Results for 'Gerd Lohaus'

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  1. Die Lebensereignisse Jesu in der Christologie Karl Rahners Les événements de la vie de Jésus dans la christologie de Karl Rahner.Gerd Lohaus - 1990 - Theologie Und Philosophie 65 (3):349-386.
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  2.  31
    Rationality for Mortals: How People Cope with Uncertainty.Gerd Gigerenzer - 2008 - Oup Usa.
    This volume collects Gigerenzer's recent articles on the psychology of rationality. This volume should appeal, like the earlier volumes, to a broad mixture of cognitive psychologists, philosophers, economists, and others who study decision making.
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  3. Vernunft Und Anschauung Philosophie, Literatur, Kunst : Festschrift Fèur Gerd Wolandt Zum 65. Geburtstag.Gerd Wolandt, Reinhold Breil & Stephan Nachtsheim - 1993
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  4. Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.Gerd Gigerenzer, Peter M. Todd & A. B. C. Research Group - 1999 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart invites readers to embark on a new journey into a land of rationality that differs from the familiar territory of cognitive science and economics. Traditional views of rationality tend to see decision makers as possessing superhuman powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and all of eternity in which to ponder choices. To understand decisions in the real world, we need a different, more psychologically plausible notion of rationality, and this book provides it. It is about (...)
     
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  5.  35
    Developmental Motifs Reveal Complex Structure in Cell Lineages.Nicholas Geard, Seth Bullock, Rolf Lohaus, Ricardo B. R. Azevedo & Janet Wiles - 2011 - Complexity 16 (4):48-57.
    Many natural and technological systems are complex, with organizational structures that exhibit characteristic patterns but defy concise description. One effective approach to analyzing such systems is in terms of repeated topological motifs. Here, we extend the motif concept to characterize the dynamic behavior of complex systems by introducing developmental motifs, which capture patterns of system growth. As a proof of concept, we use developmental motifs to analyze the developmental cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, revealing a new perspective on (...)
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  6. Metaphysics and Philosophy of Science in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Essays for Gerd Buchdahl.Gerd Buchdahl & R. S. Woolhouse - 1988
  7. The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life.Gerd Gigerenzer, Zeno Swijtink, Theodore Porter, Lorraine Daston, John Beatty & Lorenz Kruger - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Empire of Chance tells how quantitative ideas of chance transformed the natural and social sciences, as well as daily life over the last three centuries. A continuous narrative connects the earliest application of probability and statistics in gambling and insurance to the most recent forays into law, medicine, polling and baseball. Separate chapters explore the theoretical and methodological impact in biology, physics and psychology. Themes recur - determinism, inference, causality, free will, evidence, the shifting meaning of probability - but (...)
     
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  8.  39
    How to Improve Bayesian Reasoning Without Instruction: Frequency Formats.Gerd Gigerenzer & Ulrich Hoffrage - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (4):684-704.
  9. Homo Heuristicus: Why Biased Minds Make Better Inferences.Gerd Gigerenzer & Henry Brighton - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (1):107-143.
    Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes that ignore information. In contrast to the widely held view that less processing reduces accuracy, the study of heuristics shows that less information, computation, and time can in fact improve accuracy. We review the major progress made so far: the discovery of less-is-more effects; the study of the ecological rationality of heuristics, which examines in which environments a given strategy succeeds or fails, and why; an advancement from vague labels to computational models of heuristics; the (...)
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  10. Working While Ill Is Not Always Bad—Positive Effects of Presenteeism.Daniela Lohaus, Wolfgang Habermann, Isam El Kertoubi & Florian Röser - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Presenteeism—going to work while ill—is a widespread phenomenon worldwide. Previous research has concentrated mainly on its negative effects. This study investigates the positive consequences of presenteeism derived from a comprehensive content model of presenteeism that was developed on the basis of negative effects. In a quantitative online-survey employees rated the degree of experienced or potential positive effects depending on whether they had worked while ill or not during the previous year. Results revealed that all postulated positive effects described in the (...)
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  11.  38
    Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality.Gerd Gigerenzer & Daniel G. Goldstein - 1996 - Psychological Review 103 (4):650-669.
