The article focuses on the significance that the figural order of discourse, especially by means of syllepsis, has in Kant’s Critique. We follow as a thread the internal aporetic of Kant’s Writings, which the Kantian scholar Gérard Lebrun examined in different articles, in order to outline the reach of what the article displays as a Rhetoric within the limits of mere Reason. This work proposes to contribute to the clarification of the reciprocal dependence between the progress of the self-knowledge process (...) of reason and the formation of rhetorical figures — not only based on the discovery of analogies — which form also part of Kantian theory of objectivity. (shrink)
The Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence, Italy, possesses an astrolabe with five latitude plates that is now attributed to the Duisburg workshop of Gerard Mercator. Although it is known that Mercator made instruments, this is the first surviving example to be identified. Another latitude plate is shown to come from the workshop of the Florentine, Giovan Battista Giusti. A seventh plate, possibly engraved by Rumold Mercator, provides the only known Mercatorian polar stereographic projection. The role of (...) Egnazio Danti, cosmographer to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the acquisition of the astrolabe in about 1570 is considered. (shrink)
In a paper published in volume 50 of Annals of Science an astrolabe at the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence, was attributed to the hand of Gerard Mercator, c. 1570, when his workshop was in Duisburg. This was the first scientific instrument by Mercator to be identified. Since then two further astrolabes by Mercator have been identified, one of them bearing his monogram: GMR. They belong to the Städtische Kunstsammlungen, Augsburg, and the Moravian Gallery, Brno. All (...) three instruments are described as a group, and reasons for believing that the Brno astrolabe was made earlier than 1550, and therefore in Louvain, are given. (shrink)
E. T. A. Hoffmann is one of the most famous representatives of early German horror literature. He has been both, inspired by its predecessors, as well as having influenced the work of many of his successors, and hence the development of the whole genre. The present article examines a story by E. T. A. Hoffmann, “Vampirismus” from the collection of short stories “Serapions Brüder”. Emphases are, on the one hand, on the mechanisms that cause readers’ fear and uncertainty and, on (...) the other hand, the peculiarity of the vampire or Nachzehrer figure and their function in the story. Firstly, it will be shown that the vampire depicted in the work is not actually a vampire. We find here a ghoul; that is a demon from Arab culture. However, the ghoul has more to do with the monster outlined by Antoine Galland in his translation of the “One Thousand and One Nights” than with traditional folk beliefs. Secondly, the author comes to the conclusion that Hoffmann has functionalized the Horrible. This element does not work by itself, but serves the author as the background of the action. And he is using this background to let the characters reveal all their weaknesses and dark sides. The violation of the order ruling in the world as it is represented engages the reader and at the same time raises his fear. The resulting excited feelings and general alienation are further reinforced for the figure of the Nachzehrer that occurs instead of a formerly innocent, graceful girl. The emergence of the supernatural – the final confirmation of the breach of order – is responsible for the effect just described. (shrink)
O autor mostra neste ensaio quais são suas afinidades com a obra de Gérard Lebrun - obra animada por uma interrogação propriamente filosófica sobre a "ilusão como destino do pensamento" - e quais os aspectos em que dela se distancia: o "ponto de controvérsia" pode ser percebido na leitura distinta que ambos fazem da filosofia de Wittgenstein de Merleau-Ponty.
This essay concerns the theories of the sublime proposed by Alexander Gerard, Henry Home (Lord Kames), Archibald Alison, and Dugald Stewart. All four thinkers, I argue, aim to provide a philosophical account of the unity of the concept of the sublime, i.e., to respond to the question: what might all objects, art works, etc. that have been identified as sublime (or “grand”) in the philosophical, literary, art-theoretical, and rhetorical tradition have in common? Yet because they find the objects called (...) “sublime” to be so disparate, and because – contra Burke and Kant, the classical philosophical theorists of the sublime, they cannot identify one single feeling that could define the experience of the sublime, they ultimately endorse (what we would call) a “family-resemblance” view of the sublime: certain objects cause in us certain feelings (and so are classed together); other objects are then (for other reasons, i.e., not because they give us similar feelings) associated with some of the previous objects – and therefore we take these objects, and the feelings they may arouse, as sublime as well. Some – notably Gerard and Allison – take our act of appreciation of the sublime to be itself an act of free imaginative association, connecting the perceived object to other objects, memories, feelings, etc. The importance of association in aesthetic appreciation itself might also suggest that the category of the sublime must be a pluralistic and open one: because we may always find new objects sublime, via new associations. As a result, I suggest, these thinkers – by contrast to many other writers on the sublime – allow that art can be as sublime, or even more sublime, than natural objects and indeed can render natural objects sublime. (shrink)
