  39. On justifying the moral rights of the moderns: A case of old wine in new bottles.Gerald F. Gaus - 2007 - Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (1):84-119.
    In this essay I sketch a philosophical argument for classical liberalism based on the requirements of public reason. I argue that we can develop a philosophical liberalism that, unlike so much recent philosophy, takes existing social facts and mores seriously while, at the same time, retaining the critical edge characteristic of the liberal tradition. I argue that once we develop such an account, we are led toward a vindication of “old” (qua classical) liberal morality—what Benjamin Constant called the “liberties of (...)
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  40. Laws, Norms, and Public Justification: The Limits of Law as an Instrument for Reform.Jacob Barrett & Gerald Gaus - 2020 - In Silje Langvatn, Wojciech Sadurski & Mattias Kumm (eds.), Public Reason and Courts. Cambridge University Press. pp. 201-228.
     
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  41.  40
    Is mutual advantage a general theory of justice? More domain worries.Gerald Gaus - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 178 (5):1731-1739.
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  42. What is Deontology?, Part Two: Reasons to Act Gerald F. Gaus.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    Part One of this essay considered familiar ways of characterizing deontology, which focus on the notions of the good and the right. Here we will take up alternative approaches, which stress the type of reasons for actions that are generated by deontological theories. Although some of these alternative conceptualizations of deontology also employ a distinction between the good and the right, all mark the basic contrast between deontology and teleology in terms of reasons to act.
     
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  43.  62
    On Being Inside Social Morality and Seeing It.Gerald Gaus - 2015 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 9 (1):141-153.
    Eric Mack’s “Inside Public Reason” is thorough and fair-minded review of The Order of Public Reason. My deep thanks to him for his insights, as well as his judiciousness. In these remarks I cannot take up all the important matters he raises; in particular I put aside two important issues—the analysis of the political and discussion of how contingent social processes play a fundamental role in public justification . I plan to take up the latter on another occasion.
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  44. Social Complexity and Evolved Moral Principles.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    A central theme in F. A. Hayek’s work is the contrast between principles and expediency, and the insistence that governments follow abstract general principles rather than pursue apparently expedient social and economic policies that seek to make us better off.2 This is a radical and striking thesis, especially from an economist: governments should abjure the pursuit of social and economic policies that aim to improve welfare and, instead, adhere to moral principles. In this chapter I defend this radical claim. I (...)
     
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  45. Is the public incompetent? Compared to whom? About what?Gerald Gaus - 2008 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 20 (3):291-311.
    From Mill to, most recently, Bryan Caplan, political and economic elites have been seen as the solution to the public’s ignorance and incompetence. In order to show that elites are actually more competent than the public, however, we would have to find out what type of knowledge is necessary to enact good public policy. The empirical evidence shows that economic experts have a slight advantage over the general public in knowledge of how to achieve policy goals. But, contrary to Caplan, (...)
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  46.  10
    The Priority of Social Morality.Gerald Gaus - 2017 - In Thomas Christiano, Ingrid Creppell & Jack Knight (eds.), Morality, Governance, and Social Institutions: Reflections on Russell Hardin. Cham: Springer Verlag. pp. 23-56.
    In a number of works, I have argued that social morality—a system of internalized “social-moral rules”—is fundamental to human social cooperation. Russell Hardin disputed this, arguing instead for the primacy of conventions, based largely on self-interest, in developing cooperative social order. This chapter considers three challenges for my view raised by Hardin. The chapter commences by considering small-scale cooperation; I believe that the evidence indicates that even in very small groups of face-to-face cooperators, the internalization of moral rules is fundamental (...)
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  47.  6
    Human Morality.Gerald F. Gaus - 1993 - Philosophical Quarterly 43 (172):380-383.
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  48. State Neutrality and Controversial Values in On Liberty.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    In an important essay Charles Larmore tells us that Kant and Mill sought to justify the principle of political neutrality by appealing to ideals of autonomy and individuality. By remaining neutral with regard to controversial views of the good life, constitutional principles will express, according to them, what ought to be of supreme value throughout the whole of our life.1 On Larmore’s influential reading, Mill defended what we might call first-level neutrality: Millian principles determining justified legal (and, we might add, (...)
     
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  49.  17
    The commonwealth of bees: On the impossibility of justice-through-ethos.Gerald Gaus - 2016 - Social Philosophy and Policy 33 (1-2):96-121.
    :Some understand utopia as an ideal society in which everyone would be thoroughly informed by a moral ethos: all would always act on their pure conscientious judgments about justice, and so it would never be necessary to provide incentives for them to act as justice requires. In this essay I argue that such a society is impossible. A society of purely conscientiously just agents would be unable to achieve real justice. This is the Paradox of Pure Conscientiousness. This paradox, I (...)
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  50.  4
    The open society as a rule-based order.Gerald Gaus - 2016 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 9 (2):1.
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