This book is an account of the important influence on the development of mathematical logic of Charles S. Peirce and his student O.H. Mitchell, through the work of Ernst Schroder, Leopold Lowenheim, and Thoralf Skolem. As far as we know, this book is the first work delineating this line of influence on modern mathematical logic.
The study of metaphysical possibility involves two central questions: What are possible worlds? Is there an empty possible world? In looking at the first question we consider the different accounts of possible worlds—Lewisian realism, ersatzism, etc. In looking at the second question we consider the discussions of metaphysical nihilism, the modal ontological arguments, etc. In this paper I am drawing these two questions together in order to show how the position we hold on one of these issues affects the position (...) we should hold on the other. (shrink)
The study of metaphysical possibility involves two central questions: (i) What are possible worlds? (ii) Is there an empty possible world? In looking at the first question we consider the different accounts of possible worlds-Lewisian realism, ersatzism, etc. In looking at the second question we consider the discussions of metaphysical nihilism, the modal ontological arguments, etc. In this paper I am drawing these two questions together in order to show how the position we hold on one of these issues affects (...) the position we should hold on the other. (shrink)
Prisoners sometimes die in prison, either due to natural illness, violence, suicide, or a result of imprisonment. The purpose of this study is to understand deaths in custody using qualitative methodology and to argue for a comprehensive definition of death in custody that acknowledges deaths related to the prison environment. Interviews were conducted with 33 experts, who primarily work as lawyers or forensic doctors with national and/or international organisations. Responses were coded and analysed qualitatively. Defining deaths in custody according to (...) the place of death was deemed problematic. Experts favoured a dynamic approach emphasising the link between the detention environment and occurrence of death rather than the actual place of death. Causes of deaths and different patterns of deaths were discussed, indicating that many of these deaths are preventable. Lack of an internationally recognised standard definition of death in custody is a major concern. Key aspects such as place, time, and causes of death as well as relation to the prison environment should be debated and incorporated into the definition. Systematic identification of violence within prison institutions is critical and efforts are needed to prevent unnecessary deaths in prison and to protect vulnerable prisoners. (shrink)
In psychotherapy research, treatment efficacy is commonly studied by means of self-report questionnaires to gain quantitative data on symptom development. The data serve as input for statistical analyses up to the level of evidence-based treatment. We analyzed how a patient in a psychotherapy study experienced the translation of her story into quantitative data by combining a phenomenological qualitative analysis of her therapeutic narrative and a visual analysis of her extensively annotated paper-andpencil questionnaires. Our findings provide a practical empirical illustration of (...) the nature and impact of known validity issues. Beyond, we found the act of questionnaire administration affected the primary complaint such that it became performative toward the symptoms under study. We discuss the epistemic consequences for the validity of data, and we argue that valid data collection requires qualitative scrutiny of meaning within data and a concept of validity that allows for consideration of performativity of data collection. (shrink)
Young French children freely produce subject pronouns by the age of 2. However, by age 2 and a half they fail to interpret 3rd person pronouns in an experimental setting designed to select a referent among three participants (speaker, hearer, and other). No such problems are found with 1st and 2nd person pronouns. We formalize our analysis of these empirical results in terms of direction-sensitive optimizations, showing that uni-directionality of optimization, when combined with non-adult-like constraint rankings, explains the general acquisition (...) pattern of 3rd person pronouns. Building on a specific analysis of assigning 3rd person reference by computing over alternatives (Heim 1991 ), we show that adult interpretation does not require bidirectional OT although it is fully compatible with it. What matters for comprehension in the domain investigated here is constraint ranking. (shrink)
Older minority Americans experience worse health outcomes than their white counterparts, exhibiting the need for social justice in all areas of their health care. Justice, fairness, and equity are crucial to minimizing conditions that adversely affect the health of individuals and communities. In this paper, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is used as an example of a health care disparity among elderly Americans that requires social justice interventions. Cultural factors play a crucial role in AD screening, diagnosis, and access to care, and (...) are often a barrier to support and equality for minority communities. The “conundrum of health disparities” refers to the interplay between disparity, social justice, and cultural interpretation, and encourages researchers to understand both (1) disparity caused by economic and structural barriers to access, treatment, and diagnosis, and (2) disparity due to cultural interpretation of disease, in order to effectively address health care issues and concerns among elderly Americans. (shrink)