    Humans and animals make inferences about the world under limited time and knowledge. In contrast, many models of rational inference treat the mind as a Laplacean Demon, equipped with unlimited time, knowledge, and computational might. Following H. Simon's notion of satisficing, the authors have proposed a family of algorithms based on a simple psychological mechanism: one-reason decision making. These fast and frugal algorithms violate fundamental tenets of classical rationality: They neither look up nor integrate all information. By computer simulation, the (...)
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  12.  50
    Domain-Specific Reasoning: Social Contracts, Cheating, and Perspective Change.Gerd Gigerenzer & Klaus Hug - 1992 - Cognition 43 (2):127-171.
    What counts as human rationality: reasoning processes that embody content-independent formal theories, such as propositional logic, or reasoning processes that are well designed for solving important adaptive problems? Most theories of human reasoning have been based on content-independent formal rationality, whereas adaptive reasoning, ecological or evolutionary, has been little explored. We elaborate and test an evolutionary approach, Cosmides' social contract theory, using the Wason selection task. In the first part, we disentangle the theoretical concept of a “social contract” from that (...)
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  13.  16
    Parents’ Perceived Similarity to Their Children, and Parents’ Perspective Taking Efforts: Associations of Cross-Informant Discrepancies with Adolescent Problem Behavior.Marc Vierhaus, Jana E. Rueth & Arnold Lohaus - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  14.  18
    Probabilistic Mental Models: A Brunswikian Theory of Confidence.Gerd Gigerenzer, Ulrich Hoffrage & Heinz Kleinbölting - 1991 - Psychological Review 98 (4):506-528.
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  15.  91
    Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science.Gerd Buchdahl - 1969 - Oxford, Basil Blackwell.
  16.  33
    On Narrow Norms and Vague Heuristics: A Reply to Kahneman and Tversky.Gerd Gigerenzer - 1996 - Psychological Review 103 (3):592-596.
  17. How (Far) Can Rationality Be Naturalized?Gerd Gigerenzer & Thomas Sturm - 2012 - Synthese 187 (1):243-268.
    The paper shows why and how an empirical study of fast-and-frugal heuristics can provide norms of good reasoning, and thus how (and how far) rationality can be naturalized. We explain the heuristics that humans often rely on in solving problems, for example, choosing investment strategies or apartments, placing bets in sports, or making library searches. We then show that heuristics can lead to judgments that are as accurate as or even more accurate than strategies that use more information and computation, (...)
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  18.  21
    Homo Heuristicus: Why Biased Minds Make Better Inferences.Gerd Gigerenzer & Henry Brighton - 2009 - Cognitive Science.
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  19.  62
    On the Supposed Evidence for Libertarian Paternalism.Gerd Gigerenzer - 2015 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (3):361-383.
    Can the general public learn to deal with risk and uncertainty, or do authorities need to steer people’s choices in the right direction? Libertarian paternalists argue that results from psychological research show that our reasoning is systematically flawed and that we are hardly educable because our cognitive biases resemble stable visual illusions. For that reason, they maintain, authorities who know what is best for us need to step in and steer our behavior with the help of “nudges.” Nudges are nothing (...)
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  20.  25
    From Tools to Theories: A Heuristic of Discovery in Cognitive Psychology.Gerd Gigerenzer - 1991 - Psychological Review 98 (2):254-267.
  21. Moral Satisficing: Rethinking Moral Behavior as Bounded Rationality.Gerd Gigerenzer - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):528-554.
    What is the nature of moral behavior? According to the study of bounded rationality, it results not from character traits or rational deliberation alone, but from the interplay between mind and environment. In this view, moral behavior is based on pragmatic social heuristics rather than moral rules or maximization principles. These social heuristics are not good or bad per se, but solely in relation to the environments in which they are used. This has methodological implications for the study of morality: (...)
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  22. The Essential Wittgenstein.Gerd Brand - 1979 - Basic Books.
     
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  23. Précis of Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):727-741.
    How can anyone be rational in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury? Traditional models of unbounded rationality and optimization in cognitive science, economics, and animal behavior have tended to view decision-makers as possessing supernatural powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and endless time. But understanding decisions in the real world requires a more psychologically plausible notion of bounded rationality. In Simple heuristics that make us smart (Gigerenzer et al. 1999), we (...)
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  24.  18
    Intentional Suppression Can Lead to a Reduction of Memory Strength: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Findings.Gerd T. Waldhauser, Magnus Lindgren & Mikael Johansson - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
  25.  16
    How to Explain Behavior?Gerd Gigerenzer - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (4):1363-1381.