The present paper complements the publications of Gerard L'E. Turner on Mercator's astrolabes by presenting an account of an astrological disc which Mercator published at Louvain in May 1551. This instrument, of which only one copy is known, is described, and a transcription of its instruction sheet, with commentary and English translation, is provided. My preliminary study of the astrological content and context of the instrument indicates that it is connected with John Dee's astrological studies at Louvain from 1548 (...) to 1550. The didactic functions of the instrument are discussed, as well as the relationship between astrological theory and practice in Mercator's work. (shrink)
O presente artigo traz um estudo comparativo das obras de Herder e de Kant, no qual se pretende mostrar como cada um deles compreendia as relações entre o discurso próprio da ciência e o discurso próprio da filosofia. A fim de elucidar as especificidades de cada um desses dois tipos de discurso nas obras de ambos os autores, assumiremos, como ponto de partida de nossa análise, a diferenciação entre "explicar" e "interpretar" feita por Gerard Lebrun, em uma passagem de (...) seu livro Kant e o fim da metafísica. Veremos, por um lado, de que modo Kant procura demarcar os limites entre o discurso "explicativo" próprio do conhecimento científico e o discurso "interpretativo" próprio do saber filosófico; e, por outro, como Herder dissolve essa distinção entre os dois tipos de discurso ao afirmar a existência de uma continuidade entre as faculdades da mente humana. (shrink)
O texto ressalva a importância que a ordem do discurso figurado, especialmente o tropo da silepse, possui na Crítica de Kant. Toma-se como fio condutor a aporética interna da obra kantiana que Gérard Lebrun analisou em diferentes artigos, com o alvo de demarcar e traçar o verdadeiro alcance do que denominarmos neste trabalho uma retórica nos limites da mera razão. Este trabalho propõe-se contribuir para o esclarecimento da dependência que o progresso do autoconhecimento da razão mantém com a formação de (...) figuras retóricas –não só baseadas no descobrimento de analogias–, que formam parte da teoria kantiana da objetividade. (shrink)
The literary genesis of Einbahnstraße by Walter Benjamin represents a very special case of the use of the procedures of surrealism in the philosophical-literary production of the author. The process of evolution of thinking that ended up in the writing of this piece is unveiled throughout the present analysis. This is a sign of both waiver and restart; the opening for a new productive dimension in the career of one of the most important —and misunderstood— philosophers of the 20th century. (...) More than enlightening a small master piece of philosophy from a literary perspective, or analyzing a small master piece of literature from the philosophy, what is being problematized here is the division, cultivated or figured throughout the years, between both disciplines. This work is intended to recover what is insoluble from the philosophical-literary labor of Walter Benjamin, besides tracing a possible reconfiguration for an interdisciplinary field of work to come up and contribute in the understanding of the problem called The Retreat of Metaphor by Jacques Derrida. (shrink)
A leitura que Hegel faz da antinomia em Kant permite entender que as considerações deste não estão isentas de pressupostos antropológicos e de que, portanto, ele estuda a finitude das categorias nelas mesmas, mas em sua pertinência ao "sujeito", que, no final das contas, é um sujeito "psicológico". Eis o interesse que há em retormar os textos de Hegel para fazer jus à "arte de ler" hegeliana.
Dans ses textes consacrés à la logique, Gérard Granel a toujours combattu la théorie husserlienne de la signification fondée sur l’idée que les unités idéales de signification constituent l’armature logique universelle du langage. Car au fur et à mesure que l’analyse saussurienne des « valeurs » linguistiques et la linguistique comparée mettaient en évidence la singularité et la relativité des structures logiques à l’intérieur des langues naturelles, l’idée de « matérialité logique » n’a cessé de s’imposer et le caractère « (...) idéal » de la logicité est devenu de plus en plus problématique. Nous tenterons de démontrer que la thèse husserlienne de l’idéalité logique, contrairement aux apparences, n’est nullement affectée par les objections de Granel, et qu’elle est même capable de rendre compte des phénomènes linguistiques qui lui sont de prime abord totalement étrangers, i. e. les expressions idiomatiques et équivoques. (shrink)
The writers Thomas Mann and Erich Kästner took in the years between 1933 and 1945 extreme positions of inner and outer emigration, which can be shown concerning autobiographical aspects and concerning their works which they wrote during the time of national socialism. While Kästner, who represents the inner emigration, wrote humorous stories like "Drei Männer im Schnee" and "Der kleine Grenzverkehr", Mann completed his tetralogy of "Joseph und seine Brüder", which deals with the foundation and development of the monotheistic jewish (...) world religion, in France, Switzerland and America where in 1943 he began his dark artist novel "Doktor Faustus", while in Europe internicine warfare and the Shoa were in progress. While Erich Kästner, who was a very engaged political author in the so called Weimar Republic, was captivated during the period of national socialism by his inwardness, Thomas Mann released himself from this attitude in view of the Third Reich and became an emancipated author who was politically engaged and with moral integrity. (shrink)