Children who presented behaviours characteristic of attention disorder/hyper‐activity deficit , but who were functioning adequately in ordinary schools, were assessed on a range of tests including some focused particularly on cognitive abilities, including verbal and figural aspects of problem solving and creativity. An attempt was made to replicate an earlier study, incorporating refinements to the manner in which pupils were selected from the schools. In spite of cultural differences, the pattern of results substantially duplicated the earlier findings, suggesting a stable (...) pattern of characteristics associated with ADHD and high intelligence. Specifically these children were found to have more mixed laterality and allergies, to gather and use more diverse, nonverbal and poorly focused information, and to show higher figural creativity than did high‐IQ children without attention problems. It was concluded that uncommon information was made use of by ADHD children when exhibiting novelty in nonverbal thinking. This supports Geschwind's prediction that high talent would be found in some types of learning‐disordered individuals. (shrink)
What is war? -- The ethical arguments -- The history of war ethics -- Can war be justified? -- Lawful authority -- Humanitarian intervention -- With good intention? -- A last resort? -- A good chance of success -- Waging war -- Pre-emptive strikes -- Proportionality -- Weapons -- War and religion -- Holy wars -- Pacifism -- Non-violence -- Aftermath -- War crimes.
Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless. The point of view presented in (...) this article has been elaborated jointly by a geneticist and a philosopher. Besides a survey of the medical, bioethical, philosophical and social sciences literature on the topic, the methodology is founded on a joint analysis of geneticist’s various consults. Evidence from office visits demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis leads to case-by-case decisions. As we have suggested, this conclusion does not mean that prenatal diagnosis is devoid of ethical issues, and we have identified at least two. The first is related to the evaluation of a decision to abort. The second line of ethical questions arises from the fact that the claim for “normality” hardly hides normative and ambiguous views about disability. As a conclusion, ethical dilemmas keep being noticeable in the field of reproductive medicine and genetic counselling, but an enquiry about eugenic tendencies probably does not allow us to understand them in the proper way. (shrink)
L’imposant ouvrage de Géraldine Caps résulte du remaniement d’une thèse de philosophie et d’histoire des sciences soutenue le 14 décembre 2007 à l’université Nancy 2 sous la direction de Simone Mazauric. Il présente une synthèse inédite sur la notion de « médecins cartésiens », dont G. Caps commence par rechercher les occurrences lexicales et les variations. Après avoir souligné que l’expression apparaît pour la première fois en 1643 au singulier pou..
This paper has been explicitly composed for oral presentation: written by ear to be (read as) heard. It stages an experiment/experience ( expérience ) with sound—and in the written text with the “sight” of sound—in order to solicit and engage the becoming sens (e) of sound in the space between resonance and response-ability it seeks to explicate and explore. The presentation begins with the sound of the first few bars of a popular song (whose identity I am withholding in this (...) submission in order to preserve the integrity of the expérience upon which its success depends), which is eventually heard in its entirety and which constitutes the point of departure, reference, and return—of resonance and response-ability—for the composition as a whole. (shrink)
Here we reconsider teachers’ changing subjectivities as autonomous agents whose practices acknowledge risk as an essential element in intellectual inquiry. We seek alternative descriptions to the limiting language of teachers’ current practices within the primacy of the market. We are convinced by Levinas’s claim that ethics is the first philosophy with its concomitant responsibility for the Other. This provides a valuable point of departure and our understanding of its relevance is expanded by Biesta and Todd. This perspective allows interruption of (...) the global reform ensemble with its reductionist understandings of teachers’ subjectivities within concerns for a ‘visible pedagogy’ and performativity. We illustrate how this global policy imperative is reworked in policies in the Republic of Ireland and share reflexive insights from our tutoring of teachers studying for a Master’s degree in Education. We show that teachers’ autonomy, which we understand as the capacity of teachers to facilitate risk and make ethically informed local judgements, is severely restricted by imposed standards, codes and laws to which there is tightly policed adherence. Instead we describe teachers’ practices occurring within an Invisible Pedagogy, which is not concerned with totalising and limited performativity but instead, explores risks associated with existential possibilities beyond commodification. (shrink)