  26.  30
    Kant and the Dynamics of Reason: Essays on the Structure of Kant's Philosophy.Gerd Buchdahl - 1992 - Blackwell.
  27.  19
    Axiomatic Rationality and Ecological Rationality.Gerd Gigerenzer - forthcoming - Synthese:1-18.
    Axiomatic rationality is defined in terms of conformity to abstract axioms. Savage limited axiomatic rationality to small worlds, that is, situations in which the exhaustive and mutually exclusive set of future states S and their consequences C are known. Others have interpreted axiomatic rationality as a categorical norm for how human beings should reason, arguing in addition that violations would lead to real costs such as money pumps. Yet a review of the literature shows little evidence that violations are actually (...)
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  28.  63
    Children Can Solve Bayesian Problems: The Role of Representation in Mental Computation.Liqi Zhu & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2006 - Cognition 98 (3):287-308.
  29.  8
    Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science.Gerd Buchdahl - 1972 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (1):79-80.
  30.  24
    Environments That Make Us Smart Ecological Rationality.Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2007 - Current Directions in Psychological Science 16 (3):167-171.
    Traditional views of rationality posit general-purpose decision mechanisms based on logic or optimization. The study of ecological rationality focuses on uncovering the “adaptive toolbox” of domain-specific simple heuristics that real, computationally bounded minds employ, and explaining how these heuristics produce accurate decisions by exploiting the structures of information in the environments in which they are applied. Knowing when and how people use particular heuristics can facilitate the shaping of environments to engender better decisions.
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  31. Evolution – the Extended Synthesis.Massimo Pigliucci & Gerd B. Müller (eds.) - 2010 - MIT Press.
    In the six decades since the publication of Julian Huxley's Evolution: The Modern Synthesis, spectacular empirical advances in the biological sciences have been accompanied by equally significant developments within the core theoretical framework of the discipline. As a result, evolutionary theory today includes concepts and even entire new fields that were not part of the foundational structure of the Modern Synthesis. In this volume, sixteen leading evolutionary biologists and philosophers of science survey the conceptual changes that have emerged since Huxley's (...)
     
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  32. Grundprobleme der Wissenschaftslehre Über Die Struktur der Physik, Kausalität. Im Auftrag des Hönigswald-Archivs Hrsg. Von Gerd Wolandt Und Herbert Schmitt.Richard Hönigswald, Gerd Wolandt & Herbert Schmitt - 1965 - H. Bouvier.
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  33. Beyond the Responsibility Gap. Discussion Note on Responsibility and Liability in the Use of Brain-Computer Interfaces.Gerd Grübler - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (4):377-382.
    The article shows where the argument of responsibility-gap regarding brain-computer interfaces acquires its plausibility from, and suggests why the argument is not plausible. As a way of an explanation, a distinction between the descriptive third-person perspective and the interpretative first-person perspective is introduced. Several examples and metaphors are used to show that ascription of agency and responsibility does not, even in simple cases, require that people be in causal control of every individual detail involved in an event. Taking up the (...)
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  34.  40
    A New Synthesis of Knowledge and Faith.Gerd Theissen - 1994 - Zygon 29 (3):389-399.
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  35.  26
    Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic.Daniel G. Goldstein & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (1):75-90.
    [Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 109 of Psychological Review. Due to circumstances that were beyond the control of the authors, the studies reported in "Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic," by Daniel G. Goldstein and Gerd Gigerenzer overlap with studies reported in "The Recognition Heuristic: How Ignorance Makes Us Smart," by the same authors and with studies reported in "Inference From Ignorance: The Recognition Heuristic". In addition, Figure 3 in the Psychological Review (...)
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  36.  44
    Psychosocial and Ethical Aspects in Non-Invasive EEG-Based BCI Research—A Survey Among BCI Users and BCI Professionals.Gerd Grübler, Abdul Al-Khodairy, Robert Leeb, Iolanda Pisotta, Angela Riccio, Martin Rohm & Elisabeth Hildt - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (1):29-41.
    In this paper, the results of a pilot interview study with 19 subjects participating in an EEG-based non-invasive brain–computer interface (BCI) research study on stroke rehabilitation and assistive technology and of a survey among 17 BCI professionals are presented and discussed in the light of ethical, legal, and social issues in research with human subjects. Most of the users were content with study participation and felt well informed. Negative aspects reported include the long and cumbersome preparation procedure, discomfort with the (...)
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  37.  78
    An Approach to Quantum Mechanics Via Conditional Probabilities.Gerd Niestegge - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (3):241-256.
    The well-known proposal to consider the Lüders-von Neumann measurement as a non-classical extension of probability conditionalization is further developed. The major results include some new concepts like the different grades of compatibility, the objective conditional probabilities which are independent of the underlying state and stem from a certain purely algebraic relation between the events, and an axiomatic approach to quantum mechanics. The main axioms are certain postulates concerning the conditional probabilities and own intrinsic probabilistic interpretations from the very beginning. A (...)
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  38.  70
    Inductivist Versus Deductivist Approaches in the Philosophy of Science as Illustrated by Some Controversies Between Whewell and Mill.Gerd Buchdahl - 1971 - The Monist 55 (3):343-367.
    The contrast between the two approaches alluded to in the title has gained a certain prominence in our own day. With the knowledge of hindsight it will be of interest therefore to study its incidence in an earlier period, in the writings of Whewell and Mill, Which may thus yield added significance for a later generation. Right at the start there is a difficulty. Not all inductivists agree on their principles, or their interpretation of the logic of scientific reasoning, and (...)
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  39.  9
    Overcoming Difficulties in Bayesian Reasoning: A Reply to Lewis and Keren and Mellers and McGraw.Gerd Gigerenzer & Ulrich Hoffrage - 1999 - Psychological Review 106 (2):425-430.
  40.  44
    In Search of a Better World: Lectures and Essays From Thirty Years.Gerd Buchdahl - 1994 - Philosophy 69 (267):116-118.
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  41. Extended Synthesis: Theory Expansion or Alternative?Gerd Muller & Massimo Pigliucci - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):275-276.
    A response to Lindsay Craig's essay, The So-Called Extended Synthesis and Population Genetics.
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  42. The Conception of Lawlikeness in Kant's Philosophy of Science.Gerd Buchdahl - 1972 - Synthese 23 (1-2):24 - 46.
    A demarcation between kant's general metaphysics (transcendental principles) and his special metaphysics is attempted, through a discussion of kant's three accounts of lawlikeness, 'transcendental', 'empirical' and 'metaphysical'. the distinctions are defended via a number of 'indicators' in kant's writings, and the 'looseness of fit' between the different types of lawlikeness is discussed.
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  43.  6
    Philosophy of Nature.Gerd Buchdahl - 1972 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (3):257-266.
  44.  31
    Methodological Aspects of Kepler's Theory of Refraction.Gerd Buchdahl - 1972 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 3 (3):265.
  45.  72
    I Think, Therefore I Err.Gerd Gigerenzer - 2005 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 72 (1):1-24.
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  46.  34
    Greater Patient, Family and Surrogate Involvement in Clinical Ethics Consultation: The Model of Clinical Ethics Liaison Service as a Measure for Preventive Ethics. [REVIEW]Gerd Richter - 2007 - HEC Forum 19 (4):327-340.
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  47.  33
    Content-Blind Norms, No Norms, or Good Norms? A Reply to Vranas.Gerd Gigerenzer - 2001 - Cognition 81 (1):93-103.
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  48.  1
    Cassandra’s Regret: The Psychology of Not Wanting to Know.Gerd Gigerenzer & Rocio Garcia-Retamero - 2017 - Psychological Review 124 (2):179-196.
  49.  78
    The Role of Representation in Bayesian Reasoning: Correcting Common Misconceptions.Gerd Gigerenzer & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):264-267.
    The terms nested sets, partitive frequencies, inside-outside view, and dual processes add little but confusion to our original analysis (Gigerenzer & Hoffrage 1995; 1999). The idea of nested set was introduced because of an oversight; it simply rephrases two of our equations. Representation in terms of chances, in contrast, is a novel contribution yet consistent with our computational analysis System 1.dual process theory” is: Unless the two processes are defined, this distinction can account post hoc for almost everything. In contrast, (...)
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  50.  50
    XIV—The Relation Between ‘Understanding’ and ‘Reason’ in the Architectonic of Kant's Philosophy.Gerd Buchdahl - 1967 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 67 (1):209-226.